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Fasting Plasma Glucose Normal Range Mg/dl

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Print Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often appear suddenly and are often the reason for checking blood sugar levels. Because symptoms of other types of diabetes and prediabetes come on more gradually or may not be evident, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recommended screening guidelines. The ADA recommends that the following people be screened for diabetes: Anyone with a body mass index higher than 25, regardless of age, who has additional risk factors, such as high blood pressure, a sedentary lifestyle, a history of polycystic ovary syndrome, having delivered a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds, a history of diabetes in pregnancy, high cholesterol levels, a history of heart disease, and having a close relative with diabetes. Anyone older than age 45 is advised to receive an initial blood sugar screening, and then, if the results are normal, to be screened every three years thereafter. Tests for type 1 and type 2 diabetes and prediabetes Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates that you have diabetes. An A1C between 5.7 and 6.4 percent indicates prediabetes. Below 5.7 is considered normal. If the A1C test results aren't consistent, the test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions that can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar Continue reading >>

Glucose: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection And Panels

Glucose: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection And Panels

Postprandial plasma glucose at 2 hours: Less than 140 mg/dL Random plasma glucose: Less than 140 mg/dL Serum glucose values are 1.15% lower than plasma glucose values. [ 1 ] Values for diabetes mellitus are as follows: Fasting plasma glucose: Greater than 125 mg/dL Random plasma glucose: Greater than 200 mg/dL Postprandial glucose at 2 hours: Greater than 200 mg/dL Impaired fasting glucose: Fasting glucose of 100-125 mg/dL Impaired glucose tolerance testing: Postprandial glucose at 2 hours of 140-200 mg/dL The value for hypoglycemia is as follows: Collect 0.5-1 ml of blood in gray-top tube containing sodium fluoride. For serum glucose, a red-top tube can be used. Serum is separated within 45 minutes of collection. For fasting glucose testing, collect the blood sample in the morning after an overnight or 8-hour fast. For postprandial glucose testing, collect the blood sample 2 hours after a regular meal. For oral glucose tolerance testing, after oral intake of 75 g of glucose, collect blood samples at 1 hour and 2 hours. For gestational diabetes testing, parameters are 1 hour after 50 g of glucose and 2 hours after 100 g of glucose. Glucose is a monosaccharide and is a primary metabolite for energy production in the body. Glucose enters via GLUT receptors. Of the 10 GLUT receptors, GLUT-4 receptors are present in muscle and adipose tissues and require insulin for glucose transport. Glucose is initially used by glycolysis and is converted to pyruvate. During this process, 4 adenosine triphosphates (ATPs) and 2 NADHs are generated and 2 ATPs are used, resulting in net production of 2 ATPs. This process does not use oxygen (anaerobic metabolism). In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate undergoes metabolism by the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria. During the Krebs cycle, each mo Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Level

Blood Sugar Level

The fluctuation of blood sugar (red) and the sugar-lowering hormone insulin (blue) in humans during the course of a day with three meals. One of the effects of a sugar-rich vs a starch-rich meal is highlighted.[1] The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals. Glucose is a simple sugar and approximately 4 grams of glucose are present in the blood of humans at all times.[2] The body tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis.[2] Glucose is stored in skeletal muscle and liver cells in the form of glycogen;[2] in fasted individuals, blood glucose is maintained at a constant level at the expense of glycogen stores in the liver and skeletal muscle.[2] In humans, glucose is the primary source of energy, and is critical for normal function, in a number of tissues,[2] particularly the human brain which consumes approximately 60% of blood glucose in fasted, sedentary individuals.[2] Glucose can be transported from the intestines or liver to other tissues in the body via the bloodstream.[2] Cellular glucose uptake is primarily regulated by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas.[2] Glucose levels are usually lowest in the morning, before the first meal of the day, and rise after meals for an hour or two by a few millimoles. Blood sugar levels outside the normal range may be an indicator of a medical condition. A persistently high level is referred to as hyperglycemia; low levels are referred to as hypoglycemia. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia from any of several causes, and is the most prominent disease related to failure of blood sugar regulation. There are different methods of testing and measuring blood sugar le Continue reading >>

