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Effects Of Diabetes

Long-term Effect Of Diabetes And Its Treatment On Cognitive Function

Long-term Effect Of Diabetes And Its Treatment On Cognitive Function

Long-standing concern about the effects of type 1 diabetes on cognitive ability has increased with the use of therapies designed to bring glucose levels close to the nondiabetic range and the attendant increased risk of severe hypoglycemia. A total of 1144 patients with type 1 diabetes enrolled in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and its follow-up Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study were examined on entry to the DCCT (at mean age 27 years) and a mean of 18 years later with the same comprehensive battery of cognitive tests. Glycated hemoglobin levels were measured and the frequency of severe hypoglycemic events leading to coma or seizures was recorded during the follow-up period. We assessed the effects of original DCCT treatment-group assignment, mean glycated hemoglobin values, and frequency of hypoglycemic events on measures of cognitive ability, with adjustment for age at baseline, sex, years of education, length of follow-up, visual acuity, self-reported sensory loss due to peripheral neuropathy, and (to control for the effects of practice) the number of cognitive tests taken in the interval since the start of the DCCT. Forty percent of the cohort reported having had at least one hypoglycemic coma or seizure. Neither frequency of severe hypoglycemia nor previous treatment-group assignment was associated with decline in any cognitive domain. Higher glycated hemoglobin values were associated with moderate declines in motor speed (P=0.001) and psychomotor efficiency (P<0.001), but no other cognitive domain was affected. No evidence of substantial long-term declines in cognitive function was found in a large group of patients with type 1 diabetes who were carefully followed for an average of 18 years, despite relative Continue reading >>

The Effects Of Diabetes On The Risks Of Major Cardiovascular Diseases And Death In The Asia-pacific Region.

The Effects Of Diabetes On The Risks Of Major Cardiovascular Diseases And Death In The Asia-pacific Region.

Abstract OBJECTIVE: To provide reliable age- and region-specific estimates of the associations between diabetes and major cardiovascular diseases and death in populations from the Asia-Pacific region. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-four cohort studies from Asia, Australia, and New Zealand (median follow-up, 5.4 years) provided individual participant data from 161,214 people (58% from Asia) of whom 4,873 had a history of diabetes at baseline. The associations of diabetes with the risks of coronary heart disease, stroke, and cause-specific mortality during follow-up were estimated using time-dependent Cox models, stratified by study cohort and sex and adjusted for age at risk. RESULTS: In all, 9,277 deaths occurred (3,635 from cardiovascular disease). The hazard ratio (95% CI) associated with diabetes was 1.97 (1.72-2.25) for fatal cardiovascular disease; there were similar hazard ratios for fatal coronary heart disease, fatal stroke, and composites of fatal and nonfatal outcomes. For all cardiovascular outcomes, hazard ratios were similar in Asian and non-Asian populations and in men and women, but were greater in younger than older individuals. For noncardiovascular death, the hazard ratio was 1.56 (1.38-1.77), with separately significant increases in the risks of death from renal disease, cancer, respiratory infections, and other infective causes. The hazard ratio for all-causes mortality was 1.68 (1.55-1.84), with similar ratios in Asian and non-Asian populations, but with significantly higher ratios in younger than older individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The relative effect of diabetes on the risks of cardiovascular disease and death in Asian populations is much the same as that in the largely Caucasian populations of Australia and New Zealand. Hazard ratios were severa Continue reading >>

How Type 2 Diabetes Can Damage Your Body

How Type 2 Diabetes Can Damage Your Body

Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure in the U.S.(ISTOKEPHOTO) Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes by farmaking up more than 90% of the 24 million cases in the U.S. Experts use words like "epidemic" and "worldwide crisis" when they talk about it: Millions of people have it and a staggering number are expected to get it (300 million worldwide by 2025, according to one study). Diabetes doesn't get the attention of, say, cancer or scary viruses. One reason might be because type 2 diabetes is so incredibly commonabout 20% of people over age 60 get it. A large chunk of the population just seems to have the genetic programming to develop the disease with age. Type 2 diabetes is showing up in young people However, diabetes is also on the rise because our modern lifestylelots of food and little exercisespeeds up the process. So people who might have developed this "old-age disease" in their 60s and 70s are now developing the disease much earlier due to obesity and lack of exercise; sometimes in their teens or in childhood. Anyone can get diabetes. But some people are at much higher risk, particularly those who are obese. (Are you overweight? Use this body mass index calculator to find out.) One in three children born in the U.S. in 2000 will develop diabetes at some point in their life (including more than half of Hispanic females), according to a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study published in 2003. But not all is gloom and doom. If you have diabetes, you have a lot more control over the disease now than just about any other point in history. And if you have prediabetes, you have a good chance of preventing or delaying the disease by making lifestyle changes or taking medication. What happens in the body when you have type 2 diabetes Wit Continue reading >>

