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Does Propranolol Raise Blood Sugar

Beta-blockers 'increase Diabetes Risk By 50 Per Cent'

Beta-blockers 'increase Diabetes Risk By 50 Per Cent'

Beta-blockers 'increase diabetes risk by 50 per cent' Patients taking beta-blockers for their blood pressure have a 50 per cent higher risk of developing diabetes compared to being on newer drugs, researchers have revealed. For the first time, a new study reveals the risk of using the older drugs which are no longer recommended for treating high blood pressure. Patients taking beta-blockers and diuretics - standard medication for over 30 years - are at far greater risk of becoming diabetic. Not only are they less effective than newer medication, but they actually hasten and, in some cases, induce the disease in blood pressure patients - who are already at high risk. This means at least 8,000 Britons taking the older drugs are getting diabetes unnecessarily each year as a result. Until earlier this year, around two million patients have been on beta blocker based treatments at any one time. But new guidance to doctors says newer ace inhibitors and calcium channel blockers should be the first choice treatment for the millions of Britons treated for high blood pressure. The change came after research found the older drugs were only half as effective at stopping strokes and heart attacks. Beta blockers such as atenolol should no longer be prescribed for the problem, said the guidelines from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence. But now a new clinical trial released yesterday show they also bring a 50 per cent higher risk of developing diabetes. Although many patients currently taking them are being switched by their GPs to newer drugs when they go for a scheduled check-up, they remain in wide use. Beta blockers are still considered the best treatment for other conditions such as angina, and doctors have warned patients not to stop taking them without medical advi Continue reading >>

390 Drugs That Can Affect Blood Glucose Levels

390 Drugs That Can Affect Blood Glucose Levels

Knowing the drugs that can affect blood glucose levels is essential in properly caring for your diabetes patients. Some medicines raise blood sugar in patients while others might lower their levels. However, not all drugs affect patients the same way. 390 Drugs that Can Affect Blood Glucose Levels is also available for purchase in ebook format. 390 Drugs that can affect blood glucose Level Table of Contents: Drugs that May Cause Hyper- or Hypoglycemia Drugs That May Cause Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) (GENERIC NAME | BRAND NAME) Abacavir | (Ziagen®) Abacavir + lamivudine,zidovudine | (Trizivir®) Abacavir + dolutegravir + lamivudine | (Triumeq®) Abiraterone | (Zytiga®) Acetazolamide | (Diamox®) Acitretin | (Soriatane®) Aletinib | (Alecensa®) Albuterol | (Ventolin®, Proventil®) Albuterol + ipratropium | (Combivent®) Aliskiren + amlodipine + hydrochlorothiazide | (Amturnide®) Aliskiren + amlodipine | (Tekamlo®) Ammonium chloride Amphotericin B | (Amphocin®, Fungizone®) Amphotericin B lipid formulations IV | (Abelcet®) Amprenavir | (Agenerase®) Anidulafungin | (Eraxis®) Aripiprazole | (Abilify®) Arsenic trioxide | (Trisenox®) Asparaginase | (Elspar®, Erwinaze®) Atazanavir | (Reyataz ®) Atazanavir + cobistat | (Evotaz®) Atenolol + chlorthalidone | (Tenoretic®) Atorvastatin | (Lipitor®) Atovaquone | (Mepron®) Baclofen | (Lioresal®) Belatacept | (Nulojix®) Benazepril + hydrochlorothiazide | (Lotension®) Drugs That May Cause Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) – Continued (GENERIC NAME | BRAND NAME) Betamethasone topical | (Alphatrex®, Betatrex®, Beta-Val®, Diprolene®, Diprolene® AF, Diprolene® Lotion, Luxiq®, Maxivate®) Betamethasone +clotrimazole | (Lotrisone® topical) Betaxolol Betoptic® eyedrops, | (Kerlone® oral) Bexarotene | (Targ Continue reading >>

Influence Of Beta-blocking Drugs On Glucose Metabolism In Hypertensive, Non-diabetic Patients.

Influence Of Beta-blocking Drugs On Glucose Metabolism In Hypertensive, Non-diabetic Patients.

