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Enzymatic Methods For Glucose Determination

Enzymatic Methods | Springerlink

Enzymatic Methods | Springerlink

An analytical method is of value when its specificity, reproducibility, and sensitivity are high and when the expenditure of labor, time, and material are low. Theoretically, most of these requirements can be met admirably by enzymatic analysis (Bergmeyer 1983). The term enzymatic analysis is generally understood to mean analysis with the aid of enzymes. The major advantages of enzymes in analysis lie in their ability to react specifically with individual components of a mixture. This avoids lengthy separations of the components and reduces the time needed for an analysis. The amount of substrate (sample) required for analysis is small, and because of the mild conditions employed, enzymes often allow the detection and determination of labile substances that can be estimated only rather inaccurately by other methods. Free Amino AcidAlcohol DehydrogenaseImmobilize EnzymeGlucose OxidaseMeat Product These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Amador, E., and Wacker, W. E. C. (1965). Enzymatic methods for diagnosis. Methods Biochem. Anal. 13, 265356. CrossRef Google Scholar Augustinson, K. B. (1959). Assay methods of cholinesterases. Methods Biochem. Anal. 5, 163. Google Scholar Bergmeyer, H. U. (1983). Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Academic Press, New York. Google Scholar Bergmeyer, H. U., and Gawehn, K. (1978). Principles of Enzymatic Analysis. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, Germany. Google Scholar Beutler, H.-O. (1978). Enzymatic determination of starch in foods by the hexokinase method (in German). Starch30, 309312. CrossRef Google Scholar Boehringe Continue reading >>

Enzymatic Analysis: Fructose/glucose

Enzymatic Analysis: Fructose/glucose

Enzymatic analysis is a useful tool to determine concentrations of some wine components. The enzyme is used as an analytical reagent to catalyze a specific reaction of the compound to be determined. The substrates, products, and rate of the reaction can be equated to the concentration of the compound. Products and coenzymes are typically measured. Spectrophotometry has been used to measure the increase in cofactors such as NADPH or NADH. The main advantage of enzyme assays is that they are specific. Ideally the product of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction is formed in a stoichiometric ratio to the compound being assayed. Another advantage of enzymatic analysis is the time they take to run. It has been reported that 100 samples can be run in an hour. Enzymatic assays require that standards with known concentrations be run. These standards take into account effects on product formation due to pH, temperature, and matrix effects (Devlin 1959). The measurement of glucose and fructose are carried out using the enzymatic reactions below (enzymes are parenthetically stated) (McCloskey et. al 1984): Glucose + ATP(HK) Glucose-6-Phosphate + ADP Fructose + ATP(HK) Fructose-6-Phosphate +ADP Glucose-6-Phosphate + NADP(GDH) Gluconate-6-Phosphate +NADPH +H+ Enzymatic analysis is particularly useful in determining low levels of residual reducing sugars in dry table wines. Samples of 1000 mg/L can be assayed after undergoing dilution four or five times dilutions. Samples that are suspected to be higher in concentration need further dilution McCloskey et. al. 1984). In some cases samples can have a dilution factor of twenty. Samples are added to a reagent solution with the proper pH buffer for the enzyme being used. Following an incubation period of 10 minutes, absorbance readings, using a Continue reading >>

