diabetestalk.net

Experimental Models Of Diabetes

The Use Of Animal Models In Diabetes Research

The Use Of Animal Models In Diabetes Research

The use of animal models in diabetes research Diabetes Research Group, King's College London, London, UK Aileen King, Diabetes Research Group, Guy's Campus, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, UK. E-mail: [email protected] Received 2011 Aug 19; Revised 2012 Feb 10; Accepted 2012 Feb 13. Copyright 2012 The Author. British Journal of Pharmacology 2012 The British Pharmacological Society This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Diabetes is a disease characterized by a relative or absolute lack of insulin, leading to hyperglycaemia. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is due to an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, and type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance coupled by a failure of the beta cell to compensate. Animal models for type 1 diabetes range from animals with spontaneously developing autoimmune diabetes to chemical ablation of the pancreatic beta cells. Type 2 diabetes is modelled in both obese and non-obese animal models with varying degrees of insulin resistance and beta cell failure. This review outlines some of the models currently used in diabetes research. In addition, the use of transgenic and knock-out mouse models is discussed. Ideally, more than one animal model should be used to represent the diversity seen in human diabetic patients. This paper is the latest in a series of publications on the use of animal models in pharmacology research. Readers might be interested in the previous papers. Robinson V (2009). Less is more: reducing the reliance on animal models for nausea and vomiting research. Holmes AM, Rudd JA, Tattersall FD, Aziz Q, Andrews PLR (2009). Opportunities for the replacement of animals in the study of nausea and vomiting. Continue reading >>

Animal Models Of Type 2 Diabetes: The Gk Rat

Animal Models Of Type 2 Diabetes: The Gk Rat

Animal Models of Type 2 Diabetes: The GK Rat Animal Models of Type 2 Diabetes: The GK Rat Studying the long-term complications of diabetic pathology is more relevant than ever, driving increased interest in animal models of type 2 diabetes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the number of people with diabetes (includes both type 1 and type 2) has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. "[Diabetes] is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke, and lower limb amputation. Over time, diabetes can damage the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Adults with diabetes have a 2-3-fold increased risk of heart attacks and strokes. Combined with reduced blood flow, neuropathy in the feet increases the chance of foot ulcers, infection and eventual need for limb amputation. Diabetic retinopathy is an important cause of blindness and occurs as a result of long-term accumulated damage to the small blood vessels in the retina. 2.6% of global blindness can be attributed to diabetes. Diabetes is among the leading causes of kidney failure." (WHO Media Center, 2016). There are a variety of mouse and rat models which can be used to study aspects of type 2 diabetes: Varying aspects and severity of complications + More robust diet induced obesity in C57BL/6NTac (Gareski T, 2009) Studying Long-term Pathology in Animal Models of Type 2 Diabetes The ob/ob and db/db mice, as well as the Zucker Diabetic Fatty rat, are all well-characterized and frequently-used diabetic models which exhibit a mutation in the leptin (ob/ob) or leptin receptor gene (ZDF, db/db). They are useful for studying particular disease characteristics, but do not necessarily represent the human disease state as mutations in these genes are not frequently the caus Continue reading >>