Influence of beta-blocking drugs on glucose metabolism in hypertensive, non-diabetic patients. Groop L , Ttterman KJ , Harno K , Gordin A . Two beta-blocking agents, non-selective propranolol and beta 1-selective metoprolol, were investigated with respect to their effect on glucose metabolism in 11 hypertensive, non-diabetic patients. They were randomly treated for two weeks in a double-blind cross-over manner with propranolol, metoprolol and placebo. Both drugs caused a small but significant increase in basal blood glucose values as compared with placebo (p less than 0.01). Metoprolol increased the blood glucose concentrations during the first 10 min of an i.v. glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) as compared with placebo (p less than 0.02) and propranolol (p less than 0.05). Propranolol raised only the blood glucose values during the later part of the IVGTT (p less than 0.01). The increase in blood glucose concentrations was, however, not associated with significant changes in peripheral insulin levels. The mean basal glucagon concentrations were lower during propranolol and metoprolol than during placebo (p less than 0.01). Propranolol also induced a more pronounced reduction of plasma glucagon than placebo (p less than 0.05) at 10 min of the IVGTT. The mean basal free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations were lower during propranolol (p less than 0.001) and metoprolol (p less than 0.05) than during placebo. Both drugs decreased the plasma levels of FFA during the first 10 min of the IVGTT as compared with placebo (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.02, respectively). Pharmacological doses of propranolol and metoprolol increased blood glucose concentrations, decreased plasma glucagon and FFA concentrations, but had no effect on serum insulin levels in hypertensive, non-diabeti Continue reading >>

What Medicines Can Make Your Blood Sugar Spike?

What Medicines Can Make Your Blood Sugar Spike?

If you have diabetes or high blood sugar, you probably know some of the things that cause your glucose (another name for blood sugar) to go up. Like a meal with too many carbohydrates, or not enough exercise. But other medicines you might take to keep yourself healthy can cause a spike, too. Know Your Meds Medicines you get with a prescription and some that you buy over the counter (OTC) can be a problem for people who need to control their blood sugar. Prescription medicines that can raise your glucose include: Steroids (also called corticosteroids). They treat diseases caused by inflammation, like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and allergies. Common steroids include hydrocortisone and prednisone. But steroid creams (for a rash) or inhalers (for asthma) aren’t a problem. Drugs that treat high blood pressure, such as beta-blockers and thiazide diuretics High doses of asthma medicines, or drugs that you inject for asthma treatment OTC medicines that can raise your blood sugar include: Cough syrup. Ask your doctor if you should take regular or sugar-free. How Do You Decide What to Take? Even though these medicines can raise your blood sugar, it doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t take them if you need them. The most important thing is to work with your doctor on the right way to use them. If you have diabetes or you’re watching your blood sugar, ask your doctor before you take new medicines or change any medicines, even if it’s just something for a cough or cold. (Remember, just being sick can raise your blood sugar.) Make sure your doctor knows all the medicines you take -- for diabetes or any other reason. If one of them may affect your blood sugar, she may prescribe a lower dose or tell you to take the medicine for a shorter time. You may need to check your blood s Continue reading >>

Drugs That Raise Your Blood Sugar

Drugs That Raise Your Blood Sugar

If you have been diagnosed with diabetes, you probably know about the different types of food and drink that can increase your blood sugar (glucose). But did you know some prescription medicines can do this as well? This is why you should tell everyone who prescribes medicines for you—doctors, dentists, or nurse practitioners—that you have diabetes. At the same time, it’s important for the doctor or nurse practitioner managing your diabetes treatment to know of any new medicines you may be taking that were prescribed by someone else. There are many medicines that can raise blood sugar and cause hyperglycemia, or blood sugar levels above normal. If you aren’t sure about a medication you’ve been prescribed, ask your doctor or pharmacist if it will affect your blood sugar before you start taking it. Common medicines that raise blood sugar levels include: Steroids Corticosteroids, called steroids for short, are often prescribed to treat conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and asthma, among others. While they can be very effective in managing those types of problems, they can also wreak havoc on your blood sugar levels. Luckily, when the steroid doses decrease or when you're told you can stop taking the medication, usually your sugar levels will return to their previous readings. Some examples of steroids include prednisone and prednisolone. Antipsychotics Patients with certain mental illnesses, like schizophrenia, rely on medications such as antipsychotics to manage their symptoms. While these medicines can be life saving, they are also known to raise blood sugar levels, especially clozapine (Clozaril, FazaClo, Versacloz), olanzapine (Zyprexa, Zyprexa, Zydis), risperidone (Risperdal), aripiprazole (Abilify), quetiapine fumarate (Seroquel), and ziprasidone (Geo Continue reading >>

