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Does Msg Increase Insulin

Glutamate: Can It Be Use To Your Advantage? Study Shows Insulin Sensitizing Effects Of Dreaded Food Additive - Suppversity: Nutrition And Exercise Science For Everyone

Glutamate: Can It Be Use To Your Advantage? Study Shows Insulin Sensitizing Effects Of Dreaded Food Additive - Suppversity: Nutrition And Exercise Science For Everyone

Glutamate: Can It Be Use To Your Advantage? Study Shows Insulin Sensitizing Effects of Dreaded Food Additive In the context of MSG scare, glutamate has gotten such a bad rep that it seems highly counterintuitive to assume that there was anything good about the major excitatory amino acid in the human body and still, a recent study from the Department of Kinesiology at the University of Waterloo clearly suggests that "MSG and carbohydrate supplementation can be used to manipulate plasma glutamate" (Sebastiano. 2013)... and no, we are not talking about an in-vitro or rodent study here. With 9 perfectly healthy, recreationally active men aged 23.9+/-1.9y and a BMI of 25kg/m the results can however be taken as being representative for at least large parts of the ever-decreasing number of "normal-weight" individuals. Usually, the "on the other hands", are something I am talking about at the end of the article, but in this case, of which I expect that it's going to become pretty controversial it appears prudent to address them right away: there was a hitherto unexplained dichotomy in the insulin response of the 9 subjects after the ingestion of the 150 mg/kg body weight MSG or placebo capsules, the subjects ingested after an overnight fast and 30 minutes before they consumed a 75 g carbohydrate or a non-energy placebo drink. Figure 1: AUC for glucose and insulin across the trials (left); serum insulin and glucose concentrations in the post-prandial period during the glutamate and no-glutamate trials (Sebastiano. 2013) What looks like a Taubs'ian nightmare is actually nothing but a perfectly normal insulin response to the ingestion of 75g of carbohydrates. In a healthy individual, the insulin response is proportional to the influx of glucose from the digestive tract and ensur Continue reading >>

Warning: Msg In

Warning: Msg In "health Foods"

Member crusading against enigmatic excitotoxicity which instruct diabetics to AVOID msg, glutamate, and free glutamic acid... but then recommend brewer's yeast as a source brewer's yeast is 5% free glutamic acid (MSG) diabetics, celiacs, and individuals who have candida overgrowth. [ame="Minutes MSG[/ame] [ame="- MSG Part One[/ame] [ame="- MSG Part 2[/ame] [ame="- MSG Part 3[/ame] [ame="- The Truth about MSG Monosodium Glutamate Clinical Nutrition[/ame] check out the glutamic acid content in "amino acid profile" msg has many synonyms. according to wikipedia: of several forms of free glutamate used in foods. Free glutamate may also be present in a wide variety of other additives, including: hydrolyzed vegetable proteins, autolyzed yeast, hydrolyzed yeast, yeast extract, soy extracts, protein isolate, "spices" and "natural flavorings." " if you google bragg's aminos, and find their website (Mechanism of Excitotoxin Effect on the Brain "Since humans concentrate ingested glutamate in their plasma in higher concentrations than any other animal, this fact must figure into the equation as to why glutamates have been increasingly added to human processed food, despite scientific evidence presented to Congress, in order to achieve the desired neurological degeneration in line with both Malthusian population reduction mandates, allopathic fund generation and neurological behavior modification programs." Member crusading against enigmatic excitotoxicity except that which occurs naturally in yeast extract and vegetable proteins." This heap of steaming, pseudoscientific claptrap needs to be removed from public view on the unlikely chance that someone will actually believe the garbage being purveyed here. The most significant thing he says is this: "Since humans concentrate ingested Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Msg: What You Need To Know