(pdf) Experimental Models Of Diabetes Mellitus

(pdf) Experimental Models Of Diabetes Mellitus

UDK 616.379-008.64 / Ser J Exp Clin Res 2011; 12 (1): 29-35 Correspondence to: Jelena Pantic, Address: Janka Veselinovica 3/3, 11000 Beograd Tel: 064/1550001, 011/3861942, E-mail: [email protected] Jelena Pantic1, Vladislav Volarevic1, Aleksandar Djukic1 1Faculty of Medicine, University of Kragujevac Jelena Panti1, Vladislav Volarevi1, Aleksandar uki1 1Medicinski fakultet, Univerzitet u Kragujevcu Early studies on pancreatectomised dogs con rmed the central role of the pancreas in the homeostasis of glycemia and resulted in the discovery of insulin. Today, hundreds of di erent animal models are used in experimental studies of diabetes. e aim of this review is to present experimental models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In preparing for this review, we searched the electronic databases Medline, Highwire, and Hinari. e majority of the experiments are conducted on rodent models (mice and rats). Selective inbreeding resulted in the devel- opment of numerous models with pathogenic characteristics and the manifestation of type 1 and 2 diabetes and the related phe- notypes of obesity and insulin resistance. In addition to analyzing the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease and its complications, these models are used to evaluate new treatment solutions as well as the transplantation of beta cells and disease prevention. New animal models have been created using techniques based in mo- lecular biology and genetic engineering: transgenic, knockout and tissue-speci c knockout models. ese are very powerful methods, which may lead to exciting results in the future. Key words: animal models, experimental diabetes, mouse, rat Prve studije raene na psima kojima je prethodno uk- lonjen pankreas potvrdile su centralnu ulogu pankreasa u homeostazi glikemije i doprineli otkriu Continue reading >>

Autonomic Neuropathy In Experimental Models Of Diabetes Mellitus

Autonomic Neuropathy In Experimental Models Of Diabetes Mellitus

Autonomic neuropathy in experimental models of diabetes mellitus Christine M Emnett, Lawrence N Eisenman, Jayaram Mohan, Amanda A Taylor, James J Doherty, Steven M Paul, Charles F Zorumski and Steven Mennerick; 2015 British Journal of Pharmacology, 172(5) pp1333-1347 Read More Background and Purpose: Memantine and ketamine are clinically used, open-channel blockers of NMDA receptors exhibiting remarkable pharmacodynamic similarities despite strikingly different clinical profiles. Although NMDA channel gating constitutes an important difference between memantine and ketamine, it is unclear how positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) might affect the pharmacodynamics of these NMDA blockers. Experimental Approach: We used two different PAMs: SGE-201, an analogue of an endogenous oxysterol, 24S-hydroxycholesterol, along with pregnenolone sulphate (PS), to test on memantine and ketamine responses in single cells (oocytes and cultured neurons) and networks (hippocampal slices), using standard electrophysiological techniques. Key Results: SGE-201 and PS had no effect on steady-state block or voltage dependence of a channel blocker. However, both PAMs increased the actions of memantine and ketamine on phasic excitatory post-synaptic currents, but neither revealed underlying pharmacodynamic differences. SGE-201 accelerated the re-equilibration of blockers during voltage jumps. SGE-201 also unmasked differences among the blockers in neuronal networks measured either by suppression of activity in multi-electrode arrays or by neuroprotection against a mild excitotoxic insult. Either potentiating NMDA receptors while maintaining the basal activity level or increasing activity/depolarization without potentiating NMDA receptor function is sufficient to expose pharmacodynamic blocker di Continue reading >>

Experimental Model Of Induction Of Diabetes Mellitus In Rats

Experimental Model Of Induction Of Diabetes Mellitus In Rats

Experimental model of induction of diabetes mellitus in rats 1 Modelo experimental de induo do diabetes mellitus em ratos Eliziane Nitz de CarvalhoI; Nestor Antnio Schmidt de CarvalhoII; Lydia Masako FerreiraIII IPhD student of Plastic Surgery Division of Federal University of So Paulo - Paulista School of Medicine (UNIFESP -EPM). IIProfessor of Physiology for the Odontology, Nursing and Speech Pathology courses at UNIVALI. Brazil IIIHead of Plastic Surgery Division of Surgery Department and Coordinator of Post-graduation Program in Reconstructive Plastic Surgery - UNIFESP - EPM. Brazil ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a potentially morbid condition with high prevalence worldwide, thus being a major medical concern. Experimental models play an important role in understanding such a disease, which is treatable only. This study describes a rat diabetes mellitus model induced by administering a reduced dose of alloxan, thus greatly reducing the animals death rate. RESUMO: O diabetes mellitus uma condio mrbida da maior importncia no contexto da medicina. Este artigo decreve um dos modelos de induo do diabetes mellitus com aloxano, uma das substncias que provocam a hiperglicemia permanente em vrias espcies. Com base na literatura, tem o intuito de estabelecer esse modelo como uma opo para investigar as complicaes do diabetes mellitus e seus tratamentos. Tese, ainda, consideraes sobre perspectivas de aplicaes deste modelo, ainda pouco utilizado. Due to its high prevalence and potential deleterious effects on a patients physical and psychological state, diabetes mellitus, which can result in a morbid condition, is a major medical concern. 1, 2 According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the number of diabetics has doubled in the past few years and is expected to double onc Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Hypertension: Experimental Models For Pharmacological Studies