Propranolol - A Beta-blocker

Propranolol - A Beta-blocker

Propranolol is prescribed to treat a number of different conditions. If you are unsure why you are taking it, speak with your doctor. The most common side-effects are feeling tired, cold hands and feet, disturbed sleep, and stomach upset. About propranolol Type of medicine A beta-adrenoceptor blocking medicine (often referred to as a beta-blocker) Used for Hypertension; angina; arrhythmias; to protect the heart; anxiety symptoms; thyroid problems; to prevent migraines Also called Bedranol SR®; Beta-Prograne®; Half Beta-Prograne® Available as Tablets, modified-release capsules, and oral liquid medicine Propranolol belongs to the group of medicines known as beta-blockers. It is a medicine which is used to treat several different medical conditions. It works on the heart and blood vessels. Propranolol slows down the activity of your heart by stopping messages sent by some nerves to your heart. It does this by blocking tiny areas (called beta-adrenergic receptors) where the messages are received by your heart. As a result, your heart beats more slowly and with less force. This allows the pressure of blood within your blood vessels to be reduced if you have high blood pressure (hypertension), and helps to prevent abnormally fast heart rhythms (arrhythmias). Because your heart is using less energy, this helps to reduce chest pain if you have angina. Propranolol can also help to protect the heart following a heart attack. Propranolol is also prescribed to help ease the physical symptoms of anxiety, such as a fast heartbeat and trembling. Similar symptoms to these are also experienced by people with an overactive thyroid gland. Propranolol quickly relieves these types of symptoms. It is also the beta-blocker which is commonly prescribed to help prevent migraines. It can be h Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And Beta-blockers, What You Should Know

Type 2 Diabetes And Beta-blockers, What You Should Know

Type 2 Diabetes and Beta-Blockers, What You Should Know By Deborah Mitchell G+ Nov 12 2012 - 8:37am When you think about risk factors for type 2 diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, and inactivity may come to mind. One lesser known factor is use of beta-blockers, but not all of the drugs in this class may raise the chances of developing type 2 diabetes. Some beta-blockers increase diabetes risk Beta-blockers (aka, beta-adrenergic blocking agents or beta antagonists) have been on the market for about six decades. The first clinically beneficial beta-blocker to enter the market was propranolol, which was prescribed to treat angina pectoris, a condition in which the heart's need for oxygen exceeds the available supply. Since then, propranolol and other beta-blockers have been developed and prescribed most often for arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms), atrial fibrillation (irregular heart rhythms), high blood pressure, and heart attack, and less often for migraines, anxiety, overactive thyroid, and glaucoma. Beta-blockers work by slowing the heart beat and reducing contractions of blood vessels in the heart, brain, and throughout the body. According to cardiologist Ragaendra R. Baliga at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, "Studies show that older beta- blockers can increase a patient's risk of type 2 diabetes by more than 25 percent." While raising the risk of diabetes is not good for anyone, it is especially damaging for individuals who already have conditions that affect the heart and vascular system. In a recent issue of Heart Failure Clinics, Baliga explained that "older beta-blockers are doubled-edged swords. They save lives, but you want to avoid complications down the road, like diabetes." When some beta-blockers are used for a long time, they may Continue reading >>

