The Fat Of The Matter: How Dietary Fat Effects Blood Glucose
Pizza. A hot fudge sundae. Movie theater popcorn. Cheesesteaks wit (hey, I’m a Philly guy). What do they all have in common? More than being mighty tasty, they’re also loaded with fat. Fat doesn’t usually receive a whole lot of attention from those on intensive insulin programs; carbs seem to get all the glory. And deservedly so: Carbs cause a rapid rise in blood glucose, while fat seems to have little effect. Or does it? You may have noticed that your blood glucose level rises overnight after a restaurant meal. Or perhaps it climbs excessively in the evening after having a big piece of birthday cake during the day. The culprit is most likely the fat content of these types of meals and snacks, not the carbohydrates. It has long been known that adding fat to a meal will slow down the digestion/absorption of carbohydrates. This is due to a slowdown in gastric emptying – the rate at which food passes from the stomach into the intestines, where the nutrients (such as glucose) are absorbed into the bloodstream. This is why the carbohydrates in high-fat meals tend to take longer to raise the blood glucose level. But the difference is generally an hour or two: Whereas a low-fat meal will raise the blood glucose level quickly (usually within an hour), a high-fat meal may take two to four hours to produce a blood sugar peak. So what about after the carbohydrates are finished doing their thing? That’s when the fat itself begins to exert its effects. The process goes something like this: You eat a high-fat meal or snack (this is the fun part). In a few hours, the fat begins to digest; this continues for several hours. The level of fat in the bloodstream (triglycerides) rises. High triglycerides in the bloodstream cause the liver to become resistant to insulin. When the l Continue reading >>
The Basic Food Groups: The Insulin/fat Connection
The Insulin/Fat Connection The primary source of body fat for most Americans is not dietary fat but carbohydrate, which is converted to blood sugar and then, with the aid of insulin, to fat by fat cells. Remember, insulin is our main fatbuilding hormone. Eat a plate of pasta. Your blood sugar will rise and your insulin level (if you have type 2 diabetes or are not diabetic) will also rise in order to cover, or prevent, the jump in blood sugar. All the blood sugar that is not burned as energy or stored as glycogen is turned into fat. So you could, in theory, acquire more body fat from eating a high-carbohydrate “fat-free” dessert than you would from eating a tender steak nicely marbled with fat. Even the fat in the steak is more likely to be stored if it is accompanied by bread, potatoes, corn, and so on. The fatty-acid building blocks of fats can be metabolized (burned), stored, or converted by your body into other compounds, depending on what it requires. Consequently, fat is always in flux in the body, being stored, appearing in the blood, and being converted to energy. The amount of triglycerides (the storage form of fat) in your bloodstream at any given time will be determined by your heredity, your level of exercise, your blood sugar levels, your diet, your ratio of visceral (abdominal) fat to lean body mass (muscle), and especially by your recent consumption of carbohydrate. The slim and fit tend to be very sensitive (i.e., responsive) to insulin and have low serum levels not only of triglycerides but insulin as well. But even their triglyceride levels will increase after a high-carbohydrate meal, as excess blood sugar is converted to fat. The higher the ratio of abdominal fat (and, to a lesser degree, total body fat) to lean body mass, the less sensitive to i Continue reading >>
Fat Vs Sugar In The War On Insulin Resistance
Fat vs Sugar in the war on insulin resistance Insulin resistance and the incidence of type 2 diabetes are on the rise. Dietary choices are implicated in increasing risk, but sometimes it is hard to know where to look when seeking advice on what to eat! But is it fat or sugar we should be more concerned about? Or both?It seems the answer to that question is a little complex. First, lets look at the action of insulin. Insulin impacts the synthesis and storage of glucose, fat and amino acids. It is primarily recognised for its regulation of blood glucose levels, and maintains balance of levels of sugar in the blood by: moving glucose from the blood into muscle cells or adipose (fat) tissue, and; inhibiting the formation of glucose from non-carbs, i.e. fats and proteins (a process called gluconeogenesis that takes place in the liver when blood glucose runs low).1 