High Glucose: What It Means And How To Treat It

High Glucose: What It Means And How To Treat It

High Glucose: What It Means and How to Treat It People who do not have diabetes typically have fasting plasma blood glucose levels that run under 126 mg/dl. Your physician will define for you what your target blood glucose should be identifying a blood glucose target that is as close to normal as possible that you can safely achieve given your overall medical health. In general, high blood glucose, also called 'hyperglycemia', is considered "high" when it is 160 mg/dl or above your individual blood glucose target. Be sure to ask your healthcare provider what he or she thinks is a safe target for you for blood glucose before and after meals. If your blood glucose runs high for long periods of time, this can pose significant problems for you long-term increased risk of complications, such as eye disease, kidney disease, heart attacks and strokes and more. High blood glucose can pose health problems in the short-term as well. Your treatment plan may need adjustment if the blood glucose stays over 180 mg/dl for 3 days in a row. It is important to aim to keep your blood glucose under control, and treat hyperglycemia when it occurs. What are the symptoms of high blood glucose? Skipped or not enough diabetes pills or insulin Insulin that has spoiled after being exposed to extreme heat or freezing cold Stress, illness, infection, injury or surgery A blood glucose meterthat is not reading accurately What should you do for high blood glucose? Be sure to drink plenty of water. It is recommended to drink a minimum of 8 glasses each day. If your blood glucose is 250 or greater and you are on insulin, check your urine for ketones. If you have ketones, follow your sick day rules or call your healthcare team if you are not sure what to do. Ask yourself what may have caused the high bl Continue reading >>

Slideshow: A Visual Guide To Type 2 Diabetes

Slideshow: A Visual Guide To Type 2 Diabetes

If you experience symptoms of severe increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, increased hunger, tingling of your hands or feet -- your doctor may run a test for diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, some 29 million children and adults in the U.S., or over 9% of the population, have diabetes today. Yet, millions of Americans are unaware that they have diabetes, because there may be no warning signs. To confirm the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, your doctor will order a fasting plasma glucose test or a casual plasma glucose. The fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) is the preferred method for diagnosing diabetes, because it is easy to do, convenient, and less expensive than other tests, according to the American Diabetes Association. Before taking the blood glucose test, you will not be allowed to eat anything for at least eight hours. During a blood glucose test, blood will be drawn and sent to a lab for analysis. Normal fasting blood glucose -- or blood sugar -- is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter or mg/dL for people who do not have diabetes. The standard diagnosis of diabetes is made when two separate blood tests show that your fasting blood glucose level is greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL. However, if you have normal fasting blood sugar, but you have risk factors for diabetes or symptoms of diabetes, your doctor may decide to do a glucose tolerance test (see below) to be sure that you do not have diabetes. Some people have a normal fasting blood sugar reading, but their blood sugar rapidly rises as they eat. These people may have impaired glucose tolerance. If their blood sugar levels are high enough, they may be diagnosed with diabetes. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Your health care professional can diagnose diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes through blood tests. The blood tests show if your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Do not try to diagnose yourself if you think you might have diabetes. Testing equipment that you can buy over the counter, such as a blood glucose meter, cannot diagnose diabetes. Who should be tested for diabetes? Anyone who has symptoms of diabetes should be tested for the disease. Some people will not have any symptoms but may have risk factors for diabetes and need to be tested. Testing allows health care professionals to find diabetes sooner and work with their patients to manage diabetes and prevent complications. Testing also allows health care professionals to find prediabetes. Making lifestyle changes to lose a modest amount of weight if you are overweight may help you delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Most often, testing for occurs in people with diabetes symptoms. Doctors usually diagnose type 1 diabetes in children and young adults. Because type 1 diabetes can run in families, a study called TrialNet offers free testing to family members of people with the disease, even if they don’t have symptoms. Type 2 diabetes Experts recommend routine testing for type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older are between the ages of 19 and 44, are overweight or obese, and have one or more other diabetes risk factors are a woman who had gestational diabetes1 Medicare covers the cost of diabetes tests for people with certain risk factors for diabetes. If you have Medicare, find out if you qualify for coverage . If you have different insurance, ask your insurance company if it covers diabetes tests. Though type 2 diabetes most often develops in adults, children also ca Continue reading >>

