diabetestalk.net

Drugs For Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Class Of Diabetes Drug Raises Risk For Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Class Of Diabetes Drug Raises Risk For Diabetic Ketoacidosis

A new class of type 2 diabetes drugs may increase the risk of a rare but serious complication known as diabetic ketoacidosis, according to a study published June 8 in the New England Journal of Medicine. Investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital found that patients are twice as likely to experience diabetic ketoacidosis if taking sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors compared to another class of diabetes drugs. SGLT2s include canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin and are approved for use with diet and exercise to lower blood sugar in adults with the disease. The researchers stress that the condition, while serious, is extremely rare. Only about one in every 1,000 patients taking an SGLT2 inhibitor will experience this complication. While cases of hospitalization are infrequent, it was one such case that inspired the study. Michael Fralick, MD, FRCPC, of the BWH Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, began exploring the association between SGLT2 inhibitors and diabetic ketoacidosis after one of his patients taking SGLT2s arrived at an emergency room with symptoms of the complication. Using data available through one of the research platforms at Brigham and Women’s Hospital (Aetion Evidence Platform) Fralick’s team compared outcomes of 40,000 patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors to patients taking a DPP4 inhibitor. DPP4 inhibitors were chosen as the comparator medication because they are similarly used as a second-line treatment for diabetes but have no known association with diabetic ketoacidosis. After 180 days, 55 patients taking an SGLT2 inhibitor had experienced diabetic ketoacidosis compared to 26 patients taking a DPP4 inhibitor. Fralick emphasizes that even though diabetic ketoacidosis is uncommon, physicians need to be Continue reading >>

Management Of Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Management Of Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Go to: Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a rare yet potentially fatal hyperglycemic crisis that can occur in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Due to its increasing incidence and economic impact related to the treatment and associated morbidity, effective management and prevention is key. Elements of management include making the appropriate diagnosis using current laboratory tools and clinical criteria and coordinating fluid resuscitation, insulin therapy, and electrolyte replacement through feedback obtained from timely patient monitoring and knowledge of resolution criteria. In addition, awareness of special populations such as patients with renal disease presenting with DKA is important. During the DKA therapy, complications may arise and appropriate strategies to prevent these complications are required. DKA prevention strategies including patient and provider education are important. This review aims to provide a brief overview of DKA from its pathophysiology to clinical presentation with in depth focus on up-to-date therapeutic management. Keywords: DKA treatment, insulin, prevention, ESKD Go to: Introduction In 2009, there were 140,000 hospitalizations for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) with an average length of stay of 3.4 days.1 The direct and indirect annual cost of DKA hospitalizations is 2.4 billion US dollars. Omission of insulin is the most common precipitant of DKA.2,3 Infections, acute medical illnesses involving the cardiovascular system (myocardial infarction, stroke) and gastrointestinal tract (bleeding, pancreatitis), diseases of the endocrine axis (acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome), and stress of recent surgical procedures can contribute to the development of DKA by causing dehydration, increase in insulin counter-regulatory hor Continue reading >>

Three Diabetes Drugs Linked To Ketoacidosis, Fda Warns

Three Diabetes Drugs Linked To Ketoacidosis, Fda Warns

NASHVILLE -- Three type 2 diabetes drugs -- canagliflozin (Invokana), dapagliflozin (Farxiga), and empagliflozin (Jardiance) -- may lead to ketoacidosis, the FDA warned today. The sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are designed to lower blood sugar in patients with diabetes, but the FDA is investigating a connection between the drugs and dangerously high acid levels in the blood. They are also looking at whether changes will need to be made to the prescribing information, they said in the warning, which is posted online. At least two studies presented here at the annual meeting of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists have found a connection between the SGLT2 inhibitors and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). "Healthcare professionals should evaluate for the presence of acidosis, including ketoacidosis, in patients experiencing these signs or symptoms," the FDA said. "Discontinue SGLT2 inhibitors if acidosis is confirmed, and take appropriate measures to correct the acidosis and monitor sugar levels." The signs and symptoms listed included difficulty breathing, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, confusion, and unusual fatigue or sleepiness. The FDA is issuing the warning after they searched their database of adverse event complaints, they said in an announcement. From March 2013 to June 2014 there were 20 cases of DKA reported, most of them with type 2 diabetes as the indication. Hospitalization was required in all of the cases, and the median time to onset was 2 weeks after starting the drug. "I would encourage that these cases be studied so we can learn the scenarios behind them so they can be broadcast," said Farhad Zangeneh, MD, medical director of Endocrine, Diabetes and Osteoporosis Clinic, in an interview with MedPage Today. "The important Continue reading >>

