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Epidemiology Of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes: Basic Facts Epidemiology Of Diabetes

Diabetes: Basic Facts Epidemiology Of Diabetes

Abstract The disease burden related to diabetes is high and rising in every country, fuelled by the global rise in the prevalence of obesity and unhealthy lifestyles. The latest estimates show a global prevalence of 382 million people with diabetes in 2013, expected to rise to 592 million by 2035. The aetiological classification of diabetes has now been widely accepted. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the two main types, with type 2 diabetes accounting for the majority (>85%) of total diabetes prevalence. Both forms of diabetes can lead to multisystem complications of microvascular endpoints, including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, and macrovascular endpoints including ischaemic heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. The premature morbidity, mortality, reduced life expectancy and financial and other costs of diabetes make it an important public health condition. Type 1 diabetes The acute onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus and its rapid presentation to medical attention facilitates accurate registering of new cases. Provided ascertainment can be verified, these data can be combined with population denominator data to give age-specific and sex-specific incidences. Geographical variation The incidence of type 1 diabetes in children varies nearly 400-fold between countries (Figure 1) with age-adjusted incidence rates ranging from 0.1 per 100,000 per year in parts of Venezuela and China to 37.8 in Sardinia and 40.9 per 100,000/year in Finland.1 The high rate observed in Sardinia is notably discordant with the incidence in Italy as a whole. Incidence also varies within several other countries including China, where there is a 12-fold variation by region (0.13–1.61/100,000). In general, countries in Europe and North America have either high or interm Continue reading >>

Epidemiology, Presentation, And Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Children And Adolescents

Epidemiology, Presentation, And Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Children And Adolescents

INTRODUCTION Since the early 1990s, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased in children and adolescents and is linked to the rise in childhood obesity. T2DM and its comorbidities are risk factors for vascular disease later in life. As a result, it is imperative for health care providers to identify and treat children and adolescents with this disorder. (See "Definition; epidemiology; and etiology of obesity in children and adolescents".) The epidemiology, presentation, and diagnosis of T2DM in children and adolescents are presented here. Other aspects of T2DM in youth are discussed in separate topic reviews: Continue reading >>

Global Aetiology And Epidemiology Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Its Complications.

Global Aetiology And Epidemiology Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Its Complications.

Global aetiology and epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, 2005 Songhu Road, Shanghai, China. Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 2005 Songhu Road, Shanghai, China. Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2018 Feb;14(2):88-98. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2017.151. Epub 2017 Dec 8. Globally, the number of people with diabetes mellitus has quadrupled in the past three decades, and diabetes mellitus is the ninth major cause of death. About 1 in 11 adults worldwide now have diabetes mellitus, 90% of whom have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Asia is a major area of the rapidly emerging T2DM global epidemic, with China and India the top two epicentres. Although genetic predisposition partly determines individual susceptibility to T2DM, an unhealthy diet and a sedentary lifestyle are important drivers of the current global epidemic; early developmental factors (such as intrauterine exposures) also have a role in susceptibility to T2DM later in life. Many cases of T2DM could be prevented with lifestyle changes, including maintaining a healthy body weight, consuming a healthy diet, staying physically active, not smoking and drinking alcohol in moderation. Most patients with T2DM have at least one complication, and cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. This Review provides an updated view of the global epid Continue reading >>

Global Aetiology And Epidemiology Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Its Complications

Global Aetiology And Epidemiology Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Its Complications

Globally, the number of people with diabetes mellitus has quadrupled in the past three decades, and diabetes mellitus is the ninth major cause of death. About 1 in 11 adults worldwide now have diabetes mellitus, 90% of whom have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Asia is a major area of the rapidly emerging T2DM global epidemic, with China and India the top two epicentres. Although genetic predisposition partly determines individual susceptibility to T2DM, an unhealthy diet and a sedentary lifestyle are important drivers of the current global epidemic; early developmental factors (such as intrauterine exposures) also have a role in susceptibility to T2DM later in life. Many cases of T2DM could be prevented with lifestyle changes, including maintaining a healthy body weight, consuming a healthy diet, staying physically active, not smoking and drinking alcohol in moderation. Most patients with T2DM have at least one complication, and cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. This Review provides an updated view of the global epidemiology of T2DM, as well as dietary, lifestyle and other risk factors for T2DM and its complications. Continue reading >>