Diabetes And Msg: What You Need To Know

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a salt of the amino acid glutamate. It’s commonly used to enhance flavor in certain dishes and processed food. MSG is said to invoke a “fifth taste.” This is otherwise known as “umami,” a complex, savory flavor. MSG is found in many fermented sauces and processed meals, sauces, and soups. It can also be found naturally in aged cheeses and meats, and in some ripe fruits, such as tomatoes. MSG is stereotypically associated with Asian foods, especially Chinese, in the United States. This harmful stereotype has encouraged the myth of “Chinese restaurant syndrome,” which is an idea that links eating Chinese cuisines with immediate negative physical effects. However, no convincing research exists to prove that MSG is more harmful in Chinese food than in other foods. Natural glutamates that share a chemical makeup with MSG have never been linked to any negative symptoms. Nonetheless, MSG may be linked to health issues, including obesity and diabetes. Some studies have examined the relationship of MSG and obesity or diabetes, with mixed results. MSG may encourage feelings of fullness. MSG is recognized as safe by the FDA. Some studies suggest no association between MSG and weight gain. A study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition suggests that MSG may be able to help keep weight in check. Results showed that MSG may increase appetite but also enhance feelings of fullness. Another study followed over 1,000 healthy adults for five years. An inverse relationship was found between MSG and hyperglycemia. This means that a greater intake of MSG may lower the incidence of hyperglycemia, and vice versa. Umami is a well-known and sought-after quality in food. Eating MSG for the “umami” flavor is not harmful by itself. Entire resta Continue reading >>

Msg Side Effects And How To Avoid Them

Msg Side Effects And How To Avoid Them

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a brain stimulant that was originally extracted from seaweed in 1908. Most commonly associated with restaurant Chinese food, it is used pervasively as a flavor enhancer in fast foods, frozen meals, canned soups, and potato chips. This additive can be extremely harmful: MSG side effects range from obesity to liver damage. Many studies link MSG to the development of obesity, and children are especially susceptible. The Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences discovered that MSG given to newborn mice increases their body weight by 7.9 percent.[1] It also causes an increase in body mass index and fat mass as well as significant increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, and LDL (both types of “bad” cholesterol). Additional studies show that maternal exposure to MSG during pregnancy leads to childhood obesity.[2,3] Research shows that increases in weight, body fat, and obesity also occur in adults who consume MSG.[4] MSG Side Effects: Brain Damage and Chemical Changes Additional dangers to infants and prenatal subjects include brain damage.[2] This damage leads to convulsions and seizures during infancy. Equally frightening are the following chemical changes that occur in the body as a result of ingesting MSG. Adiponectin, a protein that helps the body regulate blood sugar and energy expenditure, is lowered by nearly 60 percent.[1] This causes an increase in blood sugar levels and a decrease in metabolism, a combination that can trigger weight gain and food cravings. Leptin becomes unrecognizable to the brain. This chemical messenger is normally released by fat cells and then travels to the brain to deliver the signal to stop eating. However, in people who consume MSG, receptors in the brain become incapable of receiving this signal Continue reading >>

Interactive Effects Of Neonatal Exposure To Monosodium Glutamate And Aspartame On Glucose Homeostasis

Interactive Effects Of Neonatal Exposure To Monosodium Glutamate And Aspartame On Glucose Homeostasis

Interactive effects of neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate and aspartame on glucose homeostasis Recent evidence suggests that the effects of certain food additives may be synergistic or additive. Aspartame (ASP) and Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) are ubiquitous food additives with a common moiety: both contain acidic amino acids which can act as neurotransmitters, interacting with NMDA receptors concentrated in areas of the Central Nervous System regulating energy expenditure and conservation. MSG has been shown to promote a neuroendocrine dysfunction when large quantities are administered to mammals during the neonatal period. ASP is a low-calorie dipeptide sweetener found in a wide variety of diet beverages and foods. However, recent reports suggest that ASP may promote weight gain and hyperglycemia in a zebrafish nutritional model. We investigated the effects of ASP, MSG or a combination of both on glucose and insulin homeostasis, weight change and adiposity, in C57BL/6 J mice chronically exposed to these food additives commencing in-utero, compared to an additive-free diet. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and variables in glucose and insulin homeostasis. ASP alone (50 mg/Kgbw/day) caused an increase in fasting blood glucose of 1.6-fold, together with reduced insulin sensitivity during an Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT) P < 0.05. Conversely MSG alone decreased blood triglyceride and total cholesterol (T-CHOL) levels. The combination of MSG (120 mg/Kgbw/day) and ASP elevated body weight, and caused a further increase in fasting blood glucose of 2.3-fold compared to Controls (prediabetic levels); together with evidence of insulin resistance during the ITT (P < 0.05). T-CHOL levels were reduced in both A Continue reading >>

