Type 2 Diabetes Caused By Buildup Of Toxic Fat, Study Suggests
An overwhelming number of Americans live with diabetes, and many others with prediabetes. Although obesity is a risk factor for this condition, new research suggests it might only be a certain kind of fat that produces type 2 diabetes. Over 29 million Americans, or 9.3 percent of the United States population, live with diabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95 percent of all these cases. In type 1 diabetes, patients do not produce enough of the hormone insulin. In type 2 diabetes, although the body produces insulin, it cannot use it properly. Insulin is secreted by the pancreas when it detects sugar intake. Insulin enables cells to accept glucose, which is then processed by the cells and turned into energy. In patients whose insulin is not administered effectively, glucose is not assimilated by the cells but instead builds up in the bloodstream. Diabetes occurs when levels of blood sugar are abnormally high. Although being overweight or obese is a common risk factor for diabetes, researchers have pointed out that diabetes can still occur in people of a healthy weight. Previous research has found that 12 percent of people diagnosed with diabetes between 1990-2011 were at normal weight. The same research indicates that once diagnosed, normal-weight participants were more likely to die from diabetes than their heavier counterparts. Reasons for this were unknown, until now. New research may have shed light on not only why people of a healthy weight are still prone to type 2 diabetes, but also why some people are more susceptible to it than others. It could be that a certain kind of fat is what makes people prone to type 2 diabetes, regardless of their weight. Ceramides triggered insulin resistance, diabet Continue reading >>
This Kind Of Fat Lowers Your Risk For Diabetes
TIME Health For more, visit TIME Health. Not all saturated fats are created equal, it appears. A pair of new studies suggests that certain sources of saturated fat may be worse than others—especially when it comes to raising risk for type 2 diabetes. In one study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, researchers from Harvard University and the Universitat Rovira i Virgili in Spain tracked 3,349 Spanish adults for about 4.5 years. Overall, they found that people who consumed higher amounts of saturated fats and animal fats were twice as likely to develop diabetes than those who consumed a lower amount. When the researchers broke down the results by specific food type, the consumption of butter (at 12 grams a day) and cheese (at 30 grams a day) were both linked to an increased risk of diabetes. On the other hand, people who ate whole-fat yogurt actually had a lower risk than those who didn’t. The researchers have several explanations for these findings. Yogurt contains healthful ingredients, like probiotics and protein, that may have protective effects when it comes to diabetes risk, says lead author Marta Guasch-Ferre, a nutrition research fellow at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Even though the results were adjusted to account for other food intake, unhealthy eating patterns may have influenced them. “Butter and cheese often come with carbohydrates, like toast or crackers,” Guasch-Ferre says. Plus, people who eat more yogurt tend to have better diets than those who don’t, she adds. The study did not find any significant links between diabetes risk and consumption of red meat, processed meat, eggs or whole-fat milk. That was a surprise to the researchers, who suspect that other factors may have diluted these results. They poi Continue reading >>
Fats And Diabetes
Fat is very high in calories with each gram of fat providing more than twice as many calories compared to protein and carbohydrate. Eating too much fat can lead to you taking in more calories than your body needs which causes weight gain which can affect your diabetes control and overall health. The type of fat is important too. Having too much saturated fat in your diet can cause high levels of what’s known as ‘bad cholesterol’ (low-density lipoprotein or LDL), which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). People with diabetes are at increased risk of CVD, so it’s even more important to make healthier food choices. In this section Should I avoid fat completely? Fat plays a very important role in the body, so you need to include a small amount of it in your diet. Fat in our body fulfils a wide range of functions, which include: supplying energy for cells providing essential fatty acids that your body can't make transporting fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) providing a protective layer around vital organs being necessary in the production of hormones. However, fats are high in calories, so it’s important to limit the amount you use – especially if you’re trying to manage your weight. Next time you’re cooking or shopping, have a look at the nutritional label to see what types of fats are in the product you’re buying. The main types of fat found in our food are saturated and unsaturated, and most foods will have a combination of these. All of us need to cut saturated fat and use unsaturated fats and oils, such as rapeseed or olive oil, as these types are better for your heart. Saturated fats Saturated fat is present in higher amounts in animal products, such as: butter cream cheese meat meat products and poultry processed foods like pastri Continue reading >>
“sugar Does Not Cause Diabetes”: Did The Film What The Health Get It Right?
