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Epidemiology Of Diabetes In India

Diabetes Is India's Fastest Growing Disease: 72 Million Cases Recorded In 2017, Figure Expected To Nearly Double By 2025

Diabetes Is India's Fastest Growing Disease: 72 Million Cases Recorded In 2017, Figure Expected To Nearly Double By 2025

Diabetes is India's fastest growing disease: 72 million cases recorded in 2017, figure expected to nearly double by 2025 India IndiaSpend Apr 17, 2018 16:10:11 IST Mumbai:Indias economic development has brought higher incomesand a large helping of diabetes. As salaries have increased, and all socio-economic groups have experienced a rise in living standards, diabetesa condition caused by the bodys inability to regulate insulin levels, which can lead to tissue damage and organ failurebecame the countrys fastest growing disease burden over 16 years to 2016. India currently represents 49 percent of the worlds diabetes burden, with an estimated 72 million cases in 2017, a figure expected to almost double to 134 million by 2025. This presents a serious public health challenge to a country facing a future of high population growth and a government attempting to provide free health insurance to half a billion people. Diabetes prevalence has increased by 64 percent across India over the quarter-century, according to a November 2017 report by the Indian Council for Medical Research, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, both research institutes, and the Public Health Foundation of India, an advocacy. In 1990, Indias per capita income was $380 (Rs 24,867), rising 340 percent to $1,670 (Rs 1,09,000) in 2016, as per data from the World Bank . Over the same period, the number of diabetes cases increased by more than 123 p ercent. Amongst the wealthiest quintilethe surveyed group were divided into five equal groups according to wealth2.9 percent of women and 2.7 percent of men reported they had diabetes when asked in the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2015-16 . These rates are almost triple those found in the lowest quintile (0.8 percent for women and 1.0 percent for me Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes And Its Complications In India And Economic Costs To The Nation

Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes And Its Complications In India And Economic Costs To The Nation

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition volume 71, pages 816824 (2017) | Download Citation Diabetes, a major lifestyle disorder, has become a global burden, and the prevalence rates are rising steeply in developing economies. Rapid socioeconomic transition with urbanization and industrialization are the main causes for the global diabetes epidemic. Among developing economies, the highest increase in number of people with diabetes is in China followed by India. In India, the epidemic of diabetes continue to increase and is experiencing a shift in diabetes prevalence from urban to rural areas, the affluent to the less privileged and from older to younger people. Diabetes is a progressive disorder leading to complications, which are broadly divided into small vessel or microvascular disease and large vessel or macrovascular disease. Microvascular complications affect the inner part of the eyethe retina known as diabetic retinopathy, the kidney termed as diabetic nephropathy and the peripheral nerves termed as diabetic neuropathy. The macrovascular complications affect the heart, the brain and the peripheral arteries termed as cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease, respectively. Given the lifelong expenditure associated with diabetes and its complications, individuals, families and the society are unable to cope with the economic, emotional and social disease burden due to diabetes. The economic burden of diabetes can be reduced by providing universal healthcare coverage, access to affordable medicines and early detection and treatment of the disorder. This emphasizes the need for a multi-prolonged strategy to minimize the burden of diabetes and its complications. Continue reading >>

Diabetes In India

Diabetes In India

Tweet Over 30 million have now been diagnosed with diabetes in India. The CPR (Crude prevalence rate) in the urban areas of India is thought to be 9 per cent. In rural areas, the prevalence is approximately 3 per cent of the total population. The population of India is now more than 1000 million: this helps to give an idea of the scale of the problem. The estimate of the actual number of diabetics in India is around 40 million. This means that India actually has the highest number of diabetics of any one country in the entire world. IGT (Impaired Glucose Tolerance) is also a mounting problem in India. The prevalence of IGT is thought to be around 8.7 per cent in urban areas and 7.9 per cent in rural areas, although this estimate may be too high. It is thought that around 35 per cent of IGT sufferers go on to develop type 2 diabetes, so India is genuinely facing a healthcare crisis. In India, the type of diabetes differs considerably from that in the Western world. Type 1 is considerably more rare, and only about 1/3 of type II diabetics are overweight or obese. Diabetes is also beginning to appear much earlier in life in India, meaning that chronic long-term complications are becoming more common. The implications for the Indian healthcare system are enormous. Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of the body. From this, it can be understood that for someone with diabetes Continue reading >>