A Modified Automated Enzymatic Glucose Determination

A Modified Automated Enzymatic Glucose Determination

A modified automated enzymatic glucose determination A modified automated enzymatic glucose determination A modified automated enzymatic glucose determination CLINICA CHIMICA ACTA325A MODIFIED AUTOMATED ENZYMATIC GLUCOSE DETER~IINATION W. VAN D E R SLIK, A. L. KOEVOET, B. R. VAN N EER B O S, G. M. A L K ... Automated determination of glucose in soluble coffee using Prussian Blueglucose oxidaseNafion modified electrode A highly selective, fast and stable biosensor for determination of glucose in soluble coffee has been developed. The bio A MODIFIED AUTOMATED ENZYMATIC GLUCOSE DETER~IINATION W. VAN D E R SLIK, A. L. KOEVOET, B. R. VAN N EER B O S, G. M. A L K E M A D E Atop P. VAN D E R H A R S T Department of Clinical Chemistry, .State University, Leiden and Laboratory for Clinical Chemistry, Municipal Pharmacy, The Hague (The Netherlands) (Received September 9. 1969) A modified method is described for tlle enzymatic glucose determination in blood using the Auto-Analyzer. Optimal conditions were obtained by investigating all the reactions separately. The variation coefficient, measured over 35 estimations, was 3.6%. The influence of other compounds was also examined. Using the method described by Kawerau ~ we were not always successful in obtaining good, reproducible values. The preparation of the membranes by means of dialysis under pressure did not give more sensitive results in our case. The values were especially likely to vary at lower concentrations. After examination of the different reactions of the system, we altered the flow diagram so that the reactions could proceed under optimal conditions. The sensitivity of the analysis became much better and special preparation of the membranes was therefore no longer necessary. METHODS AND RESULTS Reagents r. Acetate bu Continue reading >>

Us3009862a - Method For Determining Glucose Levels In Blood And Other Biological Fluids - Google Patents

Us3009862a - Method For Determining Glucose Levels In Blood And Other Biological Fluids - Google Patents

US3009862A - Method for determining glucose levels in blood and other biological fluids - Google Patents Method for determining glucose levels in blood and other biological fluids US3009862A US76551558A US3009862A US 3009862 A US3009862 A US 3009862A US 76551558 A US76551558 A US 76551558A US 3009862 A US3009862 A US 3009862A Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.) C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING C12QMEASURING OR TESTING PROCESSES INVOLVING ENZYMES OR MICROORGANISMS; COMPOSITIONS OR TEST PAPERS THEREFOR; PROCESSES OF PREPARING SUCH COMPOSITIONS; CONDITION RESPONSIVE CONTROL IN MICROBIOLOGICAL OR ENZYMOLOGICAL PROCESSES C12Q1/00Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes, nucleic acids or microorganisms; Compositions therefor; Processes of preparing such compositions C12Q1/54Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes, nucleic acids or microorganisms; Compositions therefor; Processes of preparing such compositions involving glucose or galactose Nov. 2l, 1961 L. A. DoBRlcK 3,009,862 METHOD FOR OETERMINING GLucOsE LEvELs IN BLOOD AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS Filed Oct. 6, 1958 (300,280) I--EXPERIn-:NTAL v (20o |20) H--STOICHIOMETRIC I l I 200 400 600 800 |000 MICROGRAMS GLUCOSE Sttes [email protected] This invention relates generally to a rapid method for determining glucose levels in blood and other biological fluids and more speciically to a rapid method for screeni

Glucose

Glucose

This SOP applies to all staff who perform clinical chemistry testing TEST PRINCIPLE/CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE The accurate measurement of glucose is important in the diagnosis and management of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. The hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase method developed by the American Association of Clinical Chemistry has been accepted as the reference method for glucose determination. It consists of a coupled chemical reaction. In the first reaction, hexokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose by ATP producing ADP and glucose-6-phosphate. In the second reaction, glucose-6-phosphate is oxidized by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase to 6-phosphogluconate with the reduction of NAD+ to NADH as shown below: The increase in NADH concentration is directly proportional to the glucose concentration and can be measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS/PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Use Standard Precautions when handling body fluids Refer to the Chemical Hygiene Plan for the proper storage and use of chemicals Serum, heparin plasma, or fluoride plasma may be used. Plasma or serum samples without preservatives should be separated from the cells or clot within a half hour of being drawn. Glucose in separated, unhemolyzed serum is stable up to four hours at 25C and up to 24 hours at 4C. REQUIRED REAGENTS/SUPPLIES/EQUIPMENT Glucose hexokinase reagent obtained from Pointe Scientific, Inc. Reconstitute reagent with 15 mL distilled water. Swirl gently to dissolve. When reconstituted as described, the reagent contains Hexokinase 1,000 IU/L, G6PDH 1,000 IU/L, ATP 1.0 mM, NAD 1.0 mM, buffer pH 7.5. The un reconstituted reagent is stored at 2-8C. Once reconstituted, the reagent is stable for 48 hours at 25C and for 30 days at 2-8C. Glucose sta Continue reading >>