The documentary What the Health is receiving a huge amount of attention and most of it is positive. Many reports of people attempting to eat better are filling social media. I discussed the film on a local TV station in Detroit after two reporters indicated that the movie had made a big impact on their diets. There have even been reports that restaurants serving healthier fare have seen an uptick in customers attributing the change to the film. I have seen this in my own plant-based restaurant and have a What The Health Happy Hour that has been very popular. Naturally, there have been critics of the movie defending their viewpoint that meat based diets are healthy, but most have rallied around a statement in the film by Neal Barnard, MD that “sugar does not cause diabetes”. As the answer to this question may be important to you, I have done some research and share it here but this is in NO way an endorsement to add back soda and candy bars to your diet. In a world stressed by growing obesity and its medical consequences, limiting sugar is a universal recommendation from all health experts. 1) Type 1 diabetes is not caused by sugar. All agree on this as type 1 diabetes is considered an autoimmune disease leading to destruction of the insulin producing cells in the pancreas. However, patients with type 1 diabetes can develop and reverse insulin resistance (IR) in their muscles and liver so understanding the origin of IR is important. 2) Who is Neal Barnard, MD? Dr. Barnard is a graduate of the George Washington University School of Medicine and an adjunct associate professor of medicine there. He has published over 70 scientific publications (including long term studies on diet and diabetes) and 18 books including several New York Times bestsellers on health and diabe Continue reading >>
Do Saturated Fats And Trans Fats Cause Type-2 Diabetes?
Question: I am having a very difficult time defending the benefits of a diet rich in saturated fat. I attend Bastyr University, a naturopathic medical school, and through all my nutriton classes, saturated fat has been deemed unhealthy and detrimental to one’s health. For instance, my Diet and Nutrient Therapy class professor cites a 2002 article in the British Journal of Nutrition, “Acute effects of a meal fatty acid composition on insulin sensitivity in healthy post-menopausal women”1 as showing that saturated fat reduces insulin sensitivity, thereby contributing to type-2 diabetes. He also cited a 2002 study in Diabetologia, “Substituting dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat changes abdominal fat distribution and improves insulin sensitivy.”2 I would be very interested in your comments on these studies and your views on saturated fat and diabetes. Answer: Insulin insensitivity has been postulated to be the underlying factor for type-2 diabetes; that is, a condition in which the receptors for insulin on the cell membranes do not work very well. In type-2 diabetes, the pancreas secretes insulin, but since the receptors don’t work, the bloodstream contains chronic high levels of insulin and glucose, while little gets into the cell where it is needed. In the first study cited by your professor, four groups of subjects were fed a breakfast of rice krispies, banana, skimmed milk, “Nesquik” (presumably a chocolate drink) and something called “Marvel,” along with 40 grams of fat. The first group got mostly saturated fat from palm oil, the second group got mostly monounsaturated fat from olive oil, the third group got mostly omega-6 fatty acids from safflower oil and the fourth group got mostly omega-3 fatty acids from a combination of safflower Continue reading >>
Does Fat Cause Insulin Resistance?
For decades now, we have been told that fatness (or “obesity”) is a major cause of diabetes. Health “experts” have warned about this, but they could never say how being overweight could cause insulin resistance (IR). Without IR, you can’t have Type 2 diabetes, so the whole “blame fat” theory has been suspect. Well, now they have a plausible explanation. Obesity may cause inflammation, causing IR, leading to diabetes. But is this theory true? Does adipose (fat) tissue really create inflammation? Or do both obesity and inflammation come from some other cause? Get ready for some science as I try to explore these questions. In a new report in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology, two Japanese scientists report that “obesity is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation.” They explain that as fat cells get larger, they seem to attract immune cells called macrophages. These cells produce inflammatory chemicals called cytokines that help cause insulin resistance. Chief among these chemicals are interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In animal models, insulin resistance doesn’t occur until after macrophages invade the fat cells. So the question remains, which comes first, the inflammation or the fatness? What draws the immune cells into adipose tissue? Remember that most overweight people never develop diabetes. And some overweight people have much more inflammation than others. (The same is true of thin people, of course.) Why do some develop this fat-related inflammation and some don’t? Some think that weight itself provokes inflammation. According to French scientists writing in the journal European Cytokine Network, weight loss is associated with reduced “macrophage infiltration” and reduced inflammation. Also, another chemical, Continue reading >>
Does A High-fat Diet Cause Type 2 Diabetes?