Diabetes Update: Beta Blockers Worsen Blood Sugar--may Cause Diabetes

Diabetes Update: Beta Blockers Worsen Blood Sugar--may Cause Diabetes

Beta Blockers Worsen Blood Sugar--May Cause Diabetes Many people know that it is a bad idea for anyone who takes insulin or a sulfonylurea drug to take a beta blocker. This is because it has long been known that these drugs block the counter-regulatory response that prevents a dangerous hypo or--if it cannot prevent the hypo--at least gives the victim some warning that one is coming by causing shakes and pounding pulse. Now evidence from a huge study of almost 20,000 people has learned that beta blockers are dangerous to anyone with any blood sugar abnormality. The study is Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA,). It was published in Diabetes Care in May. Determinants of new-onset diabetes among 19,257 hypertensive patients randomized in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Blood Pressure Lowering Arm and the relative influence of antihypertensive medication. It concluded: "Baseline FPG >5 mmol/l, BMI, and use of an atenolol +/- diuretic regimen were among the major determinants of NOD [Non-insulin dependent diabetes i.e. Type 2] in hypertensive patients." An analysis of the study (which is still only available as an abstract to non-subscribers) published in Irish Medical News explains "Hypertensive patients allocated to amlodipine and perindopril were found 34% less likely to develop NOD [Type 2] compared with those allocated to the -blocker/diuretic combination." Diabetes in Control adds the following: "Says Dr Anoop Misra, director and head (diabetes and metabolic diseases) Fortis Hospitals: "In patients with hypertension, beta blocker drugs are no longer frontline therapy. These drugs may not only increase blood sugar levels in those who don't have diabetes, but may worsen sugar control in those with diabetes an Continue reading >>

Propranolol Extended Release Side Effects

Propranolol Extended Release Side Effects

Propranolol Extended Release Side Effects Patricia Nevins is a registered nurse with nearly 20 years of nursing experience. She obtained her Master of Science in nursing with a focus in education from the University of Phoenix. Nevins shares her passion for healthy living through her roles as educator, nursing consultant and writer. Propranolol hydrochloride is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmia), myocardial infarction (heart attack), and it is also used to prevent migraines. Propranolol slows down a person's heart rate and makes it easier for the heart to beat. This action gives propranolol its antihypertensive (blood pressure lowering) effects. Higher doses of propranolol work to control heart arhrythmias. Side effects of this medication can affect a variety of body functions. Adverse reactions to propranolol that might affect the body as a whole. These reactions include fever, cold extremities, joint pain and leg fatigue. Patients may experience weight gain. A skin reaction similar to lupus erythematous (an autoimmune disorder) in which raised, red, disc-like lesions appear on the face in a butterfly pattern, may occur in some patients. As with most medications, allergic reactions are possible, including serious life-threatening anaphylactic responses. Propranolol can cause sleep disturbances, drowsiness, fatigue, lightheadedness, vertigo, and fainting. Central nervous system side effects can be intense, with some patients experiencing psychosis, depression, confusion, agitation, vivid dreams, visual hallucinations, delusions and organic brain syndrome (decreased mental function, which is reversible). Propranolol might cause profound bradycardia (slow heart rate) and hypotension. Palpitations, chest pain, atrioventric Continue reading >>

Beta Blockers And High Blood Sugar Readings

Beta Blockers And High Blood Sugar Readings

Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community Beta Blockers and high blood sugar readings I am a 5' 8" female who weighs 135lbs. I exercise routinely, but love my chocolate! lol! I have been on a beta blocker for the past 11 years for a fast heart rate. Over the course of the past 5 years, during routine blood work, my FBS has been ranging anywhere from 102 to 128. (It should also be noted that I checked my own blood sugars one and two hours after eating on a few occasions and found that my readings went in excess of 200. On my most recent blood work a few months ago, my family doctor voiced his concern that I was indeed pre-diabetic and that I should watch what I eat. I ask him about my beta blocker and if it could cause this. He did not feel that it could, as it is a cardo select version. I decided, (with his approval) that I would wean myself off of the beta blocker and see if my blood sugars improved at all. I needed to prove this to myself...is it the medication OR do I in fact have pre-diabetes. If so, I wanted to get "on the ball" and watch my diet better. I have been off of the medication fully now for the past 12 days. My blood sugar readings have DRAMATICALLY lowered, back to the normal range! I was taking a very low dose of beta blocker, Zebeta (bisoprolol) 2.5 mg daily. This was a very welcome surprise as you can imagine. My point....I want people out there to know that this can happen. So many people are placed on beta blockers for high blood pressure etc, and may be diagnosed with diabetes. Perhaps some folks out there in this world may NOT indeed have it! Please talk to your doctor if you take one of these meds! I know that in most people it does not effect readings. This is shown Continue reading >>