Monosodium Glutamate (msg) Intake Is Associated With The Prevalence Of Metabolic Syndrome In A Rural Thai Population

Monosodium Glutamate (msg) Intake Is Associated With The Prevalence Of Metabolic Syndrome In A Rural Thai Population

Abstract Epidemiology and animal models suggest that dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG) may contribute to the onset of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Families (n = 324) from a rural area of Thailand were selected and provided MSG as the sole source for the use in meal preparation for 10 days. Three hundred forty-nine subjects aged 35–55 years completed the study and were evaluated for energy and nutrient intake, physical activity, and tobacco smoking. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >3), and the metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria) were evaluated according to the daily MSG intake. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the tertile with the highest MSG intake. Further, every 1 g increase in MSG intake significantly increased the risk of having the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval-CI- 1.12 - 1.28) or being overweight (odds ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.04 - 1.29), independent of the total energy intake and the level of physical activity. Higher amounts of individual MSG consumption are associated with the risk of having the metabolic syndrome and being overweight independent of other major determinants. Background The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including major risk factors are abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. Moreover, other risk factors have been proposed including physical inactivity, aging, smoking, and carbohydrate and fat dietary intake[1]. The incidence and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome are rapidly growing causing a significant burden for health systems worldwide[2]. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer largely used in the food industry with individual consumption steadily increasing worldwid Continue reading >>

Monosodium Glutamate (msg)-obese Rats Develop Glucose Intolerance And Insulin Resistance To Peripheral Glucose Uptake

Monosodium Glutamate (msg)-obese Rats Develop Glucose Intolerance And Insulin Resistance To Peripheral Glucose Uptake

A.E. Hirata, I.S. Andrade, P. Vaskevicius and M.S. Dolnikoff Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, 04023-900 São Paulo, SP, Brasil Different levels of insulin sensitivity have been described in several animal models of obesity as well as in humans. Monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese mice were considered not to be insulin resistant from data obtained in oral glucose tolerance tests. To reevaluate insulin resistance by the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and by the clamp technique, newborn male Wistar rats (N = 20) were injected 5 times, every other day, with 4 g/kg MSG (N = 10) or saline (control; N = 10) during the first 10 days of age. At 3 months, the IVGTT was performed by injecting glucose (0.75 g/kg) through the jugular vein into freely moving rats. During euglycemic clamping plasma insulin levels were increased by infusing 3 mU . kg-1 . min-1 of regular insulin until a steady-state plateau was achieved. The basal blood glucose concentration did not differ between the two experimental groups. After the glucose load, increased values of glycemia (P<0.001) in MSG-obese rats occurred at minute 4 and from minute 16 to minute 32. These results indicate impaired glucose tolerance. Basal plasma insulin levels were 39.9 ± 4 µU/ml in control and 66.4 ± 5.3 µU/ml in MSG-obese rats. The mean post-glucose area increase of insulin was 111% higher in MSG-obese than in control rats. When insulinemia was clamped at 102 or 133 µU/ml in control and MSG rats, respectively, the corresponding glucose infusion rate necessary to maintain euglycemia was 17.3 ± 0.8 mg . kg-1 . min-1 for control rats while 2.1 ± 0.3 mg . kg-1 . min-1 was sufficient for MSG-obese rats. The 2-h integrated area for total glucose metabolized, in mg . min . dl-1, was 13 Continue reading >>

The Effects Of Msg? A Comprehensive Review Of What Are The Effects Of Msg?