154 Comments This is a special guest post from Denise Minger (thank you, Denise!). When fear-inducing news headlines hit the papers (and airwaves and iPads…) – High-Fat Diet Linked to Breast Cancer, Eating Whole Grains Will Help You Live Longer, Fish Oil Linked to Prostate Cancer – she’s the person to go to for an honest and entertaining critique of the research. In the last week I’ve received an untold number of emails from inquiring Mark’s Daily Apple readers about this latest health news “bombshell”. So, naturally, Denise… It’s that time again. Your inbox is filling up with emails from your low-fat friends. Your mom left four voicemails ordering you to throw away your bacon now (and clean your room while you’re at it). Your diet-savvy coworker left a Yahoo! News article on your desk, weighted in place with a muffin. This just in: High-fat diets cause diabetes—and researchers have proof, doggonit! At least, that’s what you’d assume from reading headlines like “How Fatty Food Triggers Diabetes” and “Study Reveals How High-Fat Diet Causes Type-2 Diabetes.” It might come as a surprise, then, that this study isn’t really about food at all – it’s about the effect of obesity on gene expression. In mice, no less. This is a classic example of the media spinning an article to help it grab attention, because most people wouldn’t give a flying Fudgsicle if they knew what it was really about. If you haven’t browsed it already, you can check out the study’s abstract here, officially titled “Pathway to diabetes through attenuation of pancreatic beta cell glycosylation and glucose transport.” (The full text is securely tucked behind a $32 pay-wall.) Between the jargony bits and focus on mice, it might be tempting to slide this stud Continue reading >>
Is Fat Killing You, Or Is Sugar?
In the early nineteen-sixties, when cholesterol was declared an enemy of health, my parents quickly enlisted in the war on fat. Onion rolls slathered with butter, herring in thick cream sauce, brisket of beef with a side of stuffed derma, and other staples of our family cuisine disappeared from our table. Margarine dethroned butter, vinegar replaced cream sauce, poached fish substituted for brisket. I recall experiencing something like withdrawal, daydreaming about past feasts as my stomach grumbled. My father’s blood-cholesterol level—not to mention that of his siblings and friends—became a regular topic of conversation at the dinner table. Yet, despite the restrictive diet, his number scarcely budged, and a few years later, in his mid-fifties, he had a heart attack and died. The dangers of fat haunted me after his death. When, in my forties, my cholesterol level rose to 242—200 is considered the upper limit of what’s healthy—I embarked on a regimen that restricted fatty foods (and also cut down on carbohydrates). Six months later, having shed ten pounds, I rechecked my level. It was unchanged; genes have a way of signalling their power. But as soon as my doctor put me on just a tiny dose of a statin medication my cholesterol plummeted more than eighty points. In recent decades, fat has been making a comeback. Researchers have questioned whether dietary fat is necessarily dangerous, and have shown that not all fats are created equal. People now look for ways of boosting the “good cholesterol” in their blood and extol the benefits of Mediterranean diets, with their emphasis on olive oil and fatty nuts. In some quarters, blame for obesity and heart disease has shifted from fat to carbohydrates. The Atkins diet and, more recently, the paleo diet have popul Continue reading >>
Dietary Fat And Blood Glucose
When most people with diabetes think about the effects that different foods have on their blood glucose levels, one particular component of foods usually comes to mind: carbohydrates. And rightfully so, since out of the three major macronutrients in the human diet — carbohydrates, proteins, and fats — carbohydrates have the greatest effect on blood glucose levels. But as a recent study makes clear, fats can also have a significant effect on blood glucose levels — both positive and negative. As many people with diabetes have experienced firsthand, eating fats in combination with carbohydrates can affect how quickly the carbohydrates are absorbed in the digestive tract, potentially leading to a slower, more sustained rise in blood glucose levels. But this study looked at a different, often overlooked aspect of dietary fat: what type it is — saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated — as well as the effect of substituting fat for carbohydrate. Published last month in the journal PLOS Medicine, the study examined 102 different clinical trials in which participants followed different diets and had their blood glucose, insulin, and HbA1c (a measure of long-term blood glucose control) levels recorded. A total of 4,220 adults — some of whom had diabetes — and 239 different diet groups were included in the study. Within each of the clinical trials, participants in each diet group consumed the same number of calories, regardless of the other aspects of their diet. As noted in a HealthDay article on the study, the researchers found that some fats raised blood glucose levels less than others — and that substituting some fats for carbohydrates could also lead to better blood glucose control. When participants switched out 5% of the calories in their diet from ca Continue reading >>
Does Fat Cause Type 2 Diabetes?