Drugs That Can Worsen Diabetes Control

Drugs That Can Worsen Diabetes Control

One of the main goals of any diabetes control regimen is keeping blood glucose levels in the near-normal range. The cornerstones of most plans to achieve that goal include following a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and taking insulin or other medicines as necessary. However, it’s not uncommon for people with diabetes to have other medical conditions that also require taking medicines, and sometimes these drugs can interfere with efforts to control blood glucose. A few medicines, including some commonly prescribed to treat high blood pressure and heart disease, have even been implicated as the cause of some cases of diabetes. This article lists some of the medicines that can worsen blood glucose control, the reasons they have that effect, the usual magnitude of the blood glucose changes, as well as the pros and cons of using these drugs in people who have diabetes. Where the problems occur To understand how various medicines can worsen blood glucose control, it helps to understand how insulin, the hormone responsible for lowering blood glucose, works in the body. Insulin is released from the beta cells of the pancreas in response to rising levels of glucose in the bloodstream, rising levels of a hormone called GLP-1 (which is released from the intestines in response to glucose), and signals from the nerve connections to the pancreas. The secretion of insulin occurs in two phases: a rapid first phase and a delayed second phase. Both of these phases are dependent on levels of potassium and calcium in the pancreas. Insulin acts on three major organs: the liver, the muscles, and fat tissue. In the liver, insulin enhances the uptake of glucose and prevents the liver from forming new glucose, which it normally does to maintain fasting glucose levels. In muscle and f Continue reading >>

Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?

Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?

Yes, some blood pressure medications can affect triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Hydrochlorothiazide is commonly prescribed for high blood pressure. It's from a class of medications called diuretics, more commonly called water pills. High doses — 50 milligrams or more — of some diuretics, such as hydrochlorothiazide, can temporarily increase your low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or "bad") cholesterol and triglycerides. The good news is that the rise in LDL cholesterol and triglycerides usually returns to normal within a year of starting these medications. And, the mild effects the drug has on cholesterol and triglycerides don't outweigh the benefits from lowering blood pressure. Smaller doses of hydrochlorothiazide usually don't cause a rise in cholesterol and triglycerides. Older beta blockers, such as propranolol (Inderal, Innopran XL), atenolol (Tenormin) and metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL), can slightly increase triglycerides and decrease high-density lipoprotein (HDL, or "good") cholesterol. Typically this occurs in people who have a cluster of conditions (metabolic syndrome) that includes: High blood pressure High blood sugar Excess weight around the abdomen Abnormal cholesterol and triglycerides Newer beta blockers, such as carvedilol (Coreg) and nebivolol (Bystolic), are less likely to affect your cholesterol levels. The older beta blocker drugs that can affect your cholesterol levels usually won't be one of the first drugs you're given as a treatment for high blood pressure. But, older beta blocker drugs are useful in specific situations, such as preventing recurrent heart disease or managing heart failure. In some cases, older beta blockers can be helpful in treating people with a high risk of cardiovascular disease or people who have migraines. If you' Continue reading >>