It then gathers excess glucose in the blood and stores it as fat. It also acts as an appetite regulator, and whilst its role is not well defined, once insulin acts to deposits fat into fat cells, leptin the hunger suppressant hormone is stimulated to release.1 In insulin resistance, it has been observed that glucose and free fatty acids are persistently high in the blood, likely due to resistant cells not heeding to insulins call, meaning less glucose uptake by muscle cells, and adipose cells no longer inhibiting free fatty acid release.1 This then results in higher levels of insulin being produced, and chronically high insulin is known as hyperinsulinemia. Liver and kidney cells do not become resistant to insulin-like the muscle and fat cells, and instead are hyper-stimulated to produce triglycerides and retain sodium respectively. This results in high levels of TGL in the blood, and high blood pressure.1Neither Continue reading >>
Sugar Vs Fat
Tweet Sugar and fat are two of the most widely talked about dietary topics, with one of the most commonly asked questions by people with (and without) diabetes being 'how much sugar or fat can I have in my diet?' Sugar Limiting the amount of sugar we take in should be a priority for all people, not just individuals with diabetes. Sucrose (table sugar) is a major part of some of our favourite daytime snacks like cakes and biscuits, but what many people fail to remember is that sugar is also present in a wide range of other foods. These include: Cereals Fruit drinks and smoothies Fruit yoghurts Ready meals Soups Aside from energy (calories), sugar provides no nutrition which is why it is often referred to as 'empty calories'. It also increases blood glucose levels quickly, which is one of the reasons why people with diabetes are advised to limit their daily intake of sugar (the NHS recommends consuming less than 70g a day of sugar for men and under 50g of sugar a day for women). In fact, limiting sugar intake is a good way to start getting your blood glucose levels under control. Cutting back on the amount of processed foods you eat is also recommended as the majority contain added sugars and in the UK, manufacturers are currently not required to state how much sugar has been added in processing. But saying no to sugary foods in an effort to restrict your sugar intake can be difficult, especially if those around you (friends, work colleagues, relatives, etc) often indulge in sweet food and drink. Sugary snacks such as energy drinks (lucozade) and glucose tablets are used to prevent or treat hypoglycemia, so don't worry about taking these if you are at risk of hypos. Fat For decades, fat has been labelled the 'bad guy' in diet and nutrition. However in recent years, a numb Continue reading >>
Fat Is The Cause Of Type 2 Diabetes
ron: I’m glad you asked this question, because it gets at a common issue that many people share. Due to science education in schools and the way media reports on scientific news, the general public is under the impression that each new study sort of wipes out any study that came before. Say that yesterday there was a study or article in favor of say butter, then you would see those headlines and think that the latest and greatest WORD from science is that butter is healthy. And then tomorrow, when another study comes out showing that butter is indeed unhealthy, there is another headline and people think that the latest “word” is that butter is now unhealthy. Another problem is that because people think the latest study is the latest word and since studies are not all going to agree, people think that the science keeps flip flopping and get frustrated with that. The media makes this worse by only reporting studies that they can make appear to be a “flip flop” as the media makes money off of eye catching headlines. . But that’s not how science actually works. When done in good faith, science is about hitting a subject from a whole bunch of different angles and attempting to replicate results multiple times. Understanding that life is messy and it’s extremely difficult (impossible?) to create perfect studies for subjects as complex as nutrition on long term health, we *expect* that not all the studies will agree with each other. However, over time, if we do our job, we can also expect that the *body of scientific evidence* will paint a fairly clear picture. I say all the time, “It’s not about any one study. It’s about the body of evidence.” . Did you know that there are over 100 studies showing that smoking is either neutral or health-promoting? But t Continue reading >>
How Does Eating Affect Your Blood Sugar?