Does fat cause type 2 diabetes? How common is it that people reverse type 2 diabetes, using fasting and low carb, and over what period of time? Should you use carb counting or glycemic index counting? Dr. Jason Fung is one of the world’s leading experts on fasting for weight loss and diabetes reversal. Here are a his answers to those questions and more: What proportion of patients at your clinic succeed in reversing diabetes, and over what period of time? It would be interesting to have some reference points for people with different starting BMI’s and duration of diabetes – but any figures would be good: e.g. Of people with an initial BMI over 40 and diabetes over 10 years, x% had reversed it after 3 months, y% after 6 months and z% after 1 year. Barbara It all depends on motivation and compliance. I don’t have hard numbers on compliance but my ballpark estimate is that only about half the patients in the clinic are compliant. Our Long Distance Program has much higher compliance, maybe 60-70%. People who are not complying, i.e. they are not really following the program, have little chance of benefit. Of those that comply, I would estimate that 80% show improvement in their type 2 diabetes. However, to get complete reversal often takes years or more. The disease of type 2 diabetes takes decades or more to develop and does not go away fully in 2 weeks. That’s only wishful thinking. Also, if you return to the diet that gave you type 2 diabetes, the disease will return. The most important factors in how long it takes is how severe your type 2 diabetes is, and how long you’ve had it (along with compliance). If you fast once or twice a week for 24 hours, it could take many years to fully reverse, if ever. If you do repeated, prolonged fasts, it may happen sooner. Continue reading >>
Diet And Diabetes: Why Saturated Fats Are The Real Enemy
Diet and Diabetes: Why Saturated Fats Are the Real Enemy This is the seventh article in our Controversies series and the third piece focusing on the subject of fats. Today, we are going to explore the very important relationship between saturated fat intake and the onset of diabetes. As we mentioned in The Ultimate Guide to Saturated Fats , Once we control for weight, alcohol, smoking, exercise and family history, the incidence of diabetes is significantly associated with the proportion of saturated fat in our blood. Today we will take a deep dive to fully understand why there is such a strong link between diabetes and saturated fat consumption. We will also discuss how a plant-based diet may protect you from (or even reverse!) the disease. Insulin resistance is a hallmark of both prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. So what is insulin resistance exactly (and why is it important)? Insulin is what permits glucose (sugar) in the blood to enter our (muscle) cells. In essence, insulin unlocks the door, allowing the glucose to come in. If there is no insulin at all (the case of type 1 diabetes), the blood sugar hangs out in the bloodstream because it cannot get inside. That causes the blood sugar levels to rise. But what happens if the insulin is there but is simply not working properly? In that case, the lock to the cell door is blocked. This is what is called insulin resistance. So what causes insulin resistance in the first place? Fat build-up inside (muscle) cells creates toxic fatty breakdown products and free radicals that block the insulin-signaling process, close the glucose gate, and make blood sugar levels rise. In fact, insulin resistance can occur in 180 short minutes (just 3 hours!) after the consumption of fat. The process of insulin resistance, caused by the buil Continue reading >>
Fat Is The Cause Of Type 2 Diabetes
ron: I’m glad you asked this question, because it gets at a common issue that many people share. Due to science education in schools and the way media reports on scientific news, the general public is under the impression that each new study sort of wipes out any study that came before. Say that yesterday there was a study or article in favor of say butter, then you would see those headlines and think that the latest and greatest WORD from science is that butter is healthy. And then tomorrow, when another study comes out showing that butter is indeed unhealthy, there is another headline and people think that the latest “word” is that butter is now unhealthy. Another problem is that because people think the latest study is the latest word and since studies are not all going to agree, people think that the science keeps flip flopping and get frustrated with that. The media makes this worse by only reporting studies that they can make appear to be a “flip flop” as the media makes money off of eye catching headlines. . But that’s not how science actually works. When done in good faith, science is about hitting a subject from a whole bunch of different angles and attempting to replicate results multiple times. Understanding that life is messy and it’s extremely difficult (impossible?) to create perfect studies for subjects as complex as nutrition on long term health, we *expect* that not all the studies will agree with each other. However, over time, if we do our job, we can also expect that the *body of scientific evidence* will paint a fairly clear picture. I say all the time, “It’s not about any one study. It’s about the body of evidence.” . Did you know that there are over 100 studies showing that smoking is either neutral or health-promoting? But t Continue reading >>
Saturated Fats' Impact On Type 2 Diabetes Risk 'varies Across Acids'