1: Epidemiology And Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes And The Metabolic Syndrome

1: Epidemiology And Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes And The Metabolic Syndrome

Summary The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Australia has doubled over the past 20 years; more than 7% of Australian adults now have diabetes. Insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular risk occur in both these groups (the metabolic syndrome). 50% of cases of type 2 diabetes are undiagnosed; screening is indicated in everyone aged over 55 and in younger people with risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, family history or certain ethnic backgrounds. Dietary modification and increased physical activity have been shown to dramatically reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in those at high risk. General practitioners should target individuals at high risk, but this needs to be reinforced by community-wide preventive action. Continue reading >>

Handbook Of Diabetes, 4th Edition, Excerpt #6: Epidemiology And Aetiology Of Type 2 Diabetes

Handbook Of Diabetes, 4th Edition, Excerpt #6: Epidemiology And Aetiology Of Type 2 Diabetes

Epidemiological studies of diabetes prevalence are often based upon age and self-reported diagnosis. Consequently differentiating type 1 and type 2 patients in population studies is difficult. The most recent authoritative review of global prevalence published by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) acknowledges these drawbacks. However, as 85 – 95% globally of all adult diabetes is type 2 then total The IDF has also published adult prevalence rates for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) which closely reflect those for type 2 diabetes. Conversion rates from IGT to diabetes have been reported at 5 – 11% per annum…. Overall prevalence corrected for age for both type 2 diabetes and IGT is set to increase from 6.0% to 7.3% and 7.5% to 8.0% respectively over the 18 years from 2007 to 2025 – an absolute increase from 246 to 380 and 308 to 418 million persons aged 20 – 79 years, respectively (Figure 7.1). The highest rates are currently in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East with North and South America close behind. These reflect the increased life expectancy and overall ageing of the North American population (diabetes is more common in older years). In terms of absolute numbers, the Western Pacific region (particularly China) will have the largest increase of nearly 50%, to 100 million people with diabetes by 2025. The highest number of people with diabetes is currently in the 40 – 59-year-old age group, but there will be almost parity with 60 – 79 year olds by 2025, at 166 and 164 million worldwide respectively. There is considerable variation within each region, however. For example, in the Western Pacific, the tiny island of Nauru has a comparative prevalence in 2007 of 30.7%, whilst nearby Tonga has less than half that rate at 12.9%, the Philipp Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes In Youth: Epidemiology And Pathophysiology

Type 2 Diabetes In Youth: Epidemiology And Pathophysiology

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is significantly increased in the pediatric population, which is affected by obesity worldwide. The progression from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to type 2 diabetes involves intermediate stages of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), also known as prediabetes. The pathophysiology underlying the development of these glucose metabolic alterations is multifactorial; however an alteration in the balance between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion represents the most important player in the development of type 2 diabetes. Obese children and adolescents affected by IGT and type 2 diabetes are characterized by severe insulin resistance, which is associated with an increased lipid accumulation in visceral compartments, liver and muscle tissues and by reduced sensitivity of β-cell of first and second-phase insulin secretion. The progression in obese children of insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes has been shown to be faster than in adults; in addition, type 2 diabetes is already associated with several metabolic and cardiovascular complications in this age group. In the present review, we summarize the most recent findings concerning the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in youth and in particular we explore the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and the natural history of this pathology in obese children and adolescents. Concurrent with the worldwide epidemic increase of childhood obesity, type 2 diabetes and the two prediabetic conditions, IFG and IGT, are becoming increasingly more common in obese children and adolescents (1,2). Until 10 years ago, type 2 diabetes accounted for less than 3% of all cases of new-onset diabetes in adolescents. At present 45% of cases are attributed to it (3,4). Type 2 diabe Continue reading >>

Prevalence, Incidence And Mortality Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Revisited: A Prospective Population-based Study In The Netherlands (zodiac-1)