Part 1 of 8 What is blood sugar? Blood sugar, also known as blood glucose, comes from the food you eat. Your body creates blood sugar by digesting some food into a sugar that circulates in your bloodstream. Blood sugar is used for energy. The sugar that isn’t needed to fuel your body right away gets stored in cells for later use. Too much sugar in your blood can be harmful. Type 2 diabetes is a disease that is characterized by having higher levels of blood sugar than what is considered within normal limits. Unmanaged diabetes can lead to problems with your heart, kidneys, eyes, and blood vessels. The more you know about how eating affects blood sugar, the better you can protect yourself against diabetes. If you already have diabetes, it’s important to know how eating affects blood sugar. Part 2 of 8 Your body breaks down everything you eat and absorbs the food in its different parts. These parts include: carbohydrates proteins fats vitamins and other nutrients The carbohydrates you consume turn into blood sugar. The more carbohydrates you eat, the higher the levels of sugar you will have released as you digest and absorb your food. Carbohydrates in liquid form consumed by themselves are absorbed more quickly than those in solid food. So having a soda will cause a faster rise in your blood sugar levels than eating a slice of pizza. Fiber is one component of carbohydrates that isn’t converted into sugar. This is because it can’t be digested. Fiber is important for health, though. Protein, fat, water, vitamins, and minerals don’t contain carbohydrates. These components won’t affect your blood sugar levels. If you have diabetes, your carbohydrate intake is the most important part of your diet to consider when it comes to managing your blood sugar levels. Part 3 Continue reading >>
Dietary Fat And Blood Glucose
When most people with diabetes think about the effects that different foods have on their blood glucose levels, one particular component of foods usually comes to mind: carbohydrates. And rightfully so, since out of the three major macronutrients in the human diet — carbohydrates, proteins, and fats — carbohydrates have the greatest effect on blood glucose levels. But as a recent study makes clear, fats can also have a significant effect on blood glucose levels — both positive and negative. As many people with diabetes have experienced firsthand, eating fats in combination with carbohydrates can affect how quickly the carbohydrates are absorbed in the digestive tract, potentially leading to a slower, more sustained rise in blood glucose levels. But this study looked at a different, often overlooked aspect of dietary fat: what type it is — saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated — as well as the effect of substituting fat for carbohydrate. Published last month in the journal PLOS Medicine, the study examined 102 different clinical trials in which participants followed different diets and had their blood glucose, insulin, and HbA1c (a measure of long-term blood glucose control) levels recorded. A total of 4,220 adults — some of whom had diabetes — and 239 different diet groups were included in the study. Within each of the clinical trials, participants in each diet group consumed the same number of calories, regardless of the other aspects of their diet. As noted in a HealthDay article on the study, the researchers found that some fats raised blood glucose levels less than others — and that substituting some fats for carbohydrates could also lead to better blood glucose control. When participants switched out 5% of the calories in their diet from ca Continue reading >>
[effect Of Dietary Fat On Blood Sugar Levels And Insulin Consumption After Intake Of Various Carbohydrate Carriers In Type I Diabetics On The Artificial Pancreas].
Abstract The role of fat on carbohydrate absorption was investigated in 14 type-I-diabetics who were connected to a glucose-monitored insulin infusion pump (Biostator, Miles). The patients received test meals in the form of potatoes, rice and apples with equal carbohydrate content, in each case with and without added fat. Comparison of carbohydrate carriers showed an increase of blood sugar and insulin consumption which was biggest after the potato meal and significantly lower after rice and apple ingestion. This is probably related to the different biologic availability of carbohydrate carriers. Addition of fat caused lowering of blood sugar and insulin consumption in the potato meal; in this case nutritional fat is likely to have slowed gastrointestinal passage. There were no major differences among rice and apple. It can be concluded that addition of fat delays absorption of rapidly split carbohydrates more than absorption of slowly split carbohydrates such as rice. The lack of influence of fat on postprandial blood sugar and insulin consumption after an apple meal is related to the slight increase of blood sugar caused by the high content of fructose. Continue reading >>
How Does Fat Affect Insulin Resistance And Diabetes?