Saturated fats' impact on type 2 diabetes risk 'varies across acids' A new study published in the journal Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology finds that not all saturated fatty acids have the same impact on risk for type 2 diabetes. Foods with a high proportion of animal fat - such as butter, cheese, red meat and fried foods - typically contain saturated fat. Foods with a high proportion of animal fat - such as butter, cheese, red meat and fried foods - typically contain saturated fat, which has long been considered unhealthy. Currently, recommendations suggest that no more than 10% of our calorie intake should be made up of saturated fats. Although some scientists have suggested there may be a link between consumption of saturated fats and increased risk of type 2 diabetes , the association and mechanisms behind it have not been clear. The new study - called the EPIC-InterAct Study - was funded by the European Commission to investigate the relationship between nine different types of saturated fatty acids and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The study was conducted by researchers from the UK's Medical Research Council (MRC) and the University of Cambridge. High-speed blood analysis used to calculate type 2 diabetes risk The study analyzed blood samples taken from 12,403 people - out of a group of 340,234 European adults - who developed type 2 diabetes. Using a new kind of high-speed blood analysis, which was developed especially for the project, the researchers were able to determine the proportions of each of the nine fatty acids in the participants' blood samples and relate them to type 2 diabetes risk. The researchers found that saturated fatty acids containing an even number of carbon atoms in their molecular chain - for example, 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0 - were as Continue reading >>
Fat Vs Sugar In The War On Insulin Resistance
Dietary choices are implicated in increasing risk, but sometimes it is hard to know where to look when seeking advice on what to eat! But is it fat or sugar we should be more concerned about? Or both? It seems the answer to that question is a little complex. First, let’s look at the action of insulin. When insulin gets high Insulin impacts the synthesis and storage of glucose, fat and amino acids. It is primarily recognised for its regulation of blood glucose levels, and maintains balance of levels of sugar in the blood by: moving glucose from the blood into muscle cells or adipose (fat) tissue, and; inhibiting the formation of glucose from non-carbs, i.e. fats and proteins (a process called gluconeogenesis that takes place in the liver when blood glucose runs low).1 It then gathers excess glucose in the blood and stores it as fat. It also acts as an appetite regulator, and whilst its role is not well defined, once insulin acts to deposits fat into fat cells, leptin – the hunger suppressant hormone – is stimulated to release.1 In insulin resistance, it has been observed that glucose and free fatty acids are persistently high in the blood, likely due to ‘resistant’ cells not heeding to insulin’s call, meaning less glucose uptake by muscle cells, and adipose cells no longer inhibiting free fatty acid release.1 This then results in higher levels of insulin being produced, and chronically high insulin is known as hyperinsulinemia. Liver and kidney cells do not become resistant to insulin-like the muscle and fat cells, and instead are hyper-stimulated to produce triglycerides and retain sodium respectively. This results in high levels of TGL in the blood, and high blood pressure.1 Neither situation is great, especially for your heart. So, considering insulin is i Continue reading >>
5 Common Food Myths For People With Diabetes Debunked
There are many misconceptions that people with diabetes must follow a strict diet, when in reality they can eat anything a person without diabetes eats. Amy Campbell, MS, RD, LDN, CDE, nutritionist at Joslin Diabetes Center and co-author of 16 Myths of a "Diabetic Diet," debunks some common food myths for people with diabetes. 1. People with diabetes have to eat different foods from the rest of the family. People with diabetes can eat the same foods as the rest of their family. Current nutrition guidelines for diabetes are very flexible and offer many choices, allowing people with diabetes to fit in favorite or special-occasion foods. Everyone, whether they have diabetes or not, should eat a healthful diet that consists of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean protein foods, and heart-healthy fats. So, if you have diabetes, there's no need to cook separately from your family. 2. People with diabetes should never give in to food cravings. Almost everyone has food cravings at some point, and people with diabetes are no exception. It's not uncommon for people with diabetes to cut out all sweets or even cut way back on food portions in order to lose weight. In turn, your body often responds to these drastic changes by creating cravings. Nine times out of ten, your food choices in these situations tend to be high in fat and/or sugar, too. The best way to deal with food cravings is to try to prevent them by following a healthy eating plan that lets you occasionally fit sweets into your diabetes meal plan. If a craving does occur, let yourself have a small taste of whatever it is you want. By doing so, you can enjoy the flavor and avoid overeating later on. 3. People with diabetes shouldn't eat too many starchy foods, even if they contain fiber, because starch raises your blo Continue reading >>