diabetestalk.net

Explaining Diabetes In Lay Terms

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding diabetes is the first step toward managing it. Learn what diabetes is and how it affects your body, what kind of diabetes you have, and how to manage your health. Understanding diabetes is the first step toward managing it. So what do you need to know? First, you need to know what diabetes is and how it affects your body. And you’ll need to know what kind of diabetes you have. Next you have to know how to maintain your health, treat your diabetes, know when your treatment is successful and what to do when it’s not. This section will take you through the answers to these first questions, and give you important information that will help you live a healthy life with diabetes. In this section you will learn: What is type 2 diabetes?: Information about how people develop type 2 diabetes and who gets type 2 diabetes How The Body Processes Sugar: Information about the natural control of blood sugar, and what is different when you have diabetes Continue reading >>

Confused By Diabetes? Here's A Simple Explanation

Confused By Diabetes? Here's A Simple Explanation

What is Diabetes? Diabetes occurs when the body is unable to regulate the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Carbohydrate foods are broken down to produce glucose, causing the blood glucose level (BGL) to rise. The liver also stores glucose, which is used to avoid low BGL when we’re not eating. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, which regulates the BGL between certain limits. It can remove glucose from the blood and transport it into the cells of the body where it is needed for energy. Insulin also regulates the production of glucose by the liver and switches off production when the BGL is high. Normally, the body produces enough insulin to keep the BGL between ideal levels at all times by removing excess glucose from the blood and regulating how much the liver produces. But people with diabetes are not able to remove excess glucose from the blood and the BGL rises. There are two types of diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes usually starts in children and young people under the age of 30 comes on quite quickly the persons own immune system destroys the cells in the pancreas that makes the insulin cannot make insulin and need to have insulin injections right from the start. Type 2 Diabetes usually develops in older people begins gradually some insulin is still produced, but it does not work properly, known as insulin resistance managed by diet and exercise, ad some people may need tablets or insulin as diabetes progresses. What causes Type 2 Diabetes? The causes of Type 2 Diabetes are a combination of: Family history Getting older Being overweight Being physically inactive Diabetes: explained When food is eaten it is digested in the stomach and intestines where it is broken down into glucose, and then absorbed into the blood stream. Glucose then moves into the ce Continue reading >>

Explain Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: As Quickly As Possible

Explain Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: As Quickly As Possible

There is a tremendous amount of diabetes confusion when it comes to understanding the two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. The confusion exists within the media, within our families, within conversations amongst people living with diabetes and those living without diabetes. Here are two easy ways to explain the two most common types of diabetes, in a really quick nutshell: Type 1 diabetes: “Well, every human (and animals) need insulin to live. My body attacked itself and destroyed the part of my pancreas that is responsible for producing insulin. At the moment, it can’t be prevented or cured. When you don’t have insulin in your body, the glucose from the food you eat builds and builds in your bloodstream. We all need insulin in order to take that glucose and let our body use it for energy. People take insulin with a syringe, a pen, a pump or pod. It requires a lot of attention, all day long.” Type 2 diabetes: “While media and society have taught us to think that this type 2 diabetes is the result of being overweight or eating too much candy, it’s actually much more complicated. In type 2 diabetes, a person’s body isn’t able to effectively use or produce insulin properly, also known as “insulin resistance.” The treatment of type 2 depends on each individual. For some, diet and exercise can be enough to maintain healthy blood sugar levels, while others may need oral medications or insulin. Type 2 diabetes cannot be cured, but you can sometimes manage your type 2 diabetes in a way that makes it seem as though you don’t have it anymore, because your blood sugars are in a healthy range again. It’s not easy!” From there, people often ask questions about how often you have to check your blood sugar, if you’ll die if you eat sugar, and a va Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