Enzymatic Method For Determining Glucose And Sucrose (glucose And Sucrose Assay)

Enzymatic Method For Determining Glucose And Sucrose (glucose And Sucrose Assay)

Enzymatic Method for Determining Glucose and Sucrose (Glucose and Sucrose Assay) This assay protocol is suitable for the colorimetric/fluorometric detection of Glucose and Sucrose in cell and tissue culture supernatants, urine, plasma, serum, and other biological samples using the Glucose and Sucrose Assay Kit (MAK013) . In this assay kit, glucose is oxidized via glucose oxidase resulting in a colorimetric (570 nm)/ fluorometric (ex = 535 nm/em = 587 nm) product, proportional to the glucose present. To measure sucrose, invertase is added to the reaction to convert the sucrose to glucose and fructose. The free glucose can be subtracted from the total glucose to give the concentration of sucrose present. This kit has a linear range of detection between 0.21.0 nmole of glucose for the fluorometric assay and 210 nmoles of glucose for the colorimetric assay. Glucose Assay Buffer 25 mL Glucose Probe, in DMSO 0.2mL Glucose Enzyme Mix 1 vL Sucrose Standard, 100 nmole/L 0.1 mL Reagents and Equipment Required but Not Provided 96 well flat-bottom plate It is recommended to use black plates with clear bottoms ( Catalog Number M5686 or equivalent) for fluorescence assays and clear plates ( Catalog Number M4436 or equivalent) for colorimetric assays. Fluorescence or spectrophotometric multiwell plate reader Glucose Assay Buffer Allow buffer to come to room temperature before use. Glucose Probe Ready-to-use as supplied. Allow the probe to come to room temperature before use. Store protected from light at 20 C for use within 2 months. Glucose Enzyme Mix and Invertase Reconstitute each in 220 L of Glucose Assay Buffer. Mix well by pipetting, then aliquot each and store protected from light at 20 C. Use within 2 months of reconstitution and keep cold while in use. The kit is shipped on Continue reading >>

Enzymatic Methods Of Analysis

Enzymatic Methods Of Analysis

Enzymatic Methods of Analysis | Article about Enzymatic Methods of Analysis by The Free Dictionary the methods for the quantitative determination of chemical substances in solution based on the use of enzymes. Enzymatic methods are employed to determine the quantity of substances that are capable of taking part in chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes, as well as of substances that are activators or inhibitors of enzymes. The methods are characterized by high sensitivity and specificity since enzymes catalyze the conversion of substances with great speed and selectivity. These characteristics hold even when the compound to be analyzed is mixed with other substances similar in chemical structure. In making a determination of the substrate in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, an enzyme and the other components necessary for the raction are added to the sample. When the reaction is completed, the quantity of the reaction product in the solution is measured. For example, the determination of ethanol in a solution using the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase is carried out in the presence of the enzymes coenzyme, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). During the enzyme-catalyzed reaction,.the latter is converted quantitatively into reduced NAD, which, unlike the oxidized form, is able to absorb ultraviolet light at a wavelength of 340 nanometers. By measuring the absorption, it is possible to establish the concentration of the reduced NAD and calculate the concentration of ethanol. This method permits determinations of 1 microgram (xg) of alcohol in 1 milliliter of solution. Many enzymatic methods of analysis are based on changes in the acidity of the solution during an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. For example, the esters of carboxylic, phosphoric, and other acids can be determined Continue reading >>