Fasting Plasma Glucose And Hemoglobin A1c In Identifying And Predicting Diabetes

Fasting Plasma Glucose And Hemoglobin A1c In Identifying And Predicting Diabetes

OBJECTIVE To compare fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c in identifying and predicting type 2 diabetes in a population with high rates of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Diabetes was defined as an FPG level ≥126 mg/dL or an HbA1c level ≥6.5%. Data collected from the baseline and second exams (1989–1995) of the Strong Heart Study were used. RESULTS For cases of diabetes identified by FPG ≥126 mg/dL, using HbA1c ≥6.5% at the initial and 4-year follow-up diabetes screenings (or in identifying incident cases in 4 years) among undiagnosed participants left 46% and 59% of cases of diabetes undetected, respectively, whereas for cases identified by HbA1c ≥6.5%, using FPG ≥126 mg/dL left 11% and 59% unidentified, respectively. Age, waist circumference, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and baseline FPG and HbA1c levels were common significant risk factors for incident diabetes defined by either FPG or HbA1c; triglyceride levels were significant for diabetes defined by HbA1c alone, and blood pressure and sibling history of diabetes were significant for diabetes defined by FPG alone. Using both the baseline FPG and HbA1c in diabetes prediction identified more people at risk than using either measure alone. CONCLUSIONS Among undiagnosed participants, using HbA1c alone in initial diabetes screening identifies fewer cases of diabetes than FPG, and using either FPG or HbA1c alone cannot effectively identify diabetes in a 4-year periodic successive diabetes screening or incident cases of diabetes in 4 years. Using both criteria may identify more people at risk. The proposed models using the commonly available clinical measures can be applied to assessing the risk of incident diabetes using either criterion. Type 2 diabetes has emerged as an important public he Continue reading >>

Normal Fasting Plasma Glucose And Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Normal Fasting Plasma Glucose And Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Abstract OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the risk for type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data concerning 13,845 subjects, aged 40–69 years, who had their FPG measured at least three times between 1992 and 2008 were extracted from a database. Three FPG groups were defined (51–82, 83–90, and 91–99 mg/dL). A Cox proportional hazards analysis was applied to estimate the risk of incident diabetes adjusted for other risk factors. RESULTS During 108,061 person-years of follow-up (8,110 women and 5,735 men), 307 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were found. The final model demonstrated a hazard ratio of 2.03 (95% CI 1.18–3.50) for 91–99 mg/dL and 1.42 (0.42–4.74) for 83–90 mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that FPG between 91 and 99 mg/dL is a strong independent predictor of type 2 diabetes and should be used to identify people to be further investigated and aided with preventive measures. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Italian National Health Service facilitates health controls; on average, northern Italian individuals have one annual blood drawing with eight laboratory tests, including FPG. This induced us to use retrospective outpatient data of the Desio Hospital Laboratory to model an experimental population. Selection criteria were basal FPG <100 mg/dL at inclusion; at least three additional FPG measurements between 1992 and 2008; and total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride measurements. Furthermore, they did not have any requests for glycated hemoglobin, a limit set to avoid inclusion of those with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. A total of 13,845 people, aged 40–69 years (9), were considered. These subjects represented 17% of the corresponding stratum (82,000), which is 41% (equivalen Continue reading >>

About Diabetes

About Diabetes

Intermediate states of hyperglycemia IFG, IGT, and diabetes mellitus are seen as progressive stages of the same disease process, and treatment at earlier stages has been shown to prevent progression to later stages (by diet, exercise and lifestyle management). Not all patients with IGT have IFG, so it is considered a separate category. As well, the implications of the two states are slightly different. Impaired Fasting Hyperglycemia (IFG) is a state of higher than normal fasting blood (or plasma) glucose concentration, but lower than the diagnostic cut-off for diabetes. Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) is a state of higher than normal blood (or plasma) glucose concentration 2 hours after 75 gram oral glucose load but less than the diagnostic cut-off for diabetes. Symptoms Patients usually have no symptoms and are diagnosed because a test is done upon patient request or because he/she falls into a high risk category. Diagnosis IFG: fasting plasma glucose >=6.1 mmol/L (110 mg/dL) and <7 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) per WHO 1999 criteria. (ADA has chosen a lower cutoff of 5.6mmol/L or 100mg/dL). IGT: fasting plasma glucose (if available) <7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) AND 2 hour post 75g glucose drink of >= 7.8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL) and <11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL). Treatment lifestyle modifications (diet, physical activity, weight loss) are the mainstay of treatment, although sometimes medications are used. large, population-based studies in China , Finland and USA have recently demonstrated the feasibility of preventing, or delaying, the onset of diabetes in overweight subjects with mild glucose intolerance (IGT). studies suggest that even moderate reduction in weight and only half an hour of walking each day reduces the incidence of diabetes by more than one half. Complications of diabetes Dia Continue reading >>

