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Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (etdrs)

Ocularhypertensiontreatmentstudy

Ocularhypertensiontreatmentstudy

EarlyTreatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) To evaluate theeffectiveness of both argon laser photocoagulation and aspirin therapyin delaying or preventing progression of early diabetic retinopathy tomore severe stages of visual loss and blindness. To help determinethe best time to initiate photocoagulation treatment in diabetic retinopathy. To monitor closelythe effects of diabetes mellitus and of photocoagulation on visual function. To producenatural history data that can be used to identify risk factors and testetiologic hypotheses in diabetic retinopathy. ETDRS was a multicenter,randomized clinical trial designed to evaluate argon laser photocoagulationand aspirin treatment in the management of patients with nonproliferativeor early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. A total of 3,711 patientswere recruited to be followed for a minimum of 4 years to provide long-terminformation on the risks and benefits of the treatments under study. The eligibilitycriteria for the ETDRS were designed to include a broad range of macularoedema severity, from a few small hard exudates within a disc diameterof the fovea with normal visual acuity to extensive cystoid spaces witha visual acuity of 20/200. All study patients had one eye randomly assignedto immediate photocoagulation and the other eye to deferral of photocoagulationuntil high-risk proliferative retinopathy developed. During followup, additionalphotocoagulation was allowed for any degree of macular oedema within theeligibility range, but additional photocoagulation was required only foroedema involving or threatening the center of the macula. The term "clinicallysignificant macular oedema" was coined to designate this level of severity. The trial useof aspirin therapy was based on clinical observation and on aspirin's Continue reading >>

The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Historical Review And Relevance To Today's Management Of Diabetic Macular Edema.

The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Historical Review And Relevance To Today's Management Of Diabetic Macular Edema.

Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2017 May;28(3):205-212. doi: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000362. The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study historical review and relevance to today's management of diabetic macular edema. Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA. To provide an historical review of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) in the management of diabetic macular edema (DME), and to discuss its relevance to the management of DME. The ETDRS reported that argon laser treatment is beneficial in the management of 'clinically significant' DME. The study provided guidelines for the treatment with focal and/or grid laser based on fluorescein angiographic patterns. In today's world, with the advent of optical coherence tomography, 'clinically significant' DME is now classified into center-involved DME (CI DME) and noncenter-involved DME (non-CI DME). Modified ETDRS focal/grid laser photocoagulation has been utilized in more recent clinical trials [diabetic retinopathy clinical research (DRCR) Protocols I and T] in combination with intravitreal injections. The ETDRS provided outcomes data for DME, both untreated and following laser therapy. In the management of patients with DME today, the modified ETDRS focal/grid laser photocoagulation treatments remain relevant in combination with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy as ophthalmologists and their patients choose how best to treat DME. Ongoing studies in eyes with DME, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, and good visual acuity will help further define the place of modified ETDRS focal/grid laser in the treatment of DME. Continue reading >>

Etdrs (early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study)-visus

Etdrs (early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study)-visus

, Volume 110, Issue10 , pp 960965 | Cite as ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study)-Visus Die menschliche Sehkraft wird im klinischen Alltag und im Rahmen von ophthalmologischen Studien verwendet, um u.a. ber Therapie, Indikation und Erfolg zu entscheiden. Dieser subjektive Parameter bedarf in der Erhebung eines strukturierten Vorgehens, um seine Aussagekraft nicht zu verwssern. Aus diesem Grund sollte besonders im Rahmen von Studien darauf geachtet werden, dass das Studienprotokoll strikt eingehalten wird. Dieser Beitrag soll Wissenswertes zum ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study)-Visus nach dem Originalprotokoll der Early-Treatment-Diabetic-Retinopathy-Studie aus den Jahren 1979 bis 1989 vermitteln. Des Weiteren wird auch auf die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Sehschrfenprfung und die dem ETDRS-Visus vorangegangenen Protokolle von Snellen und Bailey-Lovie eingegangen sowie die Aufzeichnungsmethode des logMAR-Systems erlutert. ETDRSSehschrfeSnellenBailey-LovielogMAR-System Early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) visual acuity Human visual acuity is used as an indicator in everyday clinical work and ophthalmological studies to decide on therapy indications and success. This extensively used parameter needs a very structured workflow in order to preserve validity and prevent bias. Therefore, it should be kept in mind that especially in clinical studies investigators should strictly adhere to the study protocol. The intention of this article is to impart interesting facts about the early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) on visual acuity assessment, adhering to the original protocol of the ETDRS dating back to 19791989. Furthermore, the history of visual acuity assessment protocols prior to ETDRS, namely those of Snellen and Bail Continue reading >>

Fundus Photographic Risk Factors For Progression Of Diabetic Retinopathy. Etdrs Report Number 12. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group.