Diabetes mellitus is defined simply as having higher than normal levels of glucose in your blood too often, a condition called hyperglycemia. Blood glucose is sometimes called blood sugar, but glucose is a very special sugar when it comes to diabetes. For the sake of accuracy, blood glucose is the correct terminology. The actual words diabetes mellitus are Greek and Latin, loosely translated to mean constantly flowing sweet urine. Frequent urination is a common symptom of diabetes as your body works to remove excess blood glucose through your kidneys, and it’s reasonable to assume that urine would be sweet. In fact, tasting urine to detect the sweetness of excess blood glucose was a diagnostic test that doctors would perform in the days before the chemistry was well understood. Fortunately, there are now better ways to detect hyperglycemia than urine tasting. Whereas there are several different ways a person can acquire diabetes — injury or damage by toxins for example — type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the most common “natural” forms. Explaining the role of glucose diabetes Glucose is a sugar; in chemistry terms, a “simple” sugar or monosaccharide. There are many chemical varieties of sugars; for example, you’ve probably heard of fructose and lactose. But glucose is especially important because it’s your body’s favorite fuel to provide the energy needed for activity like muscular movement, body heat, and, most importantly, brain function. You may see your brain as mostly important for thinking, but there are many really important activities that depend on signals from your brain that happen with no thinking required. Your brain accounts for 20 percent of your energy use, some of which goes to support rather important activities like automatically brea Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes is the condition that results from lack of insulin in a person's blood, or when their body has a problem using the insulin it produces (Insulin resistance). There are other kinds of diabetes, like diabetes insipidus. However, when people say "diabetes", they usually mean diabetes mellitus. People with diabetes mellitus are called "diabetics". Glucose is not regular sugar that is available in stores and supermarkets. Glucose is a natural carbohydrate that our bodies use as a source of energy. The kind of sugar sold in supermarkets is called sucrose, and is much different from glucose. High concentrations of glucose can be found in soft drinks and fruits.[1] Glucose level in the blood is controlled by several hormones. Hormones are chemicals in your body that send messages from cells to other cells. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas. When you eat, the pancreas makes insulin to send a message to other cells in the body. This insulin tells the cells to take up glucose from the blood. The glucose is used by cells for energy. Extra glucose that is not needed right away is stored in some cells as glycogen. When you are not eating, cells break down glycogen into glucose to use as energy. Warning Signs of Diabetes Frequent urination Excessive thirst Increased hunger Weight loss Fruity breath odor Tiredness Lack of interest and concentration Vomiting and stomach pain (often mistaken as the flu) A tingling sensation or numbness in the hands or feet Blurred vision Frequent infections Slow-healing wounds Bedwetting - in children and adults The onset of symptoms in Type 1 diabetes usually happens suddenly. In Type 2 diabetes, there may be mild symptoms or no symptoms at all. Making it much harder to detect. Type 1 diabetes mellitus happens when the part of the pancre Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance Explained

Insulin Resistance Explained

With the increasing conversation about pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes, you’ve likely heard the terms “insulin resistance” and its “opposite insulin sensitivity.” Another term that’s entered our lexicon with the epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes is “metabolic syndrome,” a group of symptoms, which, at its core, is insulin resistance. Think of metabolic syndrome, pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes as a continuum. The following are simple explanations of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome along with actions to put them in reverse or at least slow their progression over time. Insulin resistance defined Insulin resistance most often occurs in people who are overweight. It’s particularly common in people who carry excess weight around their middle – their waistline. An apple-shaped figure is often associated with insulin resistance. The medical term is “central adiposity.” As excess weight accumulates, especially in people who are at risk of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance causes the body to become resistant to the insulin currently produced and secreted from the pancreatic beta cells. Over five to ten years, and if actions aren’t taken to reverse it, the pancreatic beta cells can no longer keep up with the body’s demand for insulin. Simplistically it’s said that the pancreatic beta cells get “pooped out”. It is then that blood glucose rises above a healthy level and towards the ranges high enough for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes. While this insulin resistance in the fat and muscle slowly causes the pancreas to work overtime to keep blood glucose within normal levels, other health issues stemming from insulin resistance are set in motion. Together these related medical conditions can result in what’s kno Continue reading >>