Diabetes And Hypertension: Experimental Models For Pharmacological Studies

Get access /doi/pdf/10.3109/10641969909068644?needAccess=true Since hypertensive and diabetes-mellitus frequently occur simultaneously there exists a requirement for animal models where both pathological entities are combined. The streptozotocin (STZ)-spontaneously hypertensive rat (STZ-SHR) and the obese Zucker rat are examlpes of animal models where hypertension and diabetes occur simultaneously. STZ-SHR develop a hyperglycaemic syndrome, associated with other biochemical and morphological changes that to some extent approach IDDM (type I diabetes) combined with hypertension. The obese Zucker rat is characterised by the simultaneous occurrence of obesity, hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia and moderate hypertension. As such it approaches the patient with NIDDM (type II diabetes) who is simultaneously hypertensive. Lean Zucker rats are suitable controls with respect to the obese animals. Both animal models (STZ-SHR and obese Zucker rats) were characterised with respect to their biochemical, morphometric and haemodynamic characteristics of their cardiovascular system. The resemblance of this model with human NIDDM with hypertension syndrome indicates that the obese Zucker rat deserves special attention in pharmacological research. Continue reading >>

Acute And Chronic Animal Models For The Evaluation Of Anti-diabetic Agents

Acute And Chronic Animal Models For The Evaluation Of Anti-diabetic Agents

Acute and chronic animal models for the evaluation of anti-diabetic agents Kumar et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.2012 Diabetes mellitus is a potentially morbid condition with high prevalence worldwide thus being a major medical concern. Experimental induction of diabetes mellitus in animal models is essential for the advancement of our knowledge and understanding of the various aspects of its pathogenesis and ultimately finding new therapies and cure. Experimental diabetes mellitus is generally induced in laboratory animals by several methods that include: chemical, surgical and genetic (immunological) manipulations. Most of the experiments in diabetes are carried out in rodents, although some studies are still performed in larger animals. The present review highlights the various methods of inducing diabetes in experimental animals in order to test the newer drugs for their anti-diabetic potential. Streptozotocinalloxandiabetic ratsanimal modelsdiabetes WHO reports Diabetes mellitus as one of the most common public health problems which will affect a total population of 220 million worldwide in the year 2020 [ 1 , 2 ]. The increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus worldwide is a major societal issue because diabetes is a complex and multifactorial origin disease. The prevalence of diabetes is rising all over the world due to population growth, aging, urbanization and an increase of obesity and physical inactivity. Unlike in the West, where older persons are most affected, diabetes in Asian countries is disproportionately high in young to middle-aged adults. This could have long-lasting adverse effects on a nation's health and economy, especially for developing countries. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimates the total number of people in India with Continue reading >>

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus In Different Animal Models

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus In Different Animal Models

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus in Different Animal Models Amin Al-awar ,1 Krisztina Kupai ,1,* Mdea Veszelka ,1 Gerg Szcs ,1 Zouhair Attieh ,2 Zsolt Murlasits ,3 Szilvia Trk ,1 Anik Psa ,1 and Csaba Varga 1 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary 2Department of Laboratory Science and Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Science and Technology, Alfred Naccache Avenue, Beirut 1100, Lebanon 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary 2Department of Laboratory Science and Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Science and Technology, Alfred Naccache Avenue, Beirut 1100, Lebanon 3Sport Science Program, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Received 2016 Continue reading >>