A New Automated Enzymatic Method For Determination Of Blood Glucose By Coupling Of Cupric Histamine System

A New Automated Enzymatic Method For Determination Of Blood Glucose By Coupling Of Cupric Histamine System

A New Automated Enzymatic Method for Determination of Blood Glucose by Coupling of Cupric Histamine System Central Clinical Laboratory, Cunma Hospital of Medical School, Cunma National University Central Clinical Laboratory, Cunma Hospital of Medical School, Cunma National University A new automated enzymatic method for the determination of glucose In blood or plasma is presented. The procedure employs the cuprlc-histamine complex instead of peroxidase and is based on the measurement of indigo carmine discolored by hydrogen peroxide which is derived from the first enzymatic reaction between glucose and glucose oxidase. Bacause of a competition between chromogen and naturally occurring oxidizable substances, particularly uric acid, the present method employs glucose solutions containing 5mg/100ml of Uric acid as the standard solutions. Plasma glucose concentrations determined by this method do not differ statistically from those obtained by two reference methods of glucose (manual enzymatic method and automated alkaline ferricyanide method). Recovery experiments gave mean yield of 102% and intra-runprecision was about 1.4% (C. V.). Fasting blood glucose levels from 95 normal subjects aged 20-48 years were in range 63-100mg/100ml. Emphasis is given to the necessity of finding a more specific automated method other than the alkaline ferricyanide method which is still widely preference in clinical laboratories for glucose estimation. Continue reading >>

Enzymatic Determinations Of Glucose

Enzymatic Determinations Of Glucose

Author links open overlay panel Alfred H.Free Get rights and content This chapter highlights that glucose is important in the metabolism of most cellsanimal, plant, and microbeand a number of enzymes have been identified which catalyze the reactions of glucose. It discusses that enzymatic methods have a number of theoretical advantages, and therefore, it is quite logical that much attention has been devoted to the subject of enzymatic determinations of glucose. In all instances, the theoretical advantages do not necessarily apply in the defined procedures. Early qualitative and quantitative tests in which yeast was employed for either the identification or measurement of glucose might be considered to have an enzymatic basis as the desired actions were accomplished by means of the enzymatic processes in living yeast cells. This chapter describes the history and properties of glucose oxidase. It presents an account of the utilization of glucose oxidase for the measurement of glucose in urine and blood, and for other test situations that may be of interest in clinical chemistry. Continue reading >>

Effects Of Glucose And Bilirubin On The Kinetic Jaffe's And The Enzymatic Methods For Serum Creatinine Assay

Effects Of Glucose And Bilirubin On The Kinetic Jaffe's And The Enzymatic Methods For Serum Creatinine Assay

Effects Of Glucose And Bilirubin On The Kinetic Jaffe's And The Enzymatic Methods For Serum Creatinine Assay 1 Clinical Laboratory, Medical University Pleven The enzymatic method for the determination of serum creatinine is accepted as one of the most accurate methods in a clinical laboratory. This method was used on a biochemistry auto analyzer (Cobas Integra 400) to determine serum creatinine at the laboratory of University Hospital Pleven. The characteristics and reliability of this enzymatic method for creatinine were compared with the Jaffe kinetic method. Effects of some interfering substances like bilirubin and glucose on the Jaffe kinetic method and the enzymatic method were compared. Glucose and bilirubin inhibit the reaction between creatinine and alkaline picrate. Glucose slowly reduces picric acid to picrate, while the bilirubin present in a sample is oxidized to biliverdin under alkaline conditions. This leads to a decrease in absorbance at 520 nm. We measured creatinine in serum samples with the enzymatic method and the Jaffe kinetic method in samples divided into four groups: group I samples without bilirubin and glucose ; group II samples with high level of glucose; group III - samples with high level of bilirubin, group IV all samples. For Group I, the correlation coefficient obtained by comparing the enzymatic creatinine method and Jaffe's kinetic method was R = 0.983. There was a very good agreement between the two methods in terms of correlation coefficient even in the samples with high levels of glucose or bilirubin. Continue reading >>