Prevalence, Incidence And Mortality Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Revisited: A Prospective Population-based Study In The Netherlands (zodiac-1)

, Volume 18, Issue8 , pp 793800 | Cite as Prevalence, incidence and mortality of type 2 diabetes mellitus revisited: A prospective population-based study in The Netherlands (ZODIAC-1) Background: To present actual data to estimate prevalence, incidence and mortality of known type 2 diabetes mellitus in all age categories in The Netherlands. Methods: Prospective population-based study between 1998 and 2000 in The Netherlands. Baseline population of 155,774 patients, registered with 61 general practitioners participating in the Zwolle Outpatient Diabetes project Integrating Available Care (ZODIAC)-study. Results: Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 2.2% at baseline and 2.9% after 2 years of follow-up; for women and men it was 3.1 and 2.7% at follow-up, respectively. Patients aged > 70 years account for almost 50% of all type 2 diabetes patients. Age- and sex-adjusted mean annual incidence per 10,000 over 3 years was 22.7 overall; for women 23.1 and for men 22.2. Incidence - even though high - decreases after the age of 70 years. The mortality rate was 47.9/1000 and standardised mortality ratio 1.40. Based on these results, the estimated total number of subjects known with type 2 diabetes was 466,000 for The Netherlands in 2000; the number of patients with newly diagnosed diabetes 36,000. Conclusions: Prevalence and incidence rates exceed all estimates regarding known type 2 diabetes for The Netherlands. Elderly patients, aged 70 years and over, account for 50% of the type 2 diabetic population. These results are important for health-care planning. Age groupsDiabetes mellitusIncidenceMortalityPrevalenceProspective studyType 2 This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Amos AF, McC Continue reading >>

Type 2diabetes Mellitus: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Unmet Needs Andtherapeutical Perspectives - Em|consulte

Type 2diabetes Mellitus: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Unmet Needs Andtherapeutical Perspectives - Em|consulte