Development Of An Experimental Model Of Diabetes Co-existing With Metabolic Syndrome In Rats

Development Of An Experimental Model Of Diabetes Co-existing With Metabolic Syndrome In Rats

Development of an Experimental Model of Diabetes Co-Existing with Metabolic Syndrome in Rats 1Department of Pharmacology, MGM Medical College, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai 410209, India 2Department of Pathology, MGM Medical College, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai 410209, India Received 8 September 2015; Revised 8 December 2015; Accepted 14 December 2015 Academic Editor: ThrseDi Paolo-Chnevert Copyright 2016 Rajesh Kumar Suman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Background. The incidence of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus is on the rise globally. Objective. The present study was designed to develop a unique animal model that will mimic the pathological features seen in individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, suitable for pharmacological screening of drugs. Materials and Methods. A combination of High-Fat Diet (HFD) and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) at 30, 35, and 40 mg/kg was used to induce metabolic syndrome in the setting of diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats. Results. The 40 mg/kg STZ produced sustained hyperglycemia and the dose was thus selected for the study to induce diabetes mellitus. Various components of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia (increased triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and decreased HDL cholesterol) , diabetes mellitus (blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin, and C-peptide), and hypertension were mimicked in the developed model of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus. In addition to significant cardiac injury, atherogenic index, inflammation (hs-CRP), decline in hepatic and renal function were observed in the HF-D Continue reading >>

Book Review | Nejm

Book Review | Nejm

Edited by John H. McNeill. 418 pp., illustrated. Boca Raton, Fla., CRC Press, 1999. $149.95. ISBN: 0-8493-1667-7 Experimental models are conventions; the community of scientists designates, often informally, its subjects of study. Today, scientists not only breed their experimental animals; they also exercise the power to add to, delete, exchange, or mutate the animals' genes. Thus, experimental models are inventions as well as conventions. Like all inventions, they may be judged by the way they serve our needs. Books about experimental models, too, may be judged by the advantage gained by reading them. We may divide experimental models into two sorts: analogue models and intrinsic models. Analogue models are useful as substitutes for some reality otherwise inaccessible to experimentation a human disease, for example. Intrinsic models, unlike analogue models, do not have to mimic reality; they fascinate on their own. Experimental Models of Diabetes tells us about diabetes in laboratory animals. Do these models serve as analogues of human diabetes, or are they models intrinsic to themselves? The book contains 14 chapters, 10 of which relate to diabetes induced experimentally by administration of a toxin called streptozotocin. Streptozotocin is a Trojan horselike molecule. In essence, it is glucose linked to a reactive nitrosourea moiety, and as such it is internalized through the cell's glucose transporters. There is no gift here, however. Once the molecule is inside, the nitrosourea moiety is released and actively poisons the cell by cross-linking vital structures. Because the beta cells of the pancreas are more active than other cells in taking up glucose (they continuously sample the blood glucose concentration), they are also more sensitive than other cells to strep Continue reading >>

The Use Of Animal Models In The Study Of Diabetes Mellitus

The Use Of Animal Models In The Study Of Diabetes Mellitus

Abstract Animal models have enormously contributed to the study of diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease with abnormal glucose homeostasis, due to some defect in the secretion or the action of insulin. They give researchers the opportunity to control in vivo the genetic and environmental factors that may influence the development of the disease and establishment of its complications, and thus gain new information about its handling and treatment in humans. Most experiments are carried out on rodents, even though other species with human-like biological characteristics are also used. Animal models develop diabetes either spontaneously or by using chemical, surgical, genetic or other techniques, and depict many clinical features or related phenotypes of the disease. In this review, an overview of the most commonly used animal models of diabetes are provided, highlighting the advantages and limitations of each model, and discussing their usefulness and contribution in the field of diabetes research. Type I Diabetes (T1DM) Models T1DM, a multifactorial autoimmune disease involving genetic and environmental factors, is hallmarked by T-cell and macrophages-mediated destruction of pancreatic β-cells, resulting in irreversible insulin deficiency. Diabetic ketoacidosis, a T1DM immediate consequence, can be fatal without treatment, while the long-term vascular T1DM complications affecting several organs and tissues can significantly affect life expectancy. There is no doubt that T1DM susceptibility is MHC-dependent and MHC genes account for approximately 50% of the total contribution to the disease. However, although to date studies corroborate that both HLA-DR and HLA-DQ genes are important in determining disease risk, the effects of individual alleles may be modified by the h Continue reading >>