The Effects Of Msg? A Comprehensive Review Of What Are The Effects Of Msg?

The list of side effects of MSG is rather long. We have two solutions to the problem. Could it be a cure? You decide. There is not a lot of human research to back the following information. There is though quite a bit of anecdotal evidence related to the human problems that are side effects of eating foods with MSG. Note: This is only intended as information to help you start further research. It is not intended to diagnose or treat any condition. It is not intended for you to self medicate either. Any changes you make should be done under the supervision of your doctor. Glutamate, an amino acid, has the potential to effect many organs in the body, especially the brain. Increases the production of insulin.The extra insulin converts the sugar in the blood to fat.The MSG triggered extra insulin leads to lower sugar levels resulting in tiredness and increased hunger. If the pancreas enters into a state of hyperinsulinemia or the the chronic overproduction of insulin, then the body starts producing producing killer T cells to stop this process. Dysplasia (enlargement of an organ or tissue as the result of abnormal cell proliferation) is the result. It is a precancerous condition. As we take in more monosodium glutamate, it will start to do more damage. Once too much glutamate is in our brains, the neurons start to die. Glutamate acts as an exciter to the neurons. Overexcite them and they will die. Chronic headaches and migraines are linked to consuming too much MSG. MSG is one of the most effective ways to create an obese test subject in the lab for experiments. Often the symptom of right sided heart failure, pitting edema has been reported in some with an intolerance to MSG. This is a condition where the feet and ankles swell up and if you press your finger into the swell Continue reading >>

Which All Are The Foods That Cause Insulin Spike In The Body?

Which All Are The Foods That Cause Insulin Spike In The Body?

Basically all types of carbohydrate rich food like rice, bread, noodles, and sugarry drinks can cause a spike in BLOOD GLUCOSE. In in a healthy individual, insulin levels will follow suit, because of a healthy incretin effect (glp-1 and gip). However, in a diabetic, the incretin effect is blunted, therefore insulin is very much lower and slower in diabetics. we should WANT a good insulin spike ;) Continue reading >>

Hpa Axis And Vagus Nervous Function Are Involved In Impaired Insulin Secretion Of Msg-obese Rats

Hpa Axis And Vagus Nervous Function Are Involved In Impaired Insulin Secretion Of Msg-obese Rats

HPA axis and vagus nervous function are involved in impaired insulin secretion of MSG-obese rats 1Department of Biotechnology, Genetics and Cell Biology, State University of Maring, Maring, Brazil 2Carlos Chagas Filho Biophysics Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 3Department of Physiological Sciences, State University of Maring, Maring, Brazil 4Institute of Health Sciences, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Sinop, Brazil 5Molecular Signalling Section, Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA 6Department of Physiological Sciences, Roberto Alcntara Gomes Biology Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Correspondence should be addressed to P C F Mathias; Email: pmathias{at}uem.br Neuroendocrine dysfunctions such as the hyperactivity of the vagus nerve and hypothalamuspituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis greatly contribute to obesity and hyperinsulinemia; however, little is known about these dysfunctions in the pancreatic -cells of obese individuals. We used a hypothalamic-obesity model obtained by neonatal treatment with monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) to induce obesity. To assess the role of the HPA axis and vagal tonus in the genesis of hypercorticosteronemia and hyperinsulinemia in an adult MSG-obese rat model, bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX) and subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VAG) alone or combined surgeries (ADXVAG) were performed. To study glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) and the cholinergic insulinotropic process, pancreatic islets were incubated with different glucose concentrations with or without oxotremorine-M, a selective agonist of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3AChR) subtype. Prot Continue reading >>