Blood Tests For Diabetes: Fasting Plasma Glucose Test

Blood Tests For Diabetes: Fasting Plasma Glucose Test

Blood Tests for Diabetes: Fasting Plasma Glucose Test Also known as:FPG; fasting blood glucose test; fasting blood sugar test What is it?The fasting blood sugar test is a carbohydrate metabolism test that measures plasma (or blood) glucose levels after a fast. Fasting (no food for at least 8 hours) stimulates the release of the hormone glucagon, which in turn raises plasma glucose levels. In people without diabetes, the body will produce and process adequate amounts of insulin to counteract the rise in glucose levels. In people with diabetes, this does not happen, and the tested glucose levels will remain high. Why is the fasting blood sugar test performed?Generally, as a screening test for diabetes. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that everyone over age 45 take this test every three years. People with symptoms of diabetes or multiple risk factors should also have the test. The fasting blood sugar test is also used to evaluate the efficacy of medication or dietary therapy in those already diagnosed with diabetes. How is the fasting blood sugar test performed? The fasting blood sugar test consists of a simple blood draw, which is sent to your doctors lab for analysis.The ADA recommends that the test be administered in the morning, because afternoon tests tend to give lower readings. It is also usually more convenient to take the test in the morning, because you must fast for at least 8 hours beforehand. How frequently should the fasting blood sugar test be performed? Up to two times for diagnostic purposes, or as required while monitoring a treatment regime. What is the normal range for results?These can vary from lab to lab, and according to the lab procedures used. When using the glucose oxidase and hexokinase methods, normal values are typically 70 Continue reading >>

Fasting Plasma Glucose Test

Fasting Plasma Glucose Test

Tweet A fasting plasma glucose test, also known as a fasting glucose test (FGT), is a test that can be used to help diagnose diabetes or pre-diabetes. The test is a simple blood test taken after several hours of fasting. How a fasting glucose test is performed A fasting glucose test will be performed in the morning as this provides the body with adequate time to fast. The NHS advises people who are having a fasting glucose test not to eat or drink anything except water for 8 to 10 hours before the test is performed. The test requires a blood sample to be taken from the patients arm. Fasting glucose test results The World Health Organisations defines the following fasting glucose test results: Normal: Below 6.1 mmol/l (110 mg/dl) Impaired fasting glucose: Between 6.1 and 6.9 mmol/l (between 111 mg/dl and 125 mg/dl) Diabetic: 7.0 mmol/l and above (126 mg/dl and above) Impaired fasting glucose is a form of pre-diabetes. Read more on impaired fasting glucose. Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of the body. From this, it can be understood that for someone with diabetes something that is food for ordinary people can become a sort of metabolic poison. This is why people with diabetes are advised to avoid sources of dietary sugar. The good news is for very many people with type 2 diabetes this is all they have to do to stay well. If you can keep your blood sugar lower by avoid Continue reading >>

Understanding The Fasting Plasma Glucose Test

Understanding The Fasting Plasma Glucose Test

The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test, also known as the fasting blood glucose test (FBG) or fasting blood sugar test, measures blood sugar levels and is used to diagnose diabetes. It is a relatively simple and inexpensive test that exposes problems with insulin functioning. The fasting glucose test is recommended as a screening test for people over age 45, tested every three years. It is also done if you have had symptoms of diabetes or multiple risk factors for diabetes. Prolonged fasting triggers a hormone called glucagon, which is produced by the pancreas. It causes the liver to release glucose (blood sugar) into the bloodstream. If you dont have diabetes, your body reacts by producing insulin, which prevents hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). However, if your body cannot generate enough insulin or cannot appropriately respond to insulin, fasting blood sugar levels will stay high. How the Fasting Plasma Glucose Test Is Done The test consists of a simple, noninvasive blood test. Prior to being tested, you must avoideating or drinking for at least eight hours. This is known as fasting. Because of this fast, the test is usually done in the morning. Understanding the Results of the Fasting Plasma Glucose Test Doctors interpret FPG test results by looking at glucose levels in the blood. Diagnosis categories include the following, measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL): Ifthe fasting plasma glucose test is 70 mg/dL to 99 mg/dL, this is considered within the normal range. A reading of 100 mg/dL to126 mg/dL suggests prediabetes, indicating an increased risk in developing full-blown diabetes. A reading above 126 mg/dL is the threshold at which diabetes is diagnosed. Blood glucose levels lower than 70 mg/dL imply an episode of hypoglycemia , in which blood sugar is dang Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Test