The Current State Of Diabetes Mellitus In India

The Current State Of Diabetes Mellitus In India

Diabetes is fast gaining the status of a potential epidemic in India with more than 62 million diabetic individuals currently diagnosed with the disease.1,2 In 2000, India (31.7 million) topped the world with the highest number of people with diabetes mellitus followed by China (20.8 million) with the United States (17.7 million) in second and third place respectively. According to Wild et al.3 the prevalence of diabetes is predicted to double globally from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030 with a maximum increase in India. It is predicted that by 2030 diabetes mellitus may afflict up to 79.4 million individuals in India, while China (42.3 million) and the United States (30.3 million) will also see significant increases in those affected by the disease.3,4 India currently faces an uncertain future in relation to the potential burden that diabetes may impose upon the country. Many influences affect the prevalence of disease throughout a country, and identification of those factors is necessary to facilitate change when facing health challenges. So what are the factors currently affecting diabetes in India that are making this problem so extreme? The aetiology of diabetes in India is multifactorial and includes genetic factors coupled with environmental influences such as obesity associated with rising living standards, steady urban migration, and lifestyle changes. Yet despite the incidence of diabetes within India, there are no nationwide and few multi-centric studies conducted on the prevalence of diabetes and its complications. The studies that have been undertaken are also prone to potential error as the heterogeneity of the Indian population with respect to culture, ethnicity, socio- economic conditions, mean that the extrapolation of regional results may g Continue reading >>

India Is The Diabetes Capital Of The World!

India Is The Diabetes Capital Of The World!

The diabetes capital of the world with as many as 50 million people suffering from type-2 diabetes, India has a challenge to face. However, medical experts feel that timely detection and right management can go a long way in helping patients lead a normal life. Diabetes might be one of the most talked about diseases across the world and especially in India, but awareness about the same can well be estimated by the fact that India today has more people with type-2 diabetes (more than 50 million) than any other nation. With the country having the highest number of diabetic patients in the world, the sugar disease is posing an enormous health problem to our country today. Often known as the diabetes capital of the world, India has been witnessing an alarming rise in incidence of diabetes according to the International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries. According to a World Health Organization (WHO) fact sheet on diabetes, an estimated 3.4 million deaths are caused due to high blood sugar. The WHO also estimates that 80 per cent of diabetes deaths occur in low and middle-income countries and projects that such deaths will double between 2016 and 2030. It has been further estimated that the global burden of type-2 diabetes is expected to increase to 438 million by 2030 from 285 million people (recorded in 2010). Similarly, for India this increase is estimated to be 58%, from 51 million people in 2010 to 87 million in 2030. But debates, discussions and deliberations aside, the fundamental thing is to know what exactly is diabetes. To put it simply, it is a medical condition that is caused due to insufficient production and secretion of insulin from the pancreas in case of Type-I diabetes and defective response of insulin Type-2 diabetes. Under normal body circumstan Continue reading >>

Epidemiology | Diabetes Epidemic In India In A State Of Transition | Diabetes.medicinematters.com

Epidemiology | Diabetes Epidemic In India In A State Of Transition | Diabetes.medicinematters.com

Diabetes epidemic in India in a state of transition medwireNews: Results of the ICMRINDIAB study suggest that the prevalence of diabetes in India is increasing among poorer people living in affluent cities. [T]he diabetes epidemic in India is in a state of transition, say the study authors, noting that the spread of the epidemic to economically disadvantaged sections of society is a matter of great concern [because] most diabetes treatment expenses are borne out of pocket by patients. Viswanathan Mohan (ICMR Centre for Advanced Research on Diabetes, Chennai, India) and colleagues analyzed oral glucose tolerance tests from 57,117 participants aged 20years and older in 15states, and found that the overall prevalence of diabetes was 7.3%, varying from 4.3% in Bihar to 10.0% in Punjab. The incidence in urban areas was approximately double that in rural areas, at 11.2% versus 5.2%, and the overall prevalence of prediabetes was 10.3%. While diabetes was more prevalent among participants in higher than lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups in rural areas, the opposite was true in urban areas of some more affluent states, including Chandigarh, Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu, where there was a greater prevalence among people in lower, compared with higher, SES groups. The ICMR-INDIAB data, so elegantly presented by RM Anjana et al, will help policymakers and diabetes care professionals formulate appropriate strategies for each state and region of the country. Click here for the view of editorial board member Sanjay Kalra These results suggests that as the overall prosperity of states and India as a whole increases, the diabetes epidemic is likely to disproportionately affect the poorer sections of the society, a transition that has already been noted in high-income countries, write Continue reading >>