Diabetes Pathophysiology

Diabetes Pathophysiology

Diabetes occurs when there is a dis-balance between the demand and production of the hormone insulin. Control of blood sugar When food is taken, it is broken down into smaller components. Sugars and carbohydrates are thus broken down into glucose for the body to utilize them as an energy source. The liver is also able to manufacture glucose. In normal persons the hormone insulin, which is made by the beta cells of the pancreas, regulates how much glucose is in the blood. When there is excess of glucose in blood, insulin stimulates cells to absorb enough glucose from the blood for the energy that they need. Insulin also stimulates the liver to absorb and store any excess glucose that is in the blood. Insulin release is triggered after a meal when there is a rise in blood glucose. When blood glucose levels fall, during exercise for example, insulin levels fall too. High insulin will promote glucose uptake, glycolysis (break down of glucose), and glycogenesis (formation of storage form of glucose called glycogen), as well as uptake and synthesis of amino acids, proteins, and fat. Low insulin will promote gluconeogenesis (breakdown of various substrates to release glucose), glycogenolysis (breakdown of glycogen to release gluose), lipolysis (breakdown of lipids to release glucose), and proteolysis (breakdown of proteins to release glucose). Insulin acts via insulin receptors. Liver Adipose or fat Tissue Muscle High insulin Glycolysis Glycogenesis Triglyceride synthesis Amino acid uptake Protein synthesis Low insulin Gluconeogenesis Glycogenolysis Lipolysis Proteolysis Normal Responses to Eating and Fasting In a fed state: there is increased insulin secretion, causing glycolysis, glycogen storage, fatty acid synthesis/storage, and protein synthesis. After an overnight fast: Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in people aged over 40 years. However, an increasing number of younger people, even children, are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The first-line treatment is diet, weight control and physical activity. If the blood sugar (glucose) level remains high despite these measures then tablets to reduce the blood glucose level are usually advised. Insulin injections are needed in some cases. Other treatments include reducing blood pressure if it is high, lowering high cholesterol levels and also using other measures to reduce the risk of complications. Although diabetes cannot be cured, it can be treated successfully. If a high blood sugar level is brought down to a normal level, your symptoms will ease. You still have some risk of complications in the long term if your blood glucose level remains even mildly high - even if you have no symptoms in the short term. However, studies have shown that people who have better glucose control have fewer complications (such as heart disease or eye problems) compared with those people who have poorer control of their glucose level. Therefore, the main aims of treatment are: To keep your blood glucose level as near normal as possible. To reduce any other risk factors that may increase your risk of developing complications. In particular, to lower your blood pressure if it is high and to keep your blood lipids (cholesterol) low. To detect any complications as early as possible. Treatment can prevent or delay some complications from becoming worse. Type 2 diabetes is usually initially treated by following a healthy diet, losing weight if you are overweight, and having regular physical activity. If lifestyle advice does not control your blood sugar (glucose) levels then medicines are used to help lower your Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a condition that prevents the body from properly using energy from food. It occurs when the pancreas does not produce insulin, or when the pancreas produces insulin, but it is resisted by the body. Diabetes explained in simple words Many people have heard of diabetes, but most people don't know exactly what diabetes really is. When we eat food, it is broken down in glucose or sugar. Even though many health experts harp on not having too much sugar in the diet, you do need some glucose to help regulate your metabolism and give you energy. During digestion, glucose moves through the body through the bloodstream to feed your cells. To be able to transfer the Blood sugar into the cells, your body needs insulin, which is made by the Pancreas and released into the bloodstream. The problem happens when you have too much blood sugar in your body compared to the amount of insulin your pancreas is providing. If you're body is not making enough insulin to keep up with the amount of sugar in your bloodstream, or if your body is having trouble making insulin, the glucose in the blood remains there and causes your blood sugar levels to elevate. If it continues, even after monitoring your diet, you will develop diabetes. Continue reading >>