Experimental Models On Diabetes: A Comprehensive Review | Dave | International Journal Of Advances In Pharmaceutical Sciences

Experimental Models On Diabetes: A Comprehensive Review | Dave | International Journal Of Advances In Pharmaceutical Sciences

Experimental Models on Diabetes: A Comprehensive Review Vivek Dave, Radha Sharma, Swapnil Sharma, Pankaj Jain, Sachdev Yadav Present world scenario globally, upto 2010, around 285million people suffering from Type2 diabetes making up about 90% of the cases.According to statistics, by 2030, this number is estimated to almost double.Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world, but is more common (especially Type2) in the more developed countries. The greatest increase in prevalence is, however, expected to occur in Asia and Africa, where most patients will probably be found by 2030. The aim of this review is to summarize several studies done for the discovery of new drug using different animal models for in vivo studies (chemical, surgical, and genetic models ) & in vitro models (glucose uptake, pancreatic islet cell lines and insulin secretion). Gardner D, Shoback D. Greenspan's basic & clinical endocrinology (9th Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2011; 17: 443-468. Klatt EC, Kumar. V. Robbins and Cotran Review of pathology. Saunders (3)2009; pp148-155 Henry M, Kronenberg MD, Shlomo Melmed MD, Kenneth S. Polonsky MD. Williamss textbook of endocrinology (12th ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders. 2011; pp. 13711435. Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004; (5): 104753. Beretta A. Campanha de prevencao e diagnostic do diabetes realizada pela UNIARARAS eprefeitura municipal na cidade de Araras. Laes and Haes 2001; (131): A188-200. Macedo CS, Capelletti SM, Mercadante CS, Padovani CR, Spadella CT. Experimental model of induction of diabetes mellitus in rats. Plastic surgery, laboratory of plastic surgery, Sao Paulo Paulista School of Medicine. 2005; pp 2-15. Ga Continue reading >>

Animal Models In Diabetes And Pregnancy

Animal Models In Diabetes And Pregnancy

Laboratory of Reproduction and Metabolism, Centro de Estudios Farmacologicos y BotanicosConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, 1121ABG Buenos Aires, Argentina Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Alicia Jawerbaum, Laboratory of Reproduction and Metabolism, Centro de Estudios Farmacologicos y BotanicosConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas-School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires. Paraguay 2155, 17th floor (C1121ABG), 1121ABG Buenos Aires, Argentina. Search for other works by this author on: Laboratory of Reproduction and Metabolism, Centro de Estudios Farmacologicos y BotanicosConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, 1121ABG Buenos Aires, Argentina Search for other works by this author on: Endocrine Reviews, Volume 31, Issue 5, 1 October 2010, Pages 680701, Alicia Jawerbaum, Veronica White; Animal Models in Diabetes and Pregnancy, Endocrine Reviews, Volume 31, Issue 5, 1 October 2010, Pages 680701, The worldwide increase in the incidence of diabetes, the increase in type 2 diabetes in women at reproductive ages, and the cross-generation of the intrauterine programming of type 2 diabetes are the bases for the growing interest in the use of experimental diabetic models in order to gain insight into the mechanisms of induction of developmental alterations in maternal diabetes. In this scenario, experimental models that present the most common features of diabetes in pregnancy are highly required. Several important aspects of human diabetic pregnancies such as the increased rates of spontaneous abortions, malformations, fetoplacental impairments, and offspring diseases in later life can be appr Continue reading >>