Current Scenario Of Diabetes In India

Current Scenario Of Diabetes In India

Abstract India, a country experiencing rapid socioeconomic progress and urbanization, carries a considerable share of the global diabetes burden. Studies in different parts of India have demonstrated an escalating prevalence of diabetes not only in urban populations, but also in rural populations as a result of the urbanization of lifestyle parameters. The prevalence of prediabetes is also high. Recent studies have shown a rapid conversion of impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in the southern states of India, where the prevalence of diabetes among adults has reached approximately 20% in urban populations and approximately 10% in rural populations. Because of the considerable disparity in the availability and affordability of diabetes care, as well as low awareness of the disease, the glycemic outcome in treated patients is far from ideal. Lower age at onset and a lack of good glycemic control are likely to increase the occurrence of vascular complications. The economic burden of treating diabetes and its complications is considerable. It is appropriate that the Indian Government has initiated a national program for the management and prevention of diabetes and related metabolic disorders. Lifestyle modification is an effective tool for the primary prevention of diabetes in Asian Indians. The primary prevention of diabetes is urgently needed in India to curb the rising burden of diabetes. Continue reading >>

High Rates Of Diabetes, Hypertension Found In India

High Rates Of Diabetes, Hypertension Found In India

[email protected] Rates of diabetes and hypertension are high among middle-aged and elderly people across all geographic measures and sociodemographic groups in India , according to the first nationally representative study of those conditions in the country. The study, led by researchers at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, also found unexpectedly high rates of hypertension among young adults. Understanding how diabetes and hypertension prevalence varies within a country as large as India is essential for targeting of prevention, screening, and treatment services, said lead author Pascal Geldsetzer, doctoral student in the Department of Global Health and Population . The study appears online Jan. 29, 2018 inJAMA Internal Medicine. India, home to more than a sixth of the worlds population, is in the midst of a rapid epidemiological transition. Rates of noncommunicable diseases have risen in recent decades and are likely to continue as Indias population ages and urbanizes. Meanwhile, many areas of India still face infectious diseases and poor maternal and child health . The researchers wanted to find out how the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in India varied by state, rural vs. urban location, and by sociodemographic characteristics such as education and household wealth. They used health data collected from 1,320,555 adults across India between 2012 and 2014, which included plasma glucose and blood pressure measurements. The findings showed that diabetes and hypertension were prevalent across all geographies and sociodemographic groups. Overall, prevalence of diabetes was 6.1 percent among women and 6.5 percent among men; for hypertension, 20.0 percent among women and 24.5 percent among men Rates of diabetes and hypertension varied widely among s Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetes In India

Prevalence Of Diabetes In India

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), diabetes is currently one of the biggest health concerns that the world is faced with. WHO defines diabetes as “a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces”. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. A common effect of diabetes is Hyperglycemia or increased blood sugar. Diabetes causes some serious health issues including blindness, kidney failure, stroke and heart diseases. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body produces insufficient quantities of insulin. It is usually detected more in children. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body does not effectively use the insulin produced. This is very frequently due to lack of physical activity, obesity, or incorrect dietary habits. Gestational diabetes occurs among pregnant women. In about 90 percent of cases, it is Type 2 diabetes that people are suffering from. The occurrence of Type 2 diabetes or Diabetes Mellitus may be prevented or delayed by adopting a healthy lifestyle. Diabetes can be identified by telltale symptoms – frequent urination, unusual thirst, excessive fatigue and hunger, weight loss, and wounds that take long to heal. Type 2 diabetes, however, may remain unnoticed and patients may not display any signs for years. Prevalence of Diabetes in India According to statistics from the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), India has more diabetics than any other nation of the world. Current estimates peg the number of diabetics in the country at about 62 million – an increase of over 10 million from 2011 when estimates suggested that about 50.8 million people in the country were suffering from the disease. If you think the disease has already reac Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diagnosed Diabetes And Associated Risk Factors: Evidence From The Large-scale Surveys In India

Prevalence Of Diagnosed Diabetes And Associated Risk Factors: Evidence From The Large-scale Surveys In India