How To Manage The Emotional Toll Of Type 2 Diabetes

How To Manage The Emotional Toll Of Type 2 Diabetes

Many people living with diabetes — including those who are managing it with great success — report that one of the toughest parts is that diabetes never takes a day off. And that means you can’t either. Living with type 2 diabetes every day can make you feel discouraged, angry, sad, stressed, or even depressed. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), studies show that people with diabetes have a greater risk of depression than people without diabetes. Depression is a serious and painful condition that can affect those you love as well as yourself. In addition, depression can interfere with effective diabetes self-care. Common Emotional Side Effects Don’t want to talk about your diagnosis Sleep disturbances No longer taking care of yourself Feel like diabetes is running your life Losing interest in activities and hobbies Withdrawal from family and friends Sudden weight loss or gain Trouble concentrating Tired all the time Thinking about dying or ways to hurt yourself If you have three or more of these symptoms, or if you have just one or two but have been feeling bad for two weeks or more, it's time to get help. Check in with your care team or ask your local office of the ADA about counselors who have worked with people with diabetes. Don’t give up on yourself — and don’t give up on your diabetes-care team. When the going gets rough, turn to trusted people in your life, such as your spouse, loved ones, and friends. Find a diabetes support group — (your certified diabetes educator (CDE) can help with this) — and find out how other people are handling these feelings. Remember, you are not alone. You can control your diabetes rather than letting it control you. Continue reading >>

And Diabetes

And Diabetes

Diabetes is a common, life-long condition that occurs when the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin, or the insulin it does produce doesn’t work properly. Insulin is a hormone that transfers glucose from the bloodstream into the cells to be used for energy. If you have diabetes, your body cannot make proper use of this glucose so it builds up in the blood instead of moving into your cells. The chances of developing diabetes may depend on a mix of your genes and your lifestyle. Drinking to excess, for example, can contribute to individuals becoming diabetic. Diabetes is a manageable condition. But when it’s not well managed, it is associated with serious health complications including heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, nerve damage and amputations2. There are two main types of diabetes3 Type 1 diabetes develops if the body can’t produce enough insulin, because insulin-producing cells in the pancreas have been destroyed. It can happen: Because of genetic factors When a virus or infection triggers an autoimmune response (where the body starts attacking itself). People who have this type of diabetes are usually diagnosed before they’re 40 and there’s currently no way to prevent it. It’s the least common type of diabetes – only 10% of all cases are type 14. Type 2 diabetes. Develops when the body can still make some insulin, but not enough, or when the body becomes resistant to insulin. It can happen: When people are overweight and inactive. People who are an ‘apple-shape’ (with lots of fat around the abdomen) have a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes Because of genetic factors. People who have this type of diabetes are usually diagnosed when they’re over 40, and it’s more common in men. However, more overweight children and Continue reading >>

The Effects Of Diabetes On Male Fertility And Epigenetic Regulation During Spermatogenesis.

The Effects Of Diabetes On Male Fertility And Epigenetic Regulation During Spermatogenesis.

Abstract The effects of diabetes mellitus include long-term damages, dysfunctions, and failures of various organs. An important complication of diabetes is the disturbance in the male reproductive system. Glucose metabolism is an important event in spermatogenesis. Moreover, glucose metabolism is also important for maintaining basic cell activity, as well as specific functions, such as motility and fertilization ability in mature sperm. Diabetic disease and experimentally induced diabetes both demonstrated that either type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes could have detrimental effects on male fertility, especially on sperm quality, such as sperm motility, sperm DNA integrity, and ingredients of seminal plasma. Epigenetic modifications are essential during spermatogenesis. The epigenetic regulation represents chromatin modifications including DNA methylation, histone modifications, remodeling of nucleosomes and the higher-order chromatin reorganization and noncoding RNAs. If spermatogenesis is affected during the critical developmental window, embryonic gonadal development, and germline differentiation, environmentally-induced epigenetic modifications may become permanent in the germ line epigenome and have a potential impact on subsequent generations through epigenetic transgenerational inheritance. Diabetes may influence the epigenetic modification during sperm spermatogenesis and that these epigenetic dysregulation may be inherited through the male germ line and passed onto more than one generation, which in turn may increase the risk of diabetes in offspring. Continue reading >>