Fundus Photographic Risk Factors For Progression Of Diabetic Retinopathy. Etdrs Report Number 12. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group.

Generate a file for use with external citation management software. Ophthalmology. 1991 May;98(5 Suppl):823-33. Fundus photographic risk factors for progression of diabetic retinopathy. ETDRS report number 12. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. In the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study, a randomized clinical trial sponsored by the National Eye Institute, one eye of each patient was assigned to early photocoagulation and the other to deferral of photocoagulation (i.e., careful follow-up and initiation of photocoagulation only if high-risk proliferative retinopathy developed). This design allowed observation of the natural course of diabetic retinopathy in the initially untreated eye. Gradings of baseline stereoscopic fundus photographs of eyes with nonproliferative retinopathy assigned to deferral of photocoagulation were used to examine the power of various abnormalities and combinations of abnormalities to predict progression to proliferative retinopathy in photographs taken at the 1-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up visits. Severity of intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, hemorrhages and/or microaneurysms, and venous beading were found to be the most important factors in predicting progression. On the basis of these analyses and other considerations, a retinopathy severity scale was developed. This scale, which divides diabetic retinopathy into 13 levels ranging from absence of retinopathy to severe vitreous hemorrhage, can be used to describe overall retinopathy severity and change in severity over time. Continue reading >>

The Landmark Trials: Diabetic Retinopathy Study And Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study - Pan-retinal Photocoagulation And Other Forms Of Laser Treatment And Drug Therapies For Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: Systematic Review And Economic Evaluation - Ncbi Bookshelf

The Landmark Trials: Diabetic Retinopathy Study And Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study - Pan-retinal Photocoagulation And Other Forms Of Laser Treatment And Drug Therapies For Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: Systematic Review And Economic Evaluation - Ncbi Bookshelf

The search question posed in the commissioning brief was: What is the clinical and cost-effectiveness of pan-retinal laser treatment in the management of non-proliferative (pre-proliferative) diabetic retinopathy (NPDR)? The patient groups specified were those with early stages of NPDR (Level R2) versus the control or comparator treatment of PRP at PDR (Level R3), in any appropriate setting. Our scoping searches gave a very low retrieval of studies that would be relevant to this search question, but did show that there were recent developments in types of laser and in the use of laser and drug combinations. Therefore, in the draft protocol we proposed a wider scope for this Technology Assessment Report than had been envisaged in the commissioning brief. This was approved by the NIHR Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre (NETSCC) after being supported by the external referees. The decision problem was subsequently expanded to become: Treatment of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a review of pan-retinal photocoagulation, other forms of laser treatment, and combinations of photocoagulation and anti-VEGF drugs or inject steroids. However, the broader searches revealed that there were no RCTs that compared patients at the NPDR level to those at later stages of PRP. Indeed, the most relevant and largest study done addressing the timing of PRP laser in the treatment of DR, the ETDRS, grouped together patients with moderate to severe NPDR and early PDR, and did not report outcomes on these groups separately. Therefore, it seemed likely that a trial to address the original research question was needed, and, in order to inform a future study on PRP treatment of patients at the NPDR stage, we decided to further broaden the searches to capture all forms of curr Continue reading >>

Early Photocoagulation For Diabetic Retinopathy. Etdrs Report Number 9. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group.

Early Photocoagulation For Diabetic Retinopathy. Etdrs Report Number 9. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group.