New Diabetes Drugs May Bring On Ketoacidosis

New Diabetes Drugs May Bring On Ketoacidosis

SGLT2 inhibitors, which are some of the newest diabetes drugs on the market, may increase the risk of a serious condition. A new study concludes that these medications actually double the likelihood of developing diabetic ketoacidosis. Because diabetes is becoming more prevalent in the United States, the hunt for new and more effective medication is in full flow. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are the most recent additions to the list of available medicines. SGLT2 inhibitors reduce blood glucose levels by encouraging the kidneys to increase sugar excretion in urine. These drugs are often given in combination with other diabetes medications, such as metformin and insulin. The new class of drugs has become relatively popular, but the latest research finds that they could increase the risk of a serious diabetes-related complication. Rare but dangerous Diabetic ketoacidosis is relatively uncommon but potentially life-threatening. It occurs when acids called ketones build up in the body, increasing the acidity of the blood, or when the body does not produce enough insulin. When insulin is absent, glucose cannot enter cells and provide them with the energy they need. Therefore, the body falls back on its secondary fuel source: fat. Ketones are byproducts of burning fat. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include increased thirst, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and confusion. It can also cause swelling in the brain, and, if left unchecked, can be fatal. Although diabetic ketoacidosis is more likely to occur in people with type 1 diabetes, it does occasionally appear in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Examining the interaction The new study, carried out by Dr. Michael Fralick and a team from Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, set out to examine Continue reading >>

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Print If your doctor suspects diabetic ketoacidosis, he or she will do a physical exam and various blood tests. In some cases, additional tests may be needed to help determine what triggered the diabetic ketoacidosis. Blood tests Blood tests used in the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis will measure: Blood sugar level. If there isn't enough insulin in your body to allow sugar to enter your cells, your blood sugar level will rise (hyperglycemia). As your body breaks down fat and protein for energy, your blood sugar level will continue to rise. Ketone level. When your body breaks down fat and protein for energy, acids known as ketones enter your bloodstream. Blood acidity. If you have excess ketones in your blood, your blood will become acidic (acidosis). This can alter the normal function of organs throughout your body. Additional tests Your doctor may order tests to identify underlying health problems that might have contributed to diabetic ketoacidosis and to check for complications. Tests might include: Blood electrolyte tests Urinalysis Chest X-ray A recording of the electrical activity of the heart (electrocardiogram) Treatment If you're diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis, you might be treated in the emergency room or admitted to the hospital. Treatment usually involves: Fluid replacement. You'll receive fluids — either by mouth or through a vein (intravenously) — until you're rehydrated. The fluids will replace those you've lost through excessive urination, as well as help dilute the excess sugar in your blood. Electrolyte replacement. Electrolytes are minerals in your blood that carry an electric charge, such as sodium, potassium and chloride. The absence of insulin can lower the level of several electrolytes in your blood. You'll receive electrolytes throu Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.[1] Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness.[1] A person's breath may develop a specific smell.[1] Onset of symptoms is usually rapid.[1] In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes.[1] DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances.[1] Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids.[1] DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies.[3] DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine.[1] The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin.[1] Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin.[3] Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium.[1] Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked.[1] Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection.[6] In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended.[1][6] Rates of DKA vary around the world.[5] In the United Kingdom, about 4% of people with type 1 diabetes develop DKA each year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year.[1][5] DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost univ Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosistreatment & Management

Diabetic Ketoacidosistreatment & Management

Diabetic KetoacidosisTreatment & Management Author: Osama Hamdy, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP more... Managing diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in an intensive care unit during the first 24-48 hours always is advisable. When treating patients with DKA, the following points must be considered and closely monitored: Correction of fluid loss with intravenous fluids Correction of electrolyte disturbances, particularly potassium loss Treatment of concurrent infection, if present It is essential to maintain extreme vigilance for any concomitant process, such as infection, cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, sepsis, or deep venous thrombosis . It is important to pay close attention to the correction of fluid and electrolyte loss during the first hour of treatment. This always should be followed by gradual correction of hyperglycemia and acidosis. Correction of fluid loss makes the clinical picture clearer and may be sufficient to correct acidosis. The presence of even mild signs of dehydration indicates that at least 3 L of fluid has already been lost. Patients usually are not discharged from the hospital unless they have been able to switch back to their daily insulin regimen without a recurrence of ketosis. When the condition is stable, pH exceeds 7.3, and bicarbonate is greater than 18 mEq/L, the patient is allowed to eat a meal preceded by a subcutaneous (SC) dose of regular insulin. Insulin infusion can be discontinued 30 minutes later. If the patient is still nauseated and cannot eat, dextrose infusion should be continued and regular or ultrashort-acting insulin should be administered SC every 4 hours, according to blood glucose level, while trying to maintain blood glucose values at 100-180 mg/dL. The 2011 JBDS guideline recommends the Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an acute metabolic complication of diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, and metabolic acidosis. Hyperglycemia causes an osmotic diuresis with significant fluid and electrolyte loss. DKA occurs mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). It causes nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and can progress to cerebral edema, coma, and death. DKA is diagnosed by detection of hyperketonemia and anion gap metabolic acidosis in the presence of hyperglycemia. Treatment involves volume expansion, insulin replacement, and prevention of hypokalemia. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is most common among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and develops when insulin levels are insufficient to meet the body’s basic metabolic requirements. DKA is the first manifestation of type 1 DM in a minority of patients. Insulin deficiency can be absolute (eg, during lapses in the administration of exogenous insulin) or relative (eg, when usual insulin doses do not meet metabolic needs during physiologic stress). Common physiologic stresses that can trigger DKA include Some drugs implicated in causing DKA include DKA is less common in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but it may occur in situations of unusual physiologic stress. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes is a variant of type 2 diabetes, which is sometimes seen in obese individuals, often of African (including African-American or Afro-Caribbean) origin. People with ketosis-prone diabetes (also referred to as Flatbush diabetes) can have significant impairment of beta cell function with hyperglycemia, and are therefore more likely to develop DKA in the setting of significant hyperglycemia. SGLT-2 inhibitors have been implicated in causing DKA in both type 1 and type 2 DM. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Evaluation And Treatment