Context: India has observed the most devastating increases in the burden of diabetes in the contemporary era. However, so far, the comparable prevalence of diabetes is only available for limited geography. Aims: The present paper provides comparable estimates of diabetes prevalence in states and districts of India and examines the associated risk factors with newly diagnosed and self-reported diabetes. Setting and Design: The study uses clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical data from District Level Household and Facility Survey (2012–2013) and Annual Health Survey (2014). Subjects and Methods: The paper analyses the information on glucose level of the blood sample and defines diabetes as per the World Health Organization (1999) criteria. It applies multinomial logistic regression to identify the risk factors of diabetes. Results: The study estimates 7% adults with diabetes in India, with a higher level in urban (9.8%) than in the rural area (5.7%), a higher proportion of males (7.1%) than females (6.8%). Widowed, older persons, and persons with high blood pressure have very high risk of both diagnosed and self-reported diabetes. Comparing to Hindus, Muslims and Christians have higher, and Sikhs have less risk of diabetes. Further, corresponding to general caste, scheduled castes, and other backward classes have a high risk of newly diagnosed but the lower risk of self-reported diabetes. Conclusions: The list of districts and states with alarming diabetes prevalence is the valuable information for further programs and research. A significant population with undiagnosed diabetes reflects an urgent need to strengthen the diagnostics at the local level and for those who need them most. Table 2: Sample size distribution by key background variables, District Level House Continue reading >>

World Health Day 2016: Diabetes

World Health Day 2016: Diabetes

Every year, World Health Day is celebrated on 7 April to mark the anniversary of the founding of WHO in 1948. Each year a theme is selected that highlights a priority area of public health. The day provides an opportunity for individuals in every community to get involved in activities that can lead to better health. The theme for World Health Day 2016 is diabetes. Background In 2008, an estimated 347 million people in the world had diabetes and the prevalence is growing, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. India had 69.2 million people living with diabetes (8.7%) as per the 2015 data. Of these, it remained undiagnosed in more than 36 million people. Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar, gives us the energy that we need to live. If it cannot get into the cells to be burned as energy, sugar builds up to harmful levels in the blood. Over time, high blood sugar can seriously compromise every major organ system in the body, causing heart attacks, strokes, nerve damage, kidney failure, blindness, impotence and infections that can lead to amputations. Goal of World Health Day 2016: Scale up prevention, strengthen care, and enhance surveillance of diabetes The main goals of the World Health Day 2016 campaign aims to: Increase awareness about the rise in diabetes, and its staggering burden and consequences, in particular in low-and middle-income countries; Trigger a set of specific, effective and affordable actions to tackle diabetes. These will include steps to prevent diabetes and diagnose, treat and care for people with diabetes; and Launch the first Global report on diabetes, which will des Continue reading >>

World Diabetes Day:number Of Indians With Diabetes Likely To Double In Next Decade

World Diabetes Day:number Of Indians With Diabetes Likely To Double In Next Decade

Diabetes was Indias seventh biggest cause of early death in 2016. (Ravi Choudhary/HT Photo) With a prediabetes prevalence of 10.3% among adults, people with diabetes in India are likely to more than double in the next decade from the current 70 million, a study by the countrys apex research organisation has estimated. The prevalence of prediabetes also known as impaired glucose tolerance and a precursor to diabetes is 1.4 times higher than the diabetes prevalence of 7.3%, according to the Indian Council of Medical Research-IndiaB study of 57,117 adults over 20 years from 14 states and the Union Territory (UT) of Chandigarh. Around 47.3% of Indias 70 million diabetics are undiagnosed and do not know they have high blood glucose levels that, if left untreated, lead to complications such as blindness, kidney failure, heart disease, stroke and foot amputation, the study found. Diabetes emerged as Indias seventh biggest cause of early death in 2016, up from 11th in 2005, shows data from Institute of Health Metrics & Evaluation . Diabetes prevalence is higher in affluent states and UTs like Chandigarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, but pre-diabetes prevalence, which ranged from 6% in Mizoram to 14.7% in Tripura, was high across states irrespective of income. Even a state like Bihar with a low diabetes prevalence of 4.3% had 10% people with prediabetes, indicating that diabetes cases would shoot up in the state over the next decade. Data from 15 states from the ongoing INdia DIABetes(INDIAB)study to track diabetes and prediabetes prevalence threw light on the overall presence of the disease across different parts of the country Keep your blood sugar under 100 mg/dL and your glyceratedblood glucose levels (HbA1c) below 5.7%. Keep your blood pressure below 130/90 mm/Hg, using med Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Diabetes Mellitus