Early photocoagulation for diabetic retinopathy. ETDRS report number 9. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) enrolled 3711 patients with mild-to-severe nonproliferative or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy in both eyes. One eye of each patient was assigned randomly to early photocoagulation and the other to deferral of photocoagulation. Follow-up examinations were scheduled at least every 4 months and photocoagulation was initiated in eyes assigned to deferral as soon as high-risk proliferative retinopathy was detected. Eyes selected for early photocoagulation received one of four different combinations of scatter (panretinal) and focal treatment. This early treatment, compared with deferral of photocoagulation, was associated with a small reduction in the incidence of severe visual loss (visual acuity less than 5/200 at two consecutive visits), but 5-year rates were low in both the early treatment and deferral groups (2.6% and 3.7%, respectively). Adverse effects of scatter photocoagulation on visual acuity and visual field also were observed. These adverse effects were most evident in the months immediately following treatment and were less in eyes assigned to less extensive scatter photocoagulation. Provided careful follow-up can be maintained, scatter photocoagulation is not recommended for eyes with mild or moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. When retinopathy is more severe, scatter photocoagulation should be considered and usually should not be delayed if the eye has reached the high-risk proliferative stage. The ETDRS results demonstrate that, for eyes with macular edema, focal photocoagulation is effective in reducing the risk of moderate visual loss but that scatter Continue reading >>

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (etdrs)

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (etdrs)

You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000151 Study Description Study Design Arms and Interventions Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More Information To evaluate the effectiveness of both argon laser photocoagulation and aspirin therapy in delaying or preventing progression of early diabetic retinopathy to more severe stages of visual loss and blindness. To help determine the best time to initiate photocoagulation treatment in diabetic retinopathy. To monitor closely the effects of diabetes mellitus and of photocoagulation on visual function. To produce natural history data that can be used to identify risk factors and test etiologic hypotheses in diabetic retinopathy. Drug: Aspirin Procedure: Argon Laser Photocoagulation ETDRS was a multicenter, randomized clinical trial designed to evaluate argon laser photocoagulation and aspirin treatment in the management of patients with nonproliferative or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. A total of 3,711 patients were recruited to be followed for a minimum of 4 years to provide long-term information on the risks and benefits of the treatments under study. The eligibility criteria for the ETDRS were designed to include a broad range of macular edema severity, from a few small hard exudates within a disc diameter of the fovea with normal visual acuity to extensive cystoid spaces with a visual acuity of 20/200. Continue reading >>

Photocoagulation For Diabetic Macular Edemaearly Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Report Number 1 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group

Photocoagulation For Diabetic Macular Edemaearly Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Report Number 1 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group

Data from the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) show that focal photocoagulation of "clinically significant" diabetic macular edema substantially reduces the risk of visual loss. Focal treatment also increases the chance of visual improvement, decreases the frequency of persistent macular edema, and causes only minor visual field losses. In this randomized clinical trial, which was supported by the National Eye Institute, 754 eyes that had macular edema and mild to moderate diabetic retinopathy were randomly assigned to focal argon laser photocoagulation, while 1,490 such eyes were randomly assigned to deferral of photocoagulation. The beneficial effects of treatment demonstrated in this trial suggest that all eyes with clinically significant diabetic macular edema should be considered for focal photocoagulation. Clinically significant macular edema is defined as retinal thickening that involves or threatens the center of the macula (even if visual acuity is not yet reduced) and is assessed by stereo contact lens biomicroscopy or stereo photography. Follow-up of all ETDRS patients continues without other modifications in the study protocol. Continue reading >>

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Design And Baseline Patient Characteristics. Etdrs Report Number 7.

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Design And Baseline Patient Characteristics. Etdrs Report Number 7.

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study design and baseline patient characteristics. ETDRS report number 7. The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS), a multicenter collaborative clinical trial supported by the National Eye Institute, was designed to assess whether argon laser photocoagulation or aspirin treatment can reduce the risk of visual loss or slow the progression of diabetic retinopathy in patients with mild-to-severe nonproliferative or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The 3711 patients enrolled in the ETDRS were assigned randomly to either aspirin (650 mg per day) or placebo. One eye of each patient was assigned randomly to early argon laser photocoagulation and the other to deferral of photocoagulation. Both eyes were to be examined at least every 4 months and photocoagulation was to be initiated in eyes assigned to deferral as soon as high-risk proliferative retinopathy was detected. Examination of a large number of baseline ocular and patient characteristics indicated that there were no important differences between randomized treatment groups at baseline. Continue reading >>

Comparison Of Nonmydriatic Optos Fundus Imaging With Mydriatic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (etdrs) 7-standard Field Stereo Photography And Clinical Grading | Iovs | Arvo Journals