According to the Centers for Disease Control, 29 million people in America have diabetes and 86 million have prediabetes. Insulin resistance is recognized as a predictor of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and obesity. But what causes insulin resistance? In this NutritionFacts.org video, Dr. Michael Greger talks about how fat affects insulin resistance, and about how the most effective way to reduce insulin sensitivity is to reduce fat intake. We’ve also provided a summary of Dr. Greger’s main points below. Insulin Resistance of People on High-Fat Diets vs. High-Carb Diets In studies performed as early as the 1930s, scientists have noted a connection between diet and insulin intolerance. In one study, healthy young men were split into two groups. Half of the participants were put on a fat-rich diet, and the other half were put on a carb-rich diet. The high-fat group ate olive oil, butter, mayonnaise, and cream. The high-carb group ate pastries, sugar, candy, bread, baked potatoes, syrup, rice, and oatmeal. Within two days, tests showed that the glucose intolerance had skyrocketed in the group eating the high-fat diet. This group had twice the blood sugar levels than the high-carb group. The test results showed that the higher the fat content of the diet, the higher the blood sugar levels would be. What Is Insulin Resistance? It turns out that as the amount of fat in the diet goes up, so does one’s blood sugar spikes. Athletes frequently carb-load before a race because they’re trying to build up fuel in their muscles. We break down starch into glucose in our digestive tract; it circulates as blood glucose (blood sugar); and it is then used by our muscle cells as fuel. Blood sugar, though, is like a vampire. It needs an invitation to enter our cells. And that invit Continue reading >>
The Impact Of Fat And Protein On Blood Glucose Levels
The Impact of Fat and Protein on Blood Glucose Levels People with diabetes have traditionally been taught to bolus only for foods containing carbohydrates, given that it has the greatest impact on blood glucose levels. However increasingly, people with lived experience are beginning to suggest otherwise, and research is finally beginning to catch up. I recently had the opportunity to hear from a researcher at the University of Sydney in Australia, who has played a key role in studies looking into the effects of fat and protein on blood glucose levels. Here are some of my observations from this presentation. Effects of Fat and Protein on Blood Glucose Levels The effects of slowly digested fats and proteins on blood glucose are minimal in people without diabetes who produce sufficient insulin. In people with diabetes, however, the effects of fat and protein are far more significant due to the absence of enough insulin. In addition to converting glucose in the bloodstream from carbohydrates into energy, insulin is also required to convert fatty acids from fat and amino acids from protein into energy. A series of seven studies concluded that both fat and protein increased blood glucose levels. It’s important to note, however, that we are all different and that these findings won’t apply to everyone. Higher fat meals, typically defined as meals with greater than 35g (1.2 ounces) of fat, reduced early responses on blood glucose levels during the first 2-3 hours. The blood glucose peak was pushed out later and caused a sustained blood glucose response that often carried on for several hours. Higher protein meals began producing a noticeable effect on blood glucose levels 1.5 to 2 hours after being consumed. There was a noticeable difference between meals where protein was Continue reading >>
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Effects Of Fat And Protein On Glycemic Responses In Nondiabetic Humans Vary With Waist Circumference, Fasting Plasma Insulin, And Dietary Fiber Intake | The Journal Of Nutrition | Oxford Academic