Blood Sugar Test

A blood glucose test measures the amount of a sugar called glucose in a sample of your blood. Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the body, including brain cells. Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into glucose in your body. This raises your blood glucose level. Hormones made in the body help control blood glucose level. Continue reading >>

Normal Fasting Plasma Glucose And Risk Of Prediabetes And Type 2 Diabetes: The Isfahan Diabetes Prevention Study

Normal Fasting Plasma Glucose And Risk Of Prediabetes And Type 2 Diabetes: The Isfahan Diabetes Prevention Study

Go to: Introduction Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is the most widely used diagnostic and screening test for the detection of diabetes. Previously, we have shown that FPG has more discriminatory power to distinguish between individuals at diabetes risk and those not at risk than post-load glucose values during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c [1]. In 2003, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) Expert Committee recommended lowering the diagnostic cut-off value for impaired fasting glucose (IFG) from 6.1 mmol/l (110 mg/dl) to 5.6 mmol/l (100 mg/dl), since subjects with a FPG between 5.6 mmol/l and 6.1 mmol/l were found to have a greater risk of developing diabetes and its complications than subjects with a FPG below 5.6 mmol/l [2-7]. In fact, lowering the criterion for IFG was suggested primarily to balance the population risk of developing diabetes between IFG and impaired glucose states [3, 6]. Recent studies suggested that even a lower FPG level within the considered normoglycemic range (i.e. <5.6 mmol/l) could account for an increased risk for type 2 diabetes [7-10]. However, considerable controversy exists regarding the advantage and economic feasibility of this approach [11-13]. The association between FPG levels in the normal range and type 2 diabetes has been described in a few studies from developed countries. However, the incidence and relative risk of diabetes using repeat standard OGTT in individuals grouped by different baseline FPG levels and comprehensive data based on standard OGTT for developing countries and prediabetes has not been examined so far. Therefore, at ethnological and etiological levels, the study contributes by characterizing the occurrence of prediabetes and diabetes in a specific population. Glucose metabolism risk factors are Continue reading >>

Diagnosing Diabetes

Diagnosing Diabetes

How much do you know? Self assessment quizzes are available for topics covered in this website. Find out how much you have learned about Diabetes. Random or casual plasma glucose test A plasma glucose test is a measure of how much sugar/glucose you have circulating in your blood. “Random” or “Casual” simply means that you have blood drawn at a laboratory at any time. Whether you have fasted or recently eaten will not affect the test. A plasma glucose test measurement equal to or greater than 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) indicates that you may have diabetes. To be sure, you will need to have the test results confirmed on another day through another random test, or by taking a fasting plasma glucose test or an oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting plasma glucose test This simple blood test is taken after you have abstained from food and drink (except water) for at least 8 hours. A normal plasma glucose level after fasting is between 60 and 99 mg/dl. Diabetes is not confirmed until 2 separate fasting plasma glucose tests each measure 126 or greater. Oral glucose tolerance test It’s possible for people with diabetes – even those with symptoms – to have a normal fasting plasma glucose test. If you fall into this category, you will again be asked to abstain from food and drink (except water) for 8 hours and then drink a liquid containing a known amount of glucose, usually 75 grams.Your blood is drawn before drinking the glucose mixture and 2 hours later. You will be asked to refrain from eating until the test is completed. This test is called an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). Your fasting plasma glucose normally is less than 100 mg/dl. Values from 100mg/dl to 126 mg/dl are diagnostic of pre-diabetes. Fasting plasma glucose levels equal or above 126 m Continue reading >>

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