Comparison Of Nonmydriatic Optos Fundus Imaging With Mydriatic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (etdrs) 7-standard Field Stereo Photography And Clinical Grading | Iovs | Arvo Journals

ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract| April 2011 Comparison of Nonmydriatic Optos Fundus Imaging with Mydriatic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) 7-Standard Field Stereo Photography and Clinical Grading Ophthalmology, Beetham Eye Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts Ophthalmology, Beetham Eye Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts Ophthalmology, Beetham Eye Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts Ophthalmology, Beetham Eye Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts Ophthalmology, Beetham Eye Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts Ophthalmology, Beetham Eye Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts Ophthalmology, Beetham Eye Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts Ophthalmology, Beetham Eye Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts Commercial Relationships Jason Noble, None; Paolo S. Silva, None; Jerry D. Cavallerano, None; Jennifer K. Sun, None; Prisca Diala, None; Ahmed Z. Soliman, None; Lloyd M. Aiello, None; Lloyd P. Aiello, None Comparison of Nonmydriatic Optos Fundus Imaging with Mydriatic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) 7-Standard Field Stereo Photography and Clinical Grading You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the literature. You can manage this and all other alerts in My Account Jason Noble, Paolo S. Silva, Jerry D. Cavallerano, Jennifer K. Sun, Prisca Diala, Ahmed Z. Soliman, Lloyd M. Aiello, Lloyd P. Aiello; Comparison of Nonmydriatic Optos Fundus Imaging with Mydriatic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) 7-Standard Field Stereo Photography and Clinical Grading. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):1283. ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors Continue reading >>

Figure 2. Mean Change In Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (etdrs) Best-corrected Visual Acuity (bcva) During Vista Dme (study Of Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection In Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema) And Endurance (long- Term Efficacy And Safety Of Intravitreal Aflibercept For The Treatment Of Dme In Subjects Who Completed The Vista Dme Trial) Extension Study. Iai Indicates Patients Who Were Randomized To Intravitreal Aflibercept Injections During Vista Dme, Combining Patients In Both The Monthly Aflibercept Arm And Every Other Month Aflibercept Arm After 5 Monthly Loading Doses. Laser Indicates Patients Who Were Randomized To The Macular Laser Photocoagulation Arm During Vista Dme.

Figure 2. Mean Change In Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (etdrs) Best-corrected Visual Acuity (bcva) During Vista Dme (study Of Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection In Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema) And Endurance (long- Term Efficacy And Safety Of Intravitreal Aflibercept For The Treatment Of Dme In Subjects Who Completed The Vista Dme Trial) Extension Study. Iai Indicates Patients Who Were Randomized To Intravitreal Aflibercept Injections During Vista Dme, Combining Patients In Both The Monthly Aflibercept Arm And Every Other Month Aflibercept Arm After 5 Monthly Loading Doses. Laser Indicates Patients Who Were Randomized To The Macular Laser Photocoagulation Arm During Vista Dme.

FIGURE 2. Mean change in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) during VISTA DME (Study of Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection in Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema) and ENDURANCE (Long- Term Efficacy and Safety of Intravitreal Aflibercept for the Treatment of DME in Subjects Who Completed the VISTA DME Trial) extension study. IAI indicates patients who were randomized to intravitreal aflibercept injections during VISTA DME, combining patients in both the monthly aflibercept arm and every other month aflibercept arm after 5 monthly loading doses. Laser indicates patients who were randomized to the macular laser photocoagulation arm during VISTA DME. | Scientific Diagram FIGURE 2. Mean change in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) during VISTA DME (Study of Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection in Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema) and ENDURANCE (Long- Term Efficacy and Safety of Intravitreal Aflibercept for the Treatment of DME in Subjects Who Completed the VISTA DME Trial) extension study. IAI indicates patients who were randomized to intravitreal aflibercept injections during VISTA DME, combining patients in both the monthly aflibercept arm and every other month aflibercept arm after 5 monthly loading doses. Laser indicates patients who were randomized to the macular laser photocoagulation arm during VISTA DME. Continue reading >>

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Design And Baseline Patient Characteristics: Etdrs Report Number 7

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Design And Baseline Patient Characteristics: Etdrs Report Number 7