Msg And Hyperglycemia

Msg And Hyperglycemia

MSG intake has been thought to increase the risk of insulin resistance but a study in China where people consume the most MSG and have the highest absolute incidence of diabetes showed…. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a widely used flavor enhancing amino acid and is generally accepted as safe. In Western countries, MSG is usually consumed in processed and packaged goods whereas in China, MSG is often added during home cooking. It is estimated that 650,000 tonnes of MSG are used worldwide each year. MSG intake has been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance, diabetes and obesity in studies done in rodents. In this study, researchers assessed the association between MSG intake and the risk of hyperglycemia after five years, based on a large population-based study in China, the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN). The study included 445 men and 611 women (n = 1056) with a fasting plasma glucose <5.6 mmol/l (FPG<100.9 mg/dl) in 2002 and without known diabetes. No differences in mean BMI, waist circumference, glucose, and energy intake were found (p > 0.05). The authors defined diabetes as FPG>7.0 mmol/l (FPG > 126 mg/dl) or having known diabetes and hyperglycemia as FPG>5.6 mmol/l (FPG>100.9 mg/dl). To determine the amount of MSG and other seasonings consumed by individuals, each household was asked about their usual monthly consumption of these items. Individual consumption of MSG was calculated according to the total amount of MSG consumed in the household divided by the number of individuals per household and then adjusted for the proportion energy intake and energy consumption by each individual. Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity were also evaluated in these participants. In the results, the authors found the mean intake of MSG for the en Continue reading >>

Effects Of Oral Monosodium (l)-glutamate On Insulin Secretion And Glucose Tolerance In Healthy Volunteers

Effects Of Oral Monosodium (l)-glutamate On Insulin Secretion And Glucose Tolerance In Healthy Volunteers

Go to: Methods Eighteen healthy volunteers, aged 19–28 years (mean 22 years) and weighing 52–81 kg (mean 68 kg), were included in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over investigation. The protocol was approved by the institutional Ethics Committee of Montpellier and all subjects gave written informed consent to participate. One subject did not complete the study for personal reasons and was not included in the final analysis. Subjects were assigned to take a single oral 10 g dose of monosodium (l)-glutamate (ORSAN S.A., Paris, France) or placebo, both packaged in identical capsules to mask the taste of glutamate and maintain the blind integrity. The two administrations were separated by a 7 day washout. In the morning of each test-day, subjects were admitted to the Clinical Investigation Center, in fasting conditions for at least 12 h. Two baseline venous blood samples were taken at 15 min intervals. Then, the treatment (20 capsules of monosodium (l)-glutamate or 20 capsules of placebo) was administered simultaneously with an oral glucose load (75 g). Blood samples were taken 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 min after the start of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glutamate concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography [3]. Blood glucose concentrations were determined by the glucose oxidase method, insulin and glucagon by radioimmunoassay. Insulin secretion was assessed as the area under the curve (AUC) of insulin concentrations during OGTT, glucose tolerance as the glucose AUC during OGTT and insulin sensitivity calculated as the composite insulin sensitivity index (ISI) according to Matsuda & DeFronzo [7]. Results are given as means ± standard error (s.e. mean). Where necessary, 95% confidence intervals Continue reading >>

Insulin Oversecretion In Msg-obese Rats Is Related To Alterations In Cholinergic Muscarinic Receptor Subtypes In Pancreatic Islets

Insulin Oversecretion In Msg-obese Rats Is Related To Alterations In Cholinergic Muscarinic Receptor Subtypes In Pancreatic Islets