Received:30 avril 2007; accepted:25 juin 2007 Type 2diabetes mellitus: epidemiology, pathophysiology, unmet needs andtherapeutical perspectives Diabte detype 2 : pidmiologie, physiopathologie, problmes non rsolus etperspectives thrapeutiques M. Virally[1], J.-F. Blickl[2], J. Girard[3], S. Halimi[4], D. Simon[5, 6 et 7], P.-J. Guillausseau[1] [1]Service de mdecine B, APHP, hpital Lariboisire, 2, rue Ambroise-Par, 75010 Paris, universit Denis-DiderotParis-VII, Paris, France [2]Service de mdecine interne, diabte et maladies mtaboliques, hpitaux universitaires de Strasbourg, 67091 Strasbourg cedex, France [3]Dpartement d'endocrinologie, mtabolisme et cancer, CNRSUMR 8104, Inserm U567, institut Cochin, universit Ren-DescartesParis-V, 24, rue du Faubourg-Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris, France [4]Service d'endocrinologie, diabtologie et de nutrition, CHU de Grenoble, pavillon Les-crins, 38043 Grenoble cedex, France [5]Service de diabtologie, APHP, hpital de la Piti-Salptrire, 75013 Paris, France [6]Universit Pierre-et-Marie-CurieParis-VI, Les Cordeliers, 75006 Paris, France En France, la prvalence du diabte trait par mdicaments atteignait 3,6 % en 2005, dont 92 % de diabte de type 2, et en 2007 existent probablement prs de 3 000000 de diabtiques connus ou ignors. Le vieillissement de la population et l'obsit croissante sont les principales causes de ce dveloppement pidmique du diabte. Le diabte de type 2 est une maladie multifactorielle, qui associe une dysfonction insulaire (qui comporte des anomalies de la pulsatilit et de la cintique, des altrations quali- et quantitatives de l'insulinoscrtion, et une perte de la masse des cellules s'aggravant avec le temps) d'origine gntique, un dficit de l'insulinosensibilit (touchant le foie et le muscle stri) li des facteurs d'environneme Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD more... Type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of an array of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from the combination of resistance to insulin action, inadequate insulin secretion, and excessive or inappropriate glucagon secretion. See the image below. Simplified scheme for the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. See Clinical Findings in Diabetes Mellitus , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify various cutaneous, ophthalmologic, vascular, and neurologic manifestations of DM. Many patients with type 2 diabetes are asymptomatic. Clinical manifestations include the following: Classic symptoms: Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and weight loss Diagnostic criteria by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) include the following [ 1 ] : A fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher, or A 2-hour plasma glucose level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), or A random plasma glucose of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher in a patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia or hyperglycemic crisis Whether a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of 6.5% or higher should be a primary diagnostic criterion or an optional criterion remains a point of controversy. Indications for diabetes screening in asymptomatic adults includes the following [ 2 , 3 ] : Overweight and 1 or more other risk factors for diabetes (eg, first-degree relative with diabetes, BP >140/90 mm Hg, and HDL < 35 mg/dL and/or triglyceride level >250 mg/dL) ADA recommends screening at age 45 years in the absence of the above criteria Microvascular (ie, eye and kidney disease) risk reduction through control of glycemia and blood pressure Macrovas Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Epidemiology Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com).Oxford University Press, 2016. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice ). Diabetes mellitus represents a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycaemia, which may or may not be associated with symptoms. The chronic hyperglycaemia of diabetes results from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both, and is associated with long-term organ damage, particularly in the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Patients with type 2 diabetes have a higher prevalence of obesity (particularly abdominal obesity), hypertension, and lipid disorders, as well as an increased risk of macrovascular disease in coronary, peripheral, and cerebral arterial circulations, than people without diabetes. Microvascular complications of diabetes include retinopathy, which can lead to loss of vision, nephropathy (leading to renal failure), neuropathy (with an increased risk of foot ulcers, amputations, and foot deformations), and autonomic neuropathy, causing cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and sexual dysfunction. Diabetes may have a serious emotional and social impact on affected individuals and their families, and has major economic implications for society as a whole in both developed and developing countries. Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription. Please subscribe or login to access full text conte Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Statistics And Facts

Type 2 Diabetes Statistics And Facts

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. Read on to learn some of the key facts and statistics about the people who have it and how to manage it. Risk factors Many risk factors for type 2 diabetes include lifestyle decisions that can be reduced or even cut out entirely with time and effort. Men are also at slightly higher risk of developing diabetes than women. This may be more associated with lifestyle factors, body weight, and where the weight is located (abdominally versus in the hip area) than with innate gender differences. Significant risk factors include: older age excess weight, particularly around the waist family history certain ethnicities physical inactivity poor diet Prevalence Type 2 diabetes is increasingly prevalent but also largely preventable. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes in adults. The CDC also gives us the following information: In general Research suggests that 1 out of 3 adults has prediabetes. Of this group, 9 out of 10 don't know they have it. 29.1 million people in the United States have diabetes, but 8.1 million may be undiagnosed and unaware of their condition. About 1.4 million new cases of diabetes are diagnosed in United States every year. More than one in every 10 adults who are 20 years or older has diabetes. For seniors (65 years and older), that figure rises to more than one in four. Cases of diagnosed diabetes cost the United States an estimated $245 billion in 2012. This cost is expected to rise with the increasing diagnoses. In pregnancy and parentingAccording to the CDC, 4.6 to 9.2 percent of pregnancies may be affected by gestational diabetes. In up to 10 percent of them, the mother is diagnosed w Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Diabetes Mellitus