The Impact Of Diabetes On Employment And Work Productivity

The Impact Of Diabetes On Employment And Work Productivity

Abstract OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine the effect of diabetes on labor market outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Using secondary data from the first two waves (1992 and 1994) of the Health and Retirement Study, we identified 7,055 employed respondents (51–61 years of age), 490 of whom reported having diabetes in wave 1. We estimated the effect of diabetes in wave 1 on the probability of working in wave 2 using probit regression. For those working in wave 2, we modeled the relationships between diabetic status in wave 1 and the change in hours worked and work-loss days using ordinary least-squares regressions and modeled the presence of health-related work limitations using probit regression. All models control for health status and job characteristics and are estimated separately by sex. RESULTS—Among individuals with diabetes, the absolute probability of working was 4.4 percentage points less for women and 7.1 percentage points less for men relative to that of their counterparts without diabetes. Change in weekly hours worked was not statistically significantly associated with diabetes. Women with diabetes had 2 more work-loss days per year compared with women without diabetes. Compared with individuals without diabetes, men and women with diabetes were 5.4 and 6 percentage points (absolute increase), respectively, more likely to have work limitations. CONCLUSIONS—This article provides evidence that diabetes affects patients, employers, and society not only by reducing employment but also by contributing to work loss and health-related work limitations for those who remain employed. The medical care costs associated with diabetes create a considerable economic burden for patients, families, and society (1,2). Productivit Continue reading >>

The Effects Of Diabetes On Relationships

The Effects Of Diabetes On Relationships

Will you leave your SO (significant other) because of diabetes? Committed relationships are hard enough. When you add a chronic illness into the mix of everyday problems, it can place undue stress on a relationship. Do you leave your spouse or partner with diabetes when the going gets tough, or do you stick it out and work together to solve problems that come up, “in sickness and in health?” These are questions you may be asking yourself if you have been going through a tough time in your relationship or marriage due to diabetes. If your partner is in a state of denial and they are refusing to participate in self-care activities or listen to their doctor, this can be quite frustrating. You may be getting burnt out from always trying to fix the right amount of carbohydrates, only to catch your other half in the back room hiding with a box of candy. Feeling like you are the “diabetes police” and always nagging drains the joy out of your relationship. The spouse of a diabetic can feel a loss of control over the future, and be afraid that they will lose their life partner. Conversely, if you are the diabetic in the match, you tend to get quite aggravated with all of the nagging and “sugar-shaming” that can be going on. Maybe your partner didn’t support you by attending diabetes education classes, and now she doesn’t seem to know that it’s ok for you to have an occasional treat. Maybe she doesn’t realize that you are having the extra carbohydrates, but you have a walk planned for after the meal. Sometimes you feel misunderstood. It’s true that diabetes can take a physical, mental and financial toll on a relationship. Remember that your overbearing and controlling partner is acting from a place of genuine caring and concern for you. Now let’s look at t Continue reading >>

The Impact Of Diabetes On Workforce Participation: Results From A National Household Sample

The Impact Of Diabetes On Workforce Participation: Results From A National Household Sample

Go to: Background Diabetes has staggering health and economic effects. There are an estimated 16–17 million people with diabetes in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2002) and, given the aging of the population, changes in ethnic makeup, and the dramatic increase in obesity and sedentary lifestyles in the United States, the prevalence of diabetes is increasing at an epidemic rate (Boyle et al. 2001). In 1997, a cross-sectional analysis found that the direct medical cost of diabetes care was more than $44 billion (American Diabetes Association 1998). However, the effects of lost productivity have been felt to be even more substantial (American Diabetes Association 1998). The indirect costs of diabetes are largely related to the disability resulting from complications of the disease, rather than to the disease itself. Microvascular diabetes complications, such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, are the leading causes of blindness, end-stage renal disease, and nontraumatic amputation, respectively, in the United States (National Institutes of Health 1995). Even more important is macrovascular disease (including coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease). Patients with diabetes have two to four times the risk of macrovascular disease and mortality compared to age and sex-matched controls; as a result, more than 70 percent of patients with diabetes die from these complications (Abbott et al. 1987; deGrauw et al. 1995; deMarco R et al. 1999; Donahue and Orchard 1992; Hadden et al. 1997). Although the numbers of disabling diabetes complications are staggering, many are preventable, and appropriate therapy could lead to substantial reductions in complications and associated disability. However, the true economic imp Continue reading >>