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic medical condition in which sugar, or glucose, levels build up in your bloodstream. The hormone insulin helps move the sugar from your blood into your cells, which are where the sugar is used for energy. In type 2 diabetes, your body’s cells aren’t able to respond to insulin as well as they should. In later stages of the disease your body may also not produce enough insulin. Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes can lead to chronically high blood sugar levels, causing several symptoms and potentially leading to serious complications. In type 2 diabetes your body isn’t able to effectively use insulin to bring glucose into your cells. This causes your body to rely on alternative energy sources in your tissues, muscles, and organs. This is a chain reaction that can cause a variety of symptoms. Type 2 diabetes can develop slowly. The symptoms may be mild and easy to dismiss at first. The early symptoms may include: constant hunger a lack of energy fatigue weight loss excessive thirst frequent urination dry mouth itchy skin blurry vision As the disease progresses, the symptoms become more severe and potentially dangerous. If your blood sugar levels have been high for a long time, the symptoms can include: yeast infections slow-healing cuts or sores dark patches on your skin foot pain feelings of numbness in your extremities, or neuropathy If you have two or more of these symptoms, you should see your doctor. Without treatment, diabetes can become life-threatening. Diabetes has a powerful effect on your heart. Women with diabetes are twice as likely to have another heart attack after the first one. They’re at quadruple the risk of heart failure when compared to women without diabetes. Diabetes can also lead to complications during pregnancy. Diet is an imp Continue reading >>

Understanding Insulin

Understanding Insulin

In any discussion of diabetes, the word insulin is almost certain to come up. That’s because a lack of insulin or trouble responding to insulin (a condition called insulin resistance) or both is what is responsible for the high blood glucose levels that characterize diabetes. Thanks to years of medical research, however, endogenous insulin (that produced by the pancreas) can be replaced or supplemented by exogenous insulin (insulin produced in a laboratory). For people with Type 1 diabetes, injecting insulin (or infusing it with an insulin pump) is necessary for survival: Before the discovery of insulin in 1921, the life expectancy for a person diagnosed with what was then known as juvenile diabetes was less than a year. For some people with Type 2 diabetes, using insulin may be the best — or only — way to keep blood glucose levels in the recommended range, and maintaining blood glucose control is one of the most important things you can do to lower your risk of developing potentially devastating complications. But even if you never have to take insulin to control your diabetes, it is important to understand what insulin is and what it does in the body. That’s because your lifestyle choices affect the health of your insulin-producing beta cells. Making an effort to lose excess weight, eat healthfully, exercise regularly, and take any prescribed drugs as instructed can prolong the life of your beta cells, so they continue to make the insulin you need. The role of insulin Insulin is a hormone that is released by the beta cells of the pancreas, a glandular organ located in the abdomen, in response to a rise in the level of glucose in the blood. Blood glucose levels rise when a person consumes carbohydrate-containing food or drinks, as well as during periods of phys Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus: An Overview

Diabetes Mellitus: An Overview

Diabetes mellitus is a disease that prevents your body from properly using the energy from the food you eat. Diabetes occurs in one of the following situations: The pancreas (an organ behind your stomach) produces little insulin or no insulin at all. (Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone, produced by the beta cells of the pancreas, which helps the body use sugar for energy.) -Or- The pancreas makes insulin, but the insulin made does not work as it should. This condition is called insulin resistance. To better understand diabetes, it helps to know more about how the body uses food for energy (a process called metabolism). Your body is made up of millions of cells. To make energy, the cells need food in a very simple form. When you eat or drink, much of your food is broken down into a simple sugar called glucose. Glucose provides the energy your body needs for daily activities. The blood vessels and blood are the highways that transport sugar from where it is either taken in (the stomach) or manufactured (in the liver) to the cells where it is used (muscles) or where it is stored (fat). Sugar cannot go into the cells by itself. The pancreas releases insulin into the blood, which serves as the helper, or the "key," that lets sugar into the cells for use as energy. When sugar leaves the bloodstream and enters the cells, the blood sugar level is lowered. Without insulin, or the "key," sugar cannot get into the body's cells for use as energy. This causes sugar to rise. Too much sugar in the blood is called "hyperglycemia" (high blood sugar) or diabetes. What are the types of diabetes? There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2: Type 1 diabetes occurs because the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (beta cells) are damaged. In Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes In Layman’s Terms?

What Is Diabetes In Layman’s Terms?