Volume 98, Issue 5, Supplement , May 1991, Pages 741-756 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Design and Baseline Patient Characteristics: ETDRS Report Number 7 Get rights and content The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS), a multicenter collaborative clinical trial supported by the National Eye Institute, was designed to assess whether argon laser photocoagulation or aspirin treatment can reduce the risk of visual loss or slow the progression of diabetic retinopathy in patients with mild-to-severe nonproliferative or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The 3711 patients enrolled in the ETDRS were assigned randomly to either aspirin (650 mg per day) or placebo. One eye of each patient was assigned randomly to early argon laser photocoagulation and the other to deferral of photocoagulation. Both eyes were to be examined at least every 4 months and photocoagulation was to be initiated in eyes assigned to deferral as soon as high-risk proliferative retinopathy was detected. Examination of a large number of baseline ocular and patient characteristics indicated that there were no important differences between randomized treatment groups at baseline. Continue reading >>

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Design And Baseline Patient Characteristics: Etdrs Report Number 7

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Design And Baseline Patient Characteristics: Etdrs Report Number 7

Volume 98, Issue 5, Supplement , May 1991, Pages 741-756 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Design and Baseline Patient Characteristics: ETDRS Report Number 7 Get rights and content The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS), a multicenter collaborative clinical trial supported by the National Eye Institute, was designed to assess whether argon laser photocoagulation or aspirin treatment can reduce the risk of visual loss or slow the progression of diabetic retinopathy in patients with mild-to-severe nonproliferative or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The 3711 patients enrolled in the ETDRS were assigned randomly to either aspirin (650 mg per day) or placebo. One eye of each patient was assigned randomly to early argon laser photocoagulation and the other to deferral of photocoagulation. Both eyes were to be examined at least every 4 months and photocoagulation was to be initiated in eyes assigned to deferral as soon as high-risk proliferative retinopathy was detected. Examination of a large number of baseline ocular and patient characteristics indicated that there were no important differences between randomized treatment groups at baseline. Continue reading >>

Photocoagulation For Diabetic Macular Edema. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Report Number 1. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group.

Photocoagulation For Diabetic Macular Edema. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Report Number 1. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1985 Dec;103(12):1796-806. Photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study report number 1. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study research group. Data from the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) show that focal photocoagulation of "clinically significant" diabetic macular edema substantially reduces the risk of visual loss. Focal treatment also increases the chance of visual improvement, decreases the frequency of persistent macular edema, and causes only minor visual field losses. In this randomized clinical trial, which was supported by the National Eye Institute, 754 eyes that had macular edema and mild to moderate diabetic retinopathy were randomly assigned to focal argon laser photocoagulation, while 1,490 such eyes were randomly assigned to deferral of photocoagulation. The beneficial effects of treatment demonstrated in this trial suggest that all eyes with clinically significant diabetic macular edema should be considered for focal photocoagulation. Clinically significant macular edema is defined as retinal thickening that involves or threatens the center of the macula (even if visual acuity is not yet reduced) and is assessed by stereo contact lens biomicroscopy or stereo photography. Follow-up of all ETDRS patients continues without other modifications in the study protocol. Continue reading >>

Photocoagulation For Diabetic Macular Edema: Results Of The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study

Photocoagulation For Diabetic Macular Edema: Results Of The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study

Photocoagulation for Diabetic Macular EDEMA: Results of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Part of the Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series book series (DOPS, volume 50) The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy study (ETDRS) has developed, tested and proven effective a strategy of photocoagulation that can reduce the risk of visual loss from diabetic macular edema. The ETDRS is a randomized clinical trial designed to evaluate photocoagulation and aspirin treatment in the management of patients with nonproliferative or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. A nation-wide, multicentered study sponsored by the National Eye Institute, the ETDRS continues to follow patients enrolled in the study to develop information concerning the following questions about the treatment of diabetic retinopathy: When in the course of diabetic retinopathy is it most effective to initiate photocoagulation therapy? Is aspirin treatment effective in altering the course of diabetic retinopathy? Is photocoagulation effective in the treatment of macular edema? Visual AcuityDiabetic RetinopathyMacular EdemaDiabetic Macular EdemaEarly Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Adapted from: Photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema: results of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy study. Contemporary Ophthalmic Forum 4;2:25-31, July-August 1986. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group: Report No. 3: Four risk factors for severe visual loss in diabetic retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 97:65455, 1979. Google Scho Continue reading >>

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