Impact Of Diabetes On Cardiovascular Disease: An Update

Impact Of Diabetes On Cardiovascular Disease: An Update

Copyright © 2013 Alessandra Saldanha de Mattos Matheus et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The proposed mechanisms that can link accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk in this population are poorly understood. It has been suggested that an association between hyperglycemia and intracellular metabolic changes can result in oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Recently, epigenetic factors by different types of reactions are known to be responsible for the interaction between genes and environment and for this reason can also account for the association between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The impact of clinical factors that may coexist with diabetes such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence that justify screening for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients is controversial and is also matter of this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the association between poor glycemic control, oxidative stress, markers of insulin resistance, and of low-grade inflammation that have been suggested as putative factors linking diabetes and cardiovascular disease. 1. Introduction Diabetes is an important chronic disease which incidence is globally increasing and though considered as an epidemic [1]. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated there were 30 million people who had diabetes worldwide in 1985. This number increased to 135 Continue reading >>

Effects Of Diabetes And Level Of Glycemia On All-cause And Cardiovascular Mortality. The San Antonio Heart Study.

Effects Of Diabetes And Level Of Glycemia On All-cause And Cardiovascular Mortality. The San Antonio Heart Study.

Abstract OBJECTIVE: Although the level of hyperglycemia is clearly a risk factor for microvascular complications in diabetic patients, its role in macrovascular complications remains controversial. We followed 4,875 subjects (65% Mexican-American) for 7-8 years to investigate the effects of diabetes and hyperglycemia on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. These end points were also analyzed according to quartiles of baseline fasting plasma glucose among diabetic participants. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) for all-cause and CVD mortality. RESULTS: Diabetes was significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (RR [95% CI] = 2.1 [1.3-3.5] in men; 3.2 [1.9-5.4] in women) and increased CVD mortality (3.2 [1.4-7.1] in men; 8.5 [2.8-25.2] in women). Among diabetic subjects, those in quartile 4 had a 4.2-fold greater risk of all-cause mortality (P < 0.001) and a 4.7-fold greater risk of CVD mortality (P = 0.01) than those in quartiles 1 and 2 combined. After further adjustment for other potential risk factors, subjects in quartile 4 had a 4.9-fold greater risk of all-cause mortality and a 4.9-fold greater risk of CVD mortality than those in quartiles 1 and 2. In addition, hypertension, current smoking, and cholesterol > 6.2 mmol/l were significant predictors of CVD mortality using Cox models. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that diabetes is a predictor of both all-cause and CVD mortality in the general population and that both hyperglycemia and common CVD risk factors are important predictors of all-cause and CVD mortality in diabetic subjects. Continue reading >>

Diabetes - Long-term Effects

Diabetes - Long-term Effects

On this page: Diabetes is a condition in which there is too much glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Over time, high blood glucose levels can damage the body's organs. Possible complications include damage to large (macrovascular) and small (microvascular) blood vessels, which can lead to heart attack, stroke, and problems with the kidneys, eyes, gums, feet and nerves. Reducing risk of diabetes complications The good news is that the risk of most diabetes-related complications can be reduced by keeping blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol levels within recommended range. Also, being a healthy weight, eating healthily, reducing alcohol intake, and not smoking will help reduce your risk. Regular check-ups and screening are important to pick up any problems early Diabetes and healthy eating If you have diabetes it’s important to include a wide variety of nutritious and healthy foods in your diet, and to avoid snacking on sugary foods. Eating healthy foods can help control your blood glucose and cholesterol levels, and your blood pressure. Enjoy a variety of foods from each food group – be sure to include foods high in fibre and low in fat, and reduce your salt intake. It’s helpful to consult with a dietitian to review your current eating plan and provide a guide about food choices and food quantities. Alcohol intake and diabetes Limit alcohol intake. If you drink alcohol, have no more than two standard drinks per day. If you are pregnant or considering pregnancy or are breastfeeding, then zero alcohol intake is recommended. Diabetes and healthy weight If you are overweight, even losing a small amount of weight, especially round the abdomen, helps lower your blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol levels. It can be daunting trying to lose weight, so Continue reading >>