Epidemiology Of Diabetes Mellitus

Prevalence (per 1,000 inhabitants) of diabetes worldwide in 2000 - world average was 2.8%. no data ≤ 7.5 7.5–15 15–22.5 22.5–30 30–37.5 37.5–45 45–52.5 52.5–60 60–67.5 67.5–75 75–82.5 ≥ 82.5 Disability-adjusted life year for diabetes mellitus per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004 No data <100 100–200 200–300 300–400 400–500 500–600 600–700 700–800 800–900 900–1,000 1,000–1,500 >1,500 Globally, an estimated 422 million adults are living with diabetes mellitus, according to the latest 2016 data from the World Health Organization (WHO).[1] Diabetes prevalence is increasing rapidly; previous 2013 estimates from the International Diabetes Federation put the number at 381 million people having diabetes.[2] The number is projected to almost double by 2030.[3] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 85-90% of all cases.[4][5] Increases in the overall diabetes prevalence rates largely reflect an increase in risk factors for type 2, notably greater longevity and being overweight or obese.[1] Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world, but is more common (especially type 2) in the more developed countries. The greatest increase in prevalence is, however, occurring in low- and middle-income countries[1] including in Asia and Africa, where most patients will probably be found by 2030.[3] The increase in incidence in developing countries follows the trend of urbanization and lifestyle changes, including increasingly sedentary lifestyles, less physically demanding work and the global nutrition transition, marked by increased intake of foods that are high energy-dense but nutrient-poor (often high in sugar and saturated fats, sometimes referred to as the Western pattern diet).[1][3] The risk of getting type 2 diabetes has been widely found to be associat Continue reading >>

The Worldwide Epidemiology Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellituspresent And Future Perspectives

The Worldwide Epidemiology Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellituspresent And Future Perspectives

The worldwide epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellituspresent and future perspectives Dr. Lei Chen obtained her medical degree in Shanghai and completed her PhD in 2011 at Monash University, Australia with a thesis entitled Improving risk prediction for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in the general Australian population. She had worked as an epidemiologist at the Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute in Melbourne, Australia and she is currently working as an endocrinologist in Shanghai Jiaotong University affiliated No.6 People's Hospital, China. Professor Zimmet is Director Emeritus of the Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute and Honorary Professor at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. He designed and co-leads the AusDiab Study, the first national diabetes and obesity study in Australia. He is widely recognized for his epidemiological studies in Indian and Pacific Ocean populations, which have provided new insights into the genetic, environmental and behavioral contributions to type 2 diabetes and obesity. He has received numerous international research awards including the 2010 Grand Hamdan International Award for Medical Sciences for his studies which highlighted the current global diabetes epidemic. Nature Reviews Endocrinology volume 8, pages 228236 (2012) Over the past three decades, the number of people with diabetes mellitus has more than doubled globally, making it one of the most important public health challenges to all nations. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes are increasingly observed among children, adolescents and younger adults. The causes of the epidemic of T2DM are embedded in a very complex group of genetic and epigenetic systems interacting within an equally complex societal framework that determines behavior and Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Type 2 Diabetes

Epidemiology Of Type 2 Diabetes

Epidemiology is the study of the prevalence and the incidence of diseases, and few of the non-communicable diseases have shown such a dramatic increase as type 2 diabetes in the last decades. The World Health Organisation estimated that 9% of the world's population had diabetes in 2014, and over 90% of these suffered from type 2 diabetes. Moreover, type 2 diabetes already causes 5 million deaths per year, mostly from cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes is expected to become the 7th cause of death globally by 2030. Type 2 diabetes is strongly associated with obesity, and as such the major burden is now in the middle-income and developing countries where urbanisation and recent affluence have rapidly changed lifestyles. Global prevalence of diabetes Figure 1. Actual and projected global diabetes prevalences in subsequent reports. Note how actual prevalences are usually higher than previous estimates, leading to even higher estimates for the future. In the last decades, reports from various organisations have tried to give reliable estimates of both actual and expected prevalences of diabetes. Unfortunately, older estimates have invariably been outpaced by more recent actual prevalences as demonstrated in the 2011 International Diabetes Federation (IDF) report (see figure 1)[1]. The large population of the Western Pacific (WP) region contributes most to the absolute numbers, while the %prevalence is highest in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). In fact, in Saudi Arabia the population prevalence is now a staggering 20%. However, all regions now have prevalences exceeding 5% of the population (see table below)[2], and the burden of type 2 diabetes is increasingly felt and recognized internationally. Region 2013 2035 Population (20–79 years) Number of people Continue reading >>

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