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Evaluation And Treatment

Diabetic ketoacidosis is characterized by a serum glucose level greater than 250 mg per dL, a pH less than 7.3, a serum bicarbonate level less than 18 mEq per L, an elevated serum ketone level, and dehydration. Insulin deficiency is the main precipitating factor. Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur in persons of all ages, with 14 percent of cases occurring in persons older than 70 years, 23 percent in persons 51 to 70 years of age, 27 percent in persons 30 to 50 years of age, and 36 percent in persons younger than 30 years. The case fatality rate is 1 to 5 percent. About one-third of all cases are in persons without a history of diabetes mellitus. Common symptoms include polyuria with polydipsia (98 percent), weight loss (81 percent), fatigue (62 percent), dyspnea (57 percent), vomiting (46 percent), preceding febrile illness (40 percent), abdominal pain (32 percent), and polyphagia (23 percent). Measurement of A1C, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, serum glucose, electrolytes, pH, and serum ketones; complete blood count; urinalysis; electrocardiography; and calculation of anion gap and osmolar gap can differentiate diabetic ketoacidosis from hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, gastroenteritis, starvation ketosis, and other metabolic syndromes, and can assist in diagnosing comorbid conditions. Appropriate treatment includes administering intravenous fluids and insulin, and monitoring glucose and electrolyte levels. Cerebral edema is a rare but severe complication that occurs predominantly in children. Physicians should recognize the signs of diabetic ketoacidosis for prompt diagnosis, and identify early symptoms to prevent it. Patient education should include information on how to adjust insulin during times of illness and how to monitor glucose and ketone levels, as well as i Continue reading >>

Medications For Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Medications For Diabetic Ketoacidosis

This medication may not be approved by the FDA for the treatment of this condition. Prescription Only / Over the Counter Rx Prescription Only OTC Over the Counter Rx/OTC Prescription or Over the Counter Pregnancy A Adequate and well-controlled studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy (and there is no evidence of risk in later trimesters). B Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. C Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks. D There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks. X Studies in animals or humans have demonstrated fetal abnormalities and/or there is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience, and the risks involved in use in pregnant women clearly outweigh potential benefits. N FDA has not classified the drug. Controlled Substances Act Schedule N Is not subject to the Controlled Substances Act. 1 Has a high potential for abuse. Has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. There is a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision. 2 Has a high potential for abuse. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions. Abuse may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, And Complications

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, And Complications

Diabetic ketoacidosis definition and facts Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening complication of type 1 diabetes (though rare, it can occur in people with type 2 diabetes) that occurs when the body produces high levels of ketones due to lack of insulin. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin. The signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include Risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis are type 1 diabetes, and missing insulin doses frequently, or being exposed to a stressor requiring higher insulin doses (infection, etc). Diabetic ketoacidosis is diagnosed by an elevated blood sugar (glucose) level, elevated blood ketones and acidity of the blood (acidosis). The treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis is insulin, fluids and electrolyte therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be prevented by taking insulin as prescribed and monitoring glucose and ketone levels. The prognosis for a person with diabetic ketoacidosis depends on the severity of the disease and the other underlying medical conditions. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe and life-threatening complication of diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the cells in our body do not receive the sugar (glucose) they need for energy. This happens while there is plenty of glucose in the bloodstream, but not enough insulin to help convert glucose for use in the cells. The body recognizes this and starts breaking down muscle and fat for energy. This breakdown produces ketones (also called fatty acids), which cause an imbalance in our electrolyte system leading to the ketoacidosis (a metabolic acidosis). The sugar that cannot be used because of the lack of insulin stays in the bloodstream (rather than going into the cell and provide energy). The kidneys filter some of the glucose (suga Continue reading >>