Principles And Problems Of Blood Glucose Measurement

Principles And Problems Of Blood Glucose Measurement

Although blood glucose measurement is commonly performed, the use of a whole-blood sample introduces complications and compromise in terms of the assay principle, the method of calibration and the expression of results. Most point-of-care systems are calibrated against a method chosen by the manufacturer for reference purposes and assumptions are made, not necessarily valid ones, that blood samples from different individuals will behave similarly in both the reference and point-of-care methods. While most conventional laboratory techniques measure blood glucose as concentration in plasma or whole blood, direct-reading electrode systems measure it as molality in mmol/kg water, which is numerically greater, but results are often factorized and expressed, e.g. as plasma glucose concentration. However, there is inconsistency and the variety of techniques and principles leads to some difficulty in comparing results of blood glucose measurements by different methods. It has been proposed that some uncertainty could be eliminated by expressing all results as plasma glucose concentration, irrespective of specimen type or analytical method used. Variation in blood sampling site can also introduce errors, especially in point-of-care testing. Introduction The measurement of glucose is one of the longest established and most frequently performed tests in the clinical biochemistry laboratory. Surprisingly, despite the availability of purified reference standards, calibration of blood glucose methods can be extremely complex and, in some cases, rather approximate. This often stems from the fact that different techniques assay the glucose present in different fractions of the blood sample. They may employ different analytical principles to do this and may even express the results in a Continue reading >>

Simultaneous Determination Of Glucose, Maltose And Sucrose In Starch Of Six Varieties Of Cassava

Simultaneous Determination Of Glucose, Maltose And Sucrose In Starch Of Six Varieties Of Cassava

SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF GLUCOSE, MALTOSE AND SUCROSE IN STARCH OF SIX VARIETIES OF CASSAVA C. Carola C. Rojas1,3, Baboo Nair2, Adelina Herbas3, Bjrn Bergensthl1 1Food Technology, Lund University, P.O Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden 2Applied Nutrition, Lund University, P.O Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden 3Centro de Alimentos y Productos Naturales, Universidad Mayor de San Simn, Cochabamba, Bolivia An enzymatic method has been developed to simultaneously determine glucose, maltose and sucrose in tubers The principle of the method is based on an enzymatic cleavage of these disaccharides and specific measurement the resulting glucose using an enzymatic procedure described by Holm (3). The study comprises two parts; the first one includes modifications of the pretreatment method to minimize errors due to ethanol used to precipitate polymeric material interfering with the activity of -glucosidase and invertase. In the second part the usability of the method has been probed by employing it on six samples of cassava that come from Chapare-Bolivia. Key words: Enzymatic hydrolysis, analysis, glucose, maltose, sucrose, Cassava. sugars determination is by using enzymatic Cassava (Mannihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical root that has mainly carbohydrates in its composition such as starch, glucose, sucrose and fructose Huang (13). Lewthwaite (8) and Takata (11) have reported important changes in the composition of potato saccharides during its processing by showing variations in the sugars concentration which is an essential variable to determine the quality of the food. Reducing sugars has been identified as critical in potato for the tendency for acrylamide formation during heat processing of potato (14). To determine the sugars content in plants and food, different techniq Continue reading >>

Us20020123677a1 - Spectrophotometric Blood Glucose Determination Apparatus And Determination Method Thereof - Google Patents

Us20020123677a1 - Spectrophotometric Blood Glucose Determination Apparatus And Determination Method Thereof - Google Patents