Diabetes is a complicated and complex disease, but you don’t need a PhD to understand what’s going on in your body if you’re diagnosed with the condition. In layman’s terms, diabetes defines a condition where blood sugar levels are not normal. When you eat food, most of it gets converted into glucose inside your body. Why? Because glucose is easily converted into energy and makes a great fuel source. When glucose is detected, your pancreas secretes a hormone called insulin which helps your cells extract it from your blood and use it to perform various tasks in your body. The problem occurs when your pancreas becomes damaged, lazy, or simply can’t secrete enough insulin for some other reason. When that happens, glucose builds up in the bloodstream because the cells aren’t able to utilize it. The result? High blood sugar or “diabetes”. The simple solution is to learn how to jumpstart your pancreas, but that’s often easier said than done. One reason for this is there are several different types of diabetes and a wide range of symptoms that must be controlled. Common diabetes symptoms include extreme thirst and hunger, changes in vision, dry skin, unexplained changes in weight, and swelling, just to name a few. Many diabetes symptoms can lay dormant for years, and a large percentage of diabetics are completely unaware they have the disease. A test measuring blood glucose levels is needed to confirm the presence of diabetes. There is also a genetic aspect to diabetes and there are several risk factors which can make you more susceptible to the disease. These include things like a family history of diabetes, being overweight and/or obese, and living a fairly inactive or sedentary lifestyle. Rarely, diabetes can also be caused by surgical procedures and certa Continue reading >>

Diabetes Glossary

Diabetes Glossary

The following is a list of diabetes-related terms and their definitions. These words, listed in alphabetical order, are the most common ones you will hear when you are discussing diabetes. *Please note many of these definitions are product specific. A A1C (HbA1c) - Glycosylated hemoglobin. A1C (HbA1c) test - A 2-3 month average of blood glucose values expressed in percent. The normal range varies with different labs and is expressed in percent (such as 4 - 6%). AACE - American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. A professional organization devoted to the field of clinical endocrinology. ACE - American College of Endocrinology. *Accept - Pressing the ACT button to approve the selection or setting. *Active insulin - Bolus insulin that has been delivered to your body, but has not yet been used. ADA - American Diabetes Association®. Adult-onset diabetes - Former term for Type 2 diabetes. Adverse reaction - An unexpected, unpleasant or dangerous reaction to a sensor when it is inserted into the body. An adverse reaction may be sudden or may develop over time. *Alarm - Audible or vibrating (silent) notice that indicates the pump is in Attention mode and immediate attention is required. Alarms are prefixed in the alarm history with the letter A. *Alarm clock - Feature you can set to go off at specified times of the day. *Alarm history - Screen that displays the last 36 alarms/errors that have occurred on your pump. *Alarm icon - A solid circle that shows at the top of the screen and the pump beeps or vibrates periodically until the condition is cleared (see Attention mode). *Alert - Audible or vibrating (silent) indicator that notifies you the pump needs attention soon or that you should be reminded of something. Insulin delivery continues as programmed. *Alert icon - A Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is an incurable condition in which the body cannot control blood sugar levels, because of problems with the hormone insulin. There are two main variations of the illness, Type I and Type II. How does the body control blood sugar levels? Your body uses blood sugar (glucose) for energy. Glucose is a basic ingredient of sweet foods such as sweets and cakes. It can also be produced by carbohydrates such as potatoes, pasta or bread when they are digested and broken down. Under normal circumstances, the hormone insulin, which is made by your pancreas, carefully regulates how much glucose is in the blood. Insulin stimulates cells all over your body to absorb enough glucose from the blood to provide the energy, or fuel, that they need. After a meal, the amount of glucose in your blood rises, which triggers the release of insulin. When blood glucose levels fall, during exercise for example, insulin levels fall too. Types of diabetes There are two main types of diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes the cells of the pancreas stop making insulin. In Type 2 diabetes, either the pancreas cells do not make enough insulin, or the body's cells do not react properly to it. This is known as insulin resistance. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, and the immune system attacks the cells of the pancreas. It tends to affect people before the age of 40, and often follows a trigger such as a viral infection. The exact mechanisms that lead to Type 2 diabetes are not fully understood, but an underlying genetic susceptibility is usually present. This could be a family history of the illness, for example. The condition is then triggered by lifestyle factors - such as obesity - and it usually appears in people over the age of 40. There are three other, less common, forms of diabetes: Gestati Continue reading >>

More in diabetes