Emergency Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Emergency Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially fatal metabolic disorder presenting most weeks in most accident and emergency (A&E) departments.1 The disorder can have significant mortality if misdiagnosed or mistreated. Numerous management strategies have been described. Our aim is to describe a regimen that is based, as far as possible, on available evidence but also on our experience in managing patients with DKA in the A&E department and on inpatient wards. A literature search was carried out on Medline and the Cochrane Databases using “diabetic ketoacidosis” as a MeSH heading and as textword. High yield journals were hand searched. Papers identified were appraised in the ways described in the Users’ guide series published in JAMA. We will not be discussing the derangements in intermediary metabolism involved, nor would we suggest extrapolating the proposed regimen to children. Although some of the issues discussed may be considered by some to be outwith the remit of A&E medicine it would seem prudent to ensure that A&E staff were aware of the probable management of such patients in the hours after they leave the A&E department. AETIOLOGY AND DEFINITION DKA may be the first presentation of diabetes. Insulin error (with or without intercurrent illness) is the most common precipitating factor, accounting for nearly two thirds of cases (excluding those where DKA was the first presentation of diabetes mellitus).2 The main features of DKA are hyperglycaemia, metabolic acidosis with a high anion gap and heavy ketonuria (box 1). This contrasts with the other hyperglycaemic diabetic emergency of hyperosmolar non-ketotic hyperglycaemia where there is no acidosis, absent or minimal ketonuria but often very high glucose levels (>33 mM) and very high serum sodium levels (>15 Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Associated With Antipsychotic Medication

Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Associated With Antipsychotic Medication

Treatment of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Associated With Antipsychotic Medication Antonia Vuk , MD,* Maja Baretic , MD, PhD, Martina Matovinovic Osvatic , MD, PhD, Igor Filipcic , MD, PhD,* Nikolina Jovanovic , MD, PhD, and Martina Rojnic Kuzman , MD, PhD From the *Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan; Zagreb School of Medicine; Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Newham Centre for Mental Health, London, United Kingdom; and Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. From the *Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan; Zagreb School of Medicine; Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Newham Centre for Mental Health, London, United Kingdom; and Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. From the *Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan; Zagreb School of Medicine; Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Newham Centre for Mental Health, London, United Kingdom; and Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. Find articles by Martina Matovinovic Osvatic From the *Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan; Zagreb School of Medicine; Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Newham Centre for Mental Health, London, United Kingdom; and Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, C Continue reading >>

Common Drugs And Medications To Treat Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Common Drugs And Medications To Treat Diabetic Ketoacidosis

IMPORTANT: About This Section and Other User-Generated Content on WebMD The opinions expressed in WebMD User-generated content areas like communities, reviews, ratings, or blogs are solely those of the User, who may or may not have medical or scientific training. These opinions do not represent the opinions of WebMD. User-generated content areas are not reviewed by a WebMD physician or any member of the WebMD editorial staff for accuracy, balance, objectivity, or any other reason except for compliance with our Terms and Conditions. Some of these opinions may contain information about treatment or uses of drug products that have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. WebMD does not endorse any specific product, service, or treatment. Do not consider WebMD User-generated content as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified healthcare provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your care plan or treatment. WebMD understands that reading individual, real-life experiences can be a helpful resource but it is never a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment from a qualified health care provider. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or dial 911 immediately. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

DKA occurs when the body starts running out of insulin Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication faced by people with diabetes which happens when the body starts running out of insulin. DKA is most commonly associated with type 1 diabetes , however, people with type 2 diabetes that produce very little of their own insulin may also be affected. Ketoacidosis is a serious short term complication which can result in coma or even death if it is not treated quickly. DKA occurs when the body has insufficient insulin to allow enough glucose to enter cells, and so the body switches to burning fatty acids and producing acidic ketone bodies. A high level of ketone bodies in the blood can cause particularly severe illness . Diabetic ketoacidosis may itself be the symptom of undiagnosed type 1 diabetes. Typical symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: DKA may also occur prior to a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Ketoacidosis can occasionally occur in pregnancy and this can be very dangerous for both the mother to be and the child. In most cases, ketoacidosis in people with diabetes will be accompanied by high sugar levels. However, ketoacidosis can also occur at low or normal blood glucose levels. This is referred to as euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis and may occur if someone who is insulin dependent neither eats nor takes sufficient insulin for a prolonged period of time. People on insulin pumps should be aware that euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis could occur during or following exercise if insulin delivery is suspended for too long. Healthcare professionals recommend that insulin delivery is not suspended for more than 1 hour. The NHS reports that around half of hospital admissions for people with type 1 diabetes are a result of ketoacidosis. The NHS states that d Continue reading >>

More in diabetes