Abstract Background/ Aims: Impaired pancreatic beta cell function and insulin secretion/action are a link between obesity and type 2 diabetes, which are worldwide public health burdens. We aimed to characterize the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) M1-M4 subtypes in isolated pancreatic islets from pre-diabetic obese rats that had been treated neonatally with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG). Methods: At 90 days of age, both the MSG and the control groups underwent biometric and biochemical evaluation. Anti-muscarinic drugs were used to study mAChR function either in vivo or in vitro. Results: The results demonstrated that atropine treatment reduced insulin secretion in the MSG-treated and control groups, whereas treatment with an M2mAChR-selective antagonist increased secretion. Moreover, the insulinostatic effect of an M3mAChR-selective antagonist was significantly higher in the MSG-treated group. M1mAChR and M3mAChR expression was increased in the MSG-obese group by 55% and 73%, respectively. In contrast, M2mAChR expression decreased by 25% in the MSG group, whereas M4mAChR expression was unchanged. Conclusions: Functional changes in and altered content of the mAChR (M1-M4) subtypes are pivotal to the demand for high pancreatic beta cell insulin secretion in MSG-obese rats, which is directly associated with vagal hyperactivity and peripheral insulin resistance. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel Introduction Obesity is a worldwide problem that is associated with cardiovascular, respiratory and gastrointestinal dysfunction, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, among other metabolic syndrome components [1,2,3]. One feature of obesity in both animals and humans is a breakdown in the balance of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity because of low sympathe Continue reading >>

How Diet Foods And Drinks Can Actually Cause, Not Prevent Diabetes

How Diet Foods And Drinks Can Actually Cause, Not Prevent Diabetes

A new study showed that two additives often put in everyday foods to enhance flavor (Monosodium Glutamate or MSG) and reduce calories (Aspartame) can actually cause an increase in fasting blood glucose levels Aspartame alone can cause an increase in fasting blood glucose levels and reduced insulin sensitivity, but when combined with MSG they caused an elevation in both weight and fasting glucose levels Aspartame and MSG are not only both excitotoxins, which can lead to neurological damage, but they interfere with the release of insulin and leptin, which are hormones intricately involved with satiety and fat storage In order to prevent, and reverse, type 2 diabetes, eliminate not only sugar and grains, but also artificially sweetened, MSG-“enhanced” diet foods from your diet, in favor of real, whole foods By Dr. Mercola Many people equate eating sugar with the development of type 2 diabetes, and in an attempt to be healthier choose sugar-free diet products instead. Imagine the irony if those diet products actually contained substances that cause an increase in fasting blood glucose levels and contribute to the onset of diabetes. Now stop imagining, because this isn't just a fantasy … it's the disturbing result of a newly published study. Two Toxic Food Additives Common in Diet Foods May Cause Diabetes A new study using mice as models showed that two additives often put in everyday foods to enhance flavor and reduce calories can actually cause an increase in fasting blood glucose levels, and contribute to the onset of diabetes. The toxins in this startling new study are aspartame and monosodium glutamate (MSG), and the evidence is stacked against them both. The research showed that aspartame alone can cause an increase in fasting blood glucose levels and reduced ins Continue reading >>

Msg: More Than Meets The Tongue

Msg: More Than Meets The Tongue

Most of our lives are spent obtaining food, preparing food, cooking food, and taking the time to savor food. Food is colourful, flavorful and simply delightful. The only drawback is wondering what our next meal is going to be. A simple solution for most working class people in the world: eating out. With such an abundance of neighborhood fast-food restaurants or take-out place at competing prices, eating out has become the latest trend in filling the stomach of many. In fact, the idea of purchasing pre-cooked meals has become such a widely accessible concept that people choose this alternative over the time- and energy-consuming method of simply cooking their own meals. However, there are consequences to this alternative. Although we have a mindset of what unhealthy food is, sometimes ignorance is bliss, and a full stomach is all we need in order to continue with our day’s work. We constantly worry and monitor our fat and caloric content of what we eat; however, there may be more important aspects that we should be worried or concerned about. For example, monosodium glutamate, or more commonly known as MSG, is added to almost every fast food and take-out meal we eat. The majority of people pay no attention to it simply because they are either unaware of its presence in food or are unsure of what MSG really is. MSG may have more detrimental effects on the human body than simply being a food additive. So what exactly is MSG? Why is it added to foods? What are its effects on the human body? Is it harmful even though it is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)? Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been used as a flavor enhancer for over a century. In 1908, Kikunae Ikeda, a Japanese scientist, extracted glutamic acid from the seaweed Laminaria Japonica and discovere Continue reading >>

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