Experimental Models Of Diabetes Mellitus Types 1 And 2 In Rats: Regulation Of Activity Of Glycogen Synthase By Peptides Of The Insulin Superfamily And By Epidermal Growth Factor In Skeletal Muscles

Experimental Models Of Diabetes Mellitus Types 1 And 2 In Rats: Regulation Of Activity Of Glycogen Synthase By Peptides Of The Insulin Superfamily And By Epidermal Growth Factor In Skeletal Muscles

, Volume 48, Issue1 , pp 2431 | Cite as Experimental models of diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2 in rats: Regulation of activity of glycogen synthase by peptides of the insulin superfamily and by epidermal growth factor in skeletal muscles The regulatory effect of peptides of the insulin superfamilyinsulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), and relaxin, as well as of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on activity of glycogen synthase (GS) in rat skeletal muscles was studied in normal state and in experimental diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2 (DM1, DM2). Normally, the peptides stimulated GS activity to the maximum at a concentration of 108 M in vitro. The efficiency ranking of the peptide action was as follows: insulin > IGF-1 > relaxin. In DM1 the basal GS activity did not change, while the effect of insulin in vitro decreased more sharply on the 30th day of diabetes as compared to IGF-1 and relaxin, i.e. the efficiency ranking was as follows: IGF-1 = relaxin > insulin. Administration of insulin in vivo did not recover the sensitivity of the enzyme to the action of the hormone in DM1. In DM2, GS activity (both in total and in the active form) decreased while the stimulatory effect of the peptides and EGF on the enzyme was absent. Insulin administered in vivo did not lead to the recovery of the enzyme activity. We conclude that it is insulin resistance pronounced in DM2 that mostly affects the basal GS activity as well as the enzyme regulation by peptides of insulin type and EGF in rat skeletal muscles, while insulin deficiency in DM1 is of lesser importance. glycogen synthaseinsulininsulin-like growth factor-1relaxinepidermal growth factordiabetes mellitusskeletal musclesrat Original Russian Text L. A. Kuznetsova, O. V. Chistyakova, 2012, published in Zhurnal Evolyutsionnoi Continue reading >>

[full Text] Streptozotocin-induced Type 1 Diabetes In Rodents As A Model For Study | Dmso

[full Text] Streptozotocin-induced Type 1 Diabetes In Rodents As A Model For Study | Dmso

Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNT System College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA Abstract: Chronic hyperglycemia and the corresponding glucotoxicity are the main pathogenic mechanisms of diabetes and its complications. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic animal models are useful platforms for the understanding of cell glucotoxicity in diabetes. As diabetes induced by a single STZ injection is often referred to as type 1 diabetes that is caused by STZs partial destruction of pancreas, one question often being asked is whether the STZ type 1 diabetes animal model is a good model for studying the mitochondrial mechanisms of cell glucotoxicity. In this mini review, we provide evidence garnered from the literature that the STZ type 1 diabetes is indeed a suitable model for studying mitochondrial mechanisms of diabetic cell glucotoxicity. Evidence presented includes: 1) continued cell derangement is due to chronic hyperglycemia after STZ is completely eliminated out of the body; 2) STZ diabetes can be reversed by insulin treatment, which indicates that cell responds to treatment and shows ability to regenerate; and 3) STZ diabetes can be ameliorated or alleviated by administration of phytochemicals. In addition, mechanisms of STZ action and fundamental gaps in understanding mitochondrial mechanisms of cell dysfunction are also discussed. Keywords: diabetes, cell, glucotoxicity, mitochondria, redox imbalance, streptozotocin Diabetes mellitus and its complications are chronic glucotoxicity diseases. The concept of cell glucotoxicity (and other cells as well) implicates that persistent excessive glucose can exert adverse or toxic effect on cell function after the Continue reading >>

More in diabetes