Epidemiology Of Diabetes Mellitus

Prevalence (per 1,000 inhabitants) of diabetes worldwide in 2000 - world average was 2.8%. no data ≤ 7.5 7.5–15 15–22.5 22.5–30 30–37.5 37.5–45 45–52.5 52.5–60 60–67.5 67.5–75 75–82.5 ≥ 82.5 Disability-adjusted life year for diabetes mellitus per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004 No data <100 100–200 200–300 300–400 400–500 500–600 600–700 700–800 800–900 900–1,000 1,000–1,500 >1,500 Globally, an estimated 422 million adults are living with diabetes mellitus, according to the latest 2016 data from the World Health Organization (WHO).[1] Diabetes prevalence is increasing rapidly; previous 2013 estimates from the International Diabetes Federation put the number at 381 million people having diabetes.[2] The number is projected to almost double by 2030.[3] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 85-90% of all cases.[4][5] Increases in the overall diabetes prevalence rates largely reflect an increase in risk factors for type 2, notably greater longevity and being overweight or obese.[1] Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world, but is more common (especially type 2) in the more developed countries. The greatest increase in prevalence is, however, occurring in low- and middle-income countries[1] including in Asia and Africa, where most patients will probably be found by 2030.[3] The increase in incidence in developing countries follows the trend of urbanization and lifestyle changes, including increasingly sedentary lifestyles, less physically demanding work and the global nutrition transition, marked by increased intake of foods that are high energy-dense but nutrient-poor (often high in sugar and saturated fats, sometimes referred to as the Western pattern diet).[1][3] The risk of getting type 2 diabetes has been widely found to be associat Continue reading >>

Global Pandemic Of Diabetes: An Indian Perspective

Global Pandemic Of Diabetes: An Indian Perspective

Global Pandemic of Diabetes: An Indian Perspective Dr Aravinda Jagadeesha MD, MRCP(London,UK), FRCP(Edinburgh,UK), Consultant Diabetologist, Dr Aravinds Diabetes Centre, Karnataka, India Diabetes mellitus (DM), an increasingly common metabolic disorder, creates a significant public health burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified that non-communicable diseases (NCD) are an important global health hazard and DM is one of the four main NCD which immediately demands the global attention.1 This chronic disorder is also a top 10 cause of death globally and has attained pandemic proportions worldwide. In 2015 diabetes killed around 1.6 million people globally (direct cause of death).2 According to the recent Global Burden of Disease Study (2015), diabetes ranked 15th in the global list of leading causes of years of life lost (YLLs).3 Furthermore, the third highest risk factor for global premature mortality is high blood glucose after high blood pressure and tobacco use.4 According to the estimates of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), globally 415 million people are suffering from diabetes (with global prevalence: 8.8%) of which 75% live in low- and middle-income countries. With this trend, by 2040, the world will have 642 million people suffering from diabetes. Type-II DM is the predominant clinical form rather than type-I DM. The majority of the diabetes population (87-91%) in high- income countries have type-II diabetes. Data for relative proportions of type-I and type-II diabetes is not available for low- and middle- income countries,. Globally the type-I diabetes population increases each year by approximately 3 %.4 India is an influential hub for the global diabetes epidemic with the second highest diabetes population in the world (~69 millio Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Rural India

Diabetes Mellitus In Rural India

Jonas, Jost B.; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Nangia, Vinay; Joshi, Prashant P.; Matin, Arshia Jonas JB, et al. Diabetes mellitus in rural India. Epidemiology. 2010;21:754755. The order of authors should be: Jost B. Jonas, Vinay Nangia, Prashant P. Joshi, Arshia Matin, and Songhomitra Panda-Jonas. Suraj Eye Institute; Nagpur, Maharashtra; India; Department of Ophthalmology; Medical Faculty Mannheim of the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg; Mannheim, Germany (Jonas, Panda-Jonas) Suraj Eye Institute; Nagpur, Maharashtra; India; [email protected] (Nangia) Clinical Epidemiology Unit; Govt. Medical College; Nagpur, India (Joshi) Suraj Eye Institute; Nagpur, Maharashtra; India (Matin) Supported by an unrestricted grant from Om Drishti Trust Nagpur; Heidelberg Engineering Co. Heidelberg, Germany; Rotary Sight Saver Netherlands; Orbis India; and Carl Zeiss Meditec Co., Jena, Germany. To investigate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in a typical rural society, we performed a population-based study in rural Central India. We included 2414 subjects aged 30 years or more. Diabetes was defined as postprandial blood glucose concentration 200 mg/dL, glycosylated hemoglobin 6%, or self-reported medical diagnosis. The prevalence of diabetes (5.6% 0.5%) increased up to the age of 60 to 64 years and decreased thereafter. Despite the worldwide importance of diabetes mellitus, relatively little has been known about its actual prevalence and its associations in India, particularly in rural India. 16 The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based cross-sectional study in Central India. The first phase was carried out in 4 villages in the rural region of Central Maharashtra about 40 km from Nagpur. 7 The villages were chosen because they are in a typical rural region of Ce Continue reading >>

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