Impact Of Diabetes On You And Your Family

Impact Of Diabetes On You And Your Family

If you're diabetic I don't have to tell you that this disease consumes you on a daily and even an hourly basis. As depicted in the following diagram, diabetes impacts you and your family in at least 6 ways: Physically Financially Emotionally Family Work Day-to-Day Life Hopefully, one of these areas of impact will motivate you to begin making the necessary changes to stop the disease from destroying your life and the lives of your loved ones. Unfortunately, some diabetics believe that nothing can be done to stop the progression of diabetes leading to blindness, amputation, kidney failure, heart attack, stroke, gum disease, high blood pressure, or some of the other complications of having diabetes. This is called giving up (lack of hope) due to the lack of knowledge. Other diabetics believe that they will not face blindness, amputation, kidney failure, heart attack, stroke, gum disease, high blood pressure, or some of the other complications of having diabetes. This is called denial. Ironically, both of these scenarios eventually lead to blindness, amputation, kidney failure, heart attack, stroke, gum disease, high blood pressure, or some of the other complications of having diabetes. However, the first scenario can be addressed by providing the proper knowledge. The second scenario may require some one-on-one health coaching from the author, who understands what you're going through. However, if you don't do anything, within 7-10 years, most diabetics begin to feel some discomfort, e.g. pain/numbness in the foot, eyesight problems, fatigue issues, weight gain, memory fog, etc. In the meantime, the number of medications have continued to increase. Then, one day, most diabetics find out from their doctor that they have to go on insulin, or that their kidneys are failing or Continue reading >>

Diabetic Skin Care

Diabetic Skin Care

Since diabetes is a disease that has to do with the level of glucose in your blood, you might be wondering how that can affect your skin. Your skin's health is actually related in two ways to the amount of glucose you have in your blood. First, when you have high levels of blood sugar -- or too much glucose in your bloodstream -- your body tries to remove the excess by excreting it in your urine. It takes water to make urine, which leads to a loss of moisture in your body. With this loss of fluid comes a loss of moisture in your skin, leaving it dry and easily prone to cracking. Cracks in your skin invite infection because they make it easier for germs to get in. This is where the second effect of having high blood sugar comes in. Glucose in your bloodstream provides an environment for bacteria to multiply [source: Cleveland Clinic]. An increased number of pathogens can cause infections, or worsen them if they already exist. This can be especially problematic for areas of your skin that don't always have exposure to air, such as your feet. In addition to water loss, high blood sugar also causes a reduced blood supply to the skin, which can result in a number of different disorders. For example, diabetic neuropathy, or nerve damage, is a common condition associated with diabetes, and it can contribute to skin problems by making it difficult to feel pain and notice infections, especially in places such as your feet [source: Cleveland Clinic]. Nerve damage can also cause you to sweat less, meaning more dry skin. However, if you have diabetes, dryness may be the least of your skin care worries. Continue to the next page to find out about some of the other skin conditions that go along with diabetes. Many of the skin conditions associated with diabetes can affect anyone, but Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Its Types, Causes And Effect

Diabetes: Its Types, Causes And Effect

With diabetes – both type 1 and type 2 – on the rise across Australia, it's worth being familiar with its causes, effects and what you need to know to prevent it. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a chronic condition that can affect the entire body. When diabetics eat glucose, which is in foods such as breads, cereals, fruit and starchy vegetables, legumes, milk, yoghurt and sweets, it can’t be converted into energy as it would be in a non-diabetic. Instead of being turned into energy the glucose stays in the blood, which is why blood glucose levels (or glycemia) are higher in people with diabetes. [1] If blood sugar is consistently high, over time it can affect the heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves and other parts of the body. Sometimes people with diabetes aren’t aware that they have the disease until they begin to have other health problems. But the good news is that the risk of complications can be decreased through good management of the disease and by controlling blood glucose (sugar). [2] Currently, an estimated 280 Australians develop diabetes every single day. The 2005 AusDiab Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study showed that 1.7 million Australians have diabetes, but that up to half of the cases of type 2 diabetes remain undiagnosed.[3] Diabetes has become so common that it has now reached epidemic proportions in Australia and around the world. Staggeringly, it’s estimated that by 2031, up to 3.3 million Australians will have type 2 diabetes.[4] This is likely driven by rising obesity, the ageing population, dietary changes and sedentary lifestyles. The rising incidence of type 1 diabetes is also contributing to the growth of diabetes in Australia, and the prevalence of type 1 diabetes was actually predicted to increase by 10 percent between 2008 a Continue reading >>

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