US20020123677A1 - Spectrophotometric blood glucose determination apparatus and determination method thereof - Google Patents Spectrophotometric blood glucose determination apparatus and determination method thereof US20020123677A1 US09966531 US96653101A US20020123677A1 US 20020123677 A1 US20020123677 A1 US 20020123677A1 US 09966531 US09966531 US 09966531 US 96653101 A US96653101 A US 96653101A US 20020123677 A1 US20020123677 A1 US 20020123677A1 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.) Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.) A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons A61B5/145Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue A61B5/1455Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue using optical sensors, e.g. spectral photometrical oximeters A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons A61B5/145Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring char

Uncertainty In The Determination Of Glucose And Sucrose In Solutions With Chitosan By Enzymatic Methods

Uncertainty In The Determination Of Glucose And Sucrose In Solutions With Chitosan By Enzymatic Methods

Uncertainty in the determination of glucose and sucrose in solutions with chitosan by enzymatic methods Berta N. Estevinho; Amlia Ferraz; Lcia Santos; Fernando Rocha; Arminda Alves * Laboratrio de Engenharia de Processos, Ambiente e Energia (LEPAE), Departamento de Engenharia Qumica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal The purpose of this work was to evaluate the applicability of two enzymatic methods to quantify glucose and sucrose in aqueous solutions with chitosan. The analytical methods were validated and the main parameters, as limit of detection, linearity range, precision and accuracy were determined. The global uncertainty for glucose enzymatic method was less than 10% for concentration levels between 700 and 2000 mg L-1, and for the sucrose enzymatic method, the global uncertainty showed values less than 3% for all concentration levels analyzed (100-1000 mg L-1). Despite the similarities of performances with respect to other analytical methods, the enzymatic method proved to be better than others, in particular high performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC), mainly if a great number of samples needs to be analyzed, allowing a quick result, and because the mucoadhesive properties of chitosan make difficult the HPLC analytical methodology, creating stability problems in the chromatographic column. Keywords: uncertainty, enzymatic methods, glucose, sucrose, chitosan O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a aplicabilidade de dois mtodos enzimticos um para a quantificao da glucose e outro da sacarose em solues aquosas contendo quitosano. Os mtodos analticos foram validados e os principais parmetros determinados como limite de deteco, intervalo de linearidade, preciso e exatido. A incerteza global d Continue reading >>

An Enzymatic Method For Glucose Determination In Body Fluids.

An Enzymatic Method For Glucose Determination In Body Fluids.

An enzymatic method for glucose determination in body fluids. Author Affiliation : Biochem. Lab., Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., New York 10. Journal article : Clinical Chemistry 1958 Vol.4 pp.462-475 Abstract : Glucose was estimated colorimetrically in urineurineSubject Category: Miscellaneous see more details and protein-free blood by a method using glucose oxidaseglucose oxidaseSubject Category: Chemicals and Chemical Groups see more details , peroxidaseperoxidaseSubject Category: Chemicals and Chemical Groups see more details and o-tolidine; 50 mg. charcoal and 1.5 g. Lloyd's reagent were used to remove interfering uric aciduric acidSubject Category: Chemicals and Chemical Groups Descriptor(s) : body fluidsbody fluidsSubject Category: Anatomical and Morphological Structures see more details , glucose oxidaseglucose oxidaseSubject Category: Chemicals and Chemical Groups see more details , techniquestechniquesSubject Category: Techniques, Methodologies and Equipment see more details , uric aciduric acidSubject Category: Chemicals and Chemical Groups You are not logged in. Please sign in to access your subscribed products. If you do not have a subscription you can buy Instant Access to search CAB Direct from only 20/24/$32 Copyright 2018 CAB International. CABI is a registered EU trademark. If you want to include your highlights and annotations you must: select Citation + Abstract OR Full Record If you want to include your highlights and annotations you must: select Citation + Abstract OR Full Record Clicking "RefWorks" will open RefWorks in your existing RefWorks tab, or a new tab if RefWorks is not open already. You may need to allow this popup in your browser. Export upto 10,000 records per session in batches of 1000 max. at one time. (Up to 1000 records (max) at Continue reading >>

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