The effects of protein and fat on glycemic responses have not been studied systematically. Therefore, our aim was to determine the dose-response effects of protein and fat on the glycemic response elicited by 50 g glucose in humans and whether subjects' fasting plasma insulin (FPI) and diet influenced the results. Nondiabetic humans, 10 with FPI ≥40 pmol/L and 10 with FPI >40 pmol/L, were studied on 18 occasions after 10 14-h overnight fasts. Subjects consumed 50 g glucose dissolved in 250 mL water plus 0, 5, 10, or 30 g fat and/or 0, 5, 10, or 30 g protein. Each level of fat was tested with each level of protein. Dietary intake was measured using a 3-d food record. Gram per gram, protein reduced glucose responses ∼2 times more than fat (P < 0.001) with no significant fat × protein interaction (P = 0.051). The effect of protein on glycemic responses was related to waist circumference (WC) (r = −0.56, P = 0.011) and intake of dietary fiber (r = −0.60, P = 0.005) but was unrelated to FPI or other nutrient intakes. The effect of fat on glycemic responses was related to FPI (r = 0.49, P = 0.029) but was unrelated to WC or diet. We conclude that, across the range of 0–30 g, protein and fat reduced glycemic responses independently from each other in a linear, dose-dependent fashion, with protein having ∼3-times the effect of fat. A large protein effect was associated with high WC and high dietary-fiber intake, whereas a large fat effect was associated with low FPI. These conclusions may not apply to solid meals. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms for these effects. It is generally accepted that adding fat and protein to carbohydrate reduces glycemic responses by delaying gastric emptying and stimulating insulin secretion ( 1 , 2 ). These effe Continue reading >>
- Practical Approach to Using Trend Arrows on the Dexcom G5 CGM System for the Management of Adults With Diabetes | Journal of the Endocrine Society | Oxford Academic
- Diet options for type 2 diabetes: eating plans can vary, study suggests
- Genetic Association of Waist-to-Hip Ratio With Cardiometabolic Traits, Type 2 Diabetes, and Coronary Heart Disease
How Do Fats & Proteins Affect Blood Sugar Levels?
After you eat, your blood sugar levels increase and trigger the release of insulin, an important hormone in managing how your body uses glucose. Different types of nutrients affect blood sugar differently, and maintaining an appropriate intake of carbohydrates, proteins and fats will help control blood sugar levels and prevent or manage metabolic diseases like Type 2 diabetes. Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are the three macronutrients your body needs. Carbohydrates are primarily used for energy, while proteins are important for rebuilding tissue, and fats are important for maintaining cell membranes and facilitating vitamin absorption, among other functions. Carbohydrates have the most significant impact on blood sugar, so carbohydrate intake should be monitored closely by individuals with or at risk for Type 2 diabetes. Protein's Effects on Blood Sugar Compared to carbohydrates, protein keeps blood sugar levels steady. When consumed alone, protein does not generate a rise in blood sugar. According to a study published in 2003 in “American Society for Clinical Nutrition,” individuals with Type 2 diabetes who maintained a 30:40:30 intake ratio of protein to carbohydrates to fat showed a 40 percent lower blood sugar response than those who maintained a 15:55:30 intake ratio. This suggests that protein is neutral food for blood sugar levels and can replace at least some carbohydrates to yield a better overall blood sugar response. Fat's Effects on Blood Sugar Like protein, fat has significantly less impact on blood sugar than carbohydrates. When consumed alone, ingested fats have no bearing on the concentration of circulating blood sugar. Replacing some carbohydrate content with healthy dietary fats could therefore result in steadier overall levels of blood sugar. M Continue reading >>
Why/how Does Fat Increase Blood Glucose?
Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community hey Again I stumbled over an article explaining in what way fat can raise blood glucose... maybe most relevant for type 1 diabetic or insuline users of type 2 ... I was a Little puzzled to find that fat in any ways could be able to raise blood glucose as I have been taught that fat is the only thing that never raises blood glucose besides from pure alcohol . If youll take the time and read the article , I like to hear what you think of it.. "First, Fettuccine Alfredo, garlic bread and tiramisu are, for the most part, a mixture of carbohydrate and fat. But its the fat in the meal that is contributing to the elevated readings." What utter cobblers.. the carb causes the elevated readings... the fat delays the spike and maybe slows it down. Take your blood before and after a bulletproof coffee or fat bomb and you'll see minimal changes. From my basic understanding fat doesnt necessarily raise your levels. It acts as more of a hindrance as it takes longer for the body to break down the fat and get what it needs. Hence when i havena takeaway my levels can be good when i go to bed but higher in the morning. Did you read all of the first article? It was purely focused on T1 and was pretty reasonable in what it said @bulkbiker The second article seems to say that if you have ketones you will develop ketoacidosis whatever happens which I'm afraid is also wrong. Did you read all of the first article? It was purely focused on T1 and was pretty reasonable in what it said @bulkbiker It doesn't mention type 1 at all though does it? Just says you need have your insulin dose or your oral meds? do Type 1's take oral meds?..unclear at best surely. The second article see Continue reading >>
Why Does Fat Increase Blood Glucose?
Has this ever happened to you? — You eat a meal such as fettuccine alfredo with garlic bread and tiramisu for dessert. — You take either the appropriate amount of insulin for the carbohydrate in the meal or your oral medications. — You check 2 to 3 hours after eating and see a blood glucose reading that is in range. So far, so good, right? —Then you wake up the next morning with a very high number? Ever wondered what causes this? There are two reasons. First, Fettuccine Alfredo, garlic bread and tiramisu are, for the most part, a mixture of carbohydrate and fat. But it’s the fat in the meal that is contributing to the elevated readings. Although carbohydrate is the nutrient that has the most immediate affect on blood glucose levels, fat is not glucose neutral. But only a small portion of the triglyceride (fat) molecule, called the glycerol backbone, can be used as glucose. This very small addition to the glucose pool can’t be the source of your high blood glucose readings. So if fat doesn’t directly raise blood glucose, what is it doing? For many years scientists thought that fat was a metabolically inert substance. Fat on the body was considered dead weight, just extra blubber people carted around. Well it turns out that fat has been masquerading as the quiet shy guy in the back row, all the while packing a considerable metabolic punch. A high fat meal can increase the amount of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the blood. Both repeatedly elevated levels of FFAs as found in chronic intake of high fat (especially high saturated fat) meals and obesity are associated with both skeletal muscle and liver insulin resistance. That resistance means that it will take more insulin—either made by your pancreas or from an injection—to move the glucose in the blood strea Continue reading >>
Diet And Diabetes: Why Saturated Fats Are The Real Enemy
Diet and Diabetes: Why Saturated Fats Are the Real Enemy This is the seventh article in our Controversies series and the third piece focusing on the subject of fats. Today, we are going to explore the very important relationship between saturated fat intake and the onset of diabetes. As we mentioned in The Ultimate Guide to Saturated Fats , Once we control for weight, alcohol, smoking, exercise and family history, the incidence of diabetes is significantly associated with the proportion of saturated fat in our blood. Today we will take a deep dive to fully understand why there is such a strong link between diabetes and saturated fat consumption. We will also discuss how a plant-based diet may protect you from (or even reverse!) the disease. Insulin resistance is a hallmark of both prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. So what is insulin resistance exactly (and why is it important)? Insulin is what permits glucose (sugar) in the blood to enter our (muscle) cells. In essence, insulin unlocks the door, allowing the glucose to come in. If there is no insulin at all (the case of type 1 diabetes), the blood sugar hangs out in the bloodstream because it cannot get inside. That causes the blood sugar levels to rise. But what happens if the insulin is there but is simply not working properly? In that case, the lock to the cell door is blocked. This is what is called insulin resistance. So what causes insulin resistance in the first place? Fat build-up inside (muscle) cells creates toxic fatty breakdown products and free radicals that block the insulin-signaling process, close the glucose gate, and make blood sugar levels rise. In fact, insulin resistance can occur in 180 short minutes (just 3 hours!) after the consumption of fat. The process of insulin resistance, caused by the buil Continue reading >>