Propranolol: Side Effects, Dosage, Uses, And More

Propranolol: Side Effects, Dosage, Uses, And More

Propranolol oral tablet is available only as a generic drug. It doesnt have a brand-name version. Propranolol comes in four forms: oral tablet, extended-release oral capsule, oral liquid solution, and injectable. Propranolol oral tablet reduces your hearts workload and helps it beat more regularly. Its used to treat high blood pressure, angina, atrial fibrillation, and tremor. Its also used to prevent migraines and help control thyroid and adrenal gland tumors. Warning for stopping treatment: Dont stop taking this medication without talking to your doctor first. Stopping propranolol suddenly can cause changes in your heart rhythm and blood pressure , worsened chest pain , or a heart attack . Your doctor will slowly lower your dosage over several weeks to help prevent these effects. Drowsiness warning: This drug can cause drowsiness . Dont drive, use machinery, or perform any activities that require alertness until you know how this drug affects you. Diabetes warning: Propranolol can cause low blood sugar ( hypoglycemia ). It may also mask the signs of low blood sugar, such as a heart rate thats higher than normal, sweating, and shakiness. This drug should be used with caution if you have diabetes , especially if you take insulin or other diabetes drugs that can cause low blood sugar. This drug may also cause low blood sugar in infants, children, and adults who dont have diabetes. This is more likely after periods of long exercise or if you have kidney problems . Asthma warning: If you have asthma or similar breathing problems, dont take propranolol. It can make your asthma worse. Propranolol is a prescription drug. It comes in these forms: oral tablet, oral extended-release capsule, oral solution, and injectable. Propranolol oral tablet is only available in a generic f Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Beta-blockers: What You Need To Know

Diabetes And Beta-blockers: What You Need To Know

People with diabetes tend to develop heart disease or stroke at an earlier age than the general population. One reason for this is that high glucose levels increase your risk of high blood pressure (hypertension). According to the American Diabetes Association, almost one in three American adults has high blood pressure. Two out of three people with diabetes have high blood pressure. Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension High blood pressure doesn’t necessarily cause symptoms. You may feel just fine, but don’t let that fool you. Your heart is working harder than it should. It’s a serious condition, especially for people with diabetes. High blood pressure puts a lot of extra stress on your body. Over time, it can cause hardening of the arteries. It can also damage your brain, kidneys, eyes, and other organs. Treating High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, your doctor may want to try other methods of treating it before turning to beta-blockers. These may include lifestyle changes and taking better control of blood glucose levels. The decision to use medication, including beta-blockers, will depend on your personal medical history. A 2015 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association recommends drug therapy with a blood pressure reading of above 140 systolic and above 90 diastolic (140/90). For people with diabetes, lowering high blood pressure reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular problems, kidney disease, and neuropathy. Beta-Blockers Beta-blockers (beta-adrenergic blocking agents) are a class of prescription drug. They are used to treat a variety of conditions such as glaucoma, migraines, and anxiety disorders. They are also used to treat heart failure and high blood pressure. High blood pressure can increase your risk for hear Continue reading >>

Drugs That Can Raise Bg

Drugs That Can Raise Bg

By the dLife Editors Some medicines that are used for treating other medical conditions can cause elevated blood sugar in people with diabetes. You may need to monitor your blood glucose more closely if you take one of the medicines listed below. It’s important to note that just because a medicine has the possibility of raising blood sugar, it does not mean the medicine is unsafe for a person with diabetes. For instance, many people with type 2 diabetes need to take a diuretic and a statin to lower blood pressure and cholesterol. In these and many other cases, the pros will almost always outweigh the cons. Don’t ever take matters of medication into your own hands. Discuss any concerns you have with your healthcare provider. Certain Antibiotics Of all the different antibiotics, the ones known as quinolones are the only ones that may affect blood glucose. They are prescribed for certain types of infection. Levofloxacin (Levaquin) Ofloxacin (Floxin) Moxifloxacin (Avelox) Ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Cipro XR, Proquin XR) Gemifloxacin (Factive) Second Generation Antipsychotics These medicines are used for a variety of mental health conditions. There is a strong association between these medicines and elevated blood sugar, and frequent monitoring is recommended. Clozapine (Clozaril) Olanzapine (Zyprexa) Paliperidone (Invega) Quietiapine (Seroquel, Seroquel XR) Risperidone (Risperdal) Aripiprazole (Abilify) Ziprasidone (Geodon) Iloperidone (Fanapt) Lurasidone (Latuda) Pemavanserin (Nuplazid) Asenapine (Saphris) Beta Blockers Beta blockers are used to treat high blood pressure and certain heart conditions. Not all available beta blockers have been shown to cause high blood sugar. Atenolol Metoprolol Propranolol Corticosteroids Corticosteroids are used to treat conditions where th Continue reading >>

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