Differential Effects Of Metformin And Exercise On Muscle Adiposity And Metabolic Indices In Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Patients
The HIV-lipodystrophy syndrome is associated with fat redistribution and metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance (IR). The mechanisms and treatment strategies for IR in HIV-lipodystrophy are unclear, but data suggest that intramuscular lipids contribute to IR in this population. We previously showed that metformin and exercise improve hyperinsulinemia more than metformin alone in HIV-lipodystrophy. Now we investigate the effects of these treatment strategies on thigh muscle adiposity measured by computed tomography and additional body composition measures. Twenty-five HIV-infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapy with hyperinsulinemia and fat redistribution participated in a prospective, randomized, 3-month study of metformin alone or metformin and resistance training three times a week. Thigh muscle adiposity decreased significantly more as shown by increased muscle attenuation [2.0 (range, 0.5–5.0) vs. −1.0 (–3.5–0), P = 0.04] and sc leg fat tended to decrease more [–3.3 (–7.5–4.3) vs. 0.8 (–2.1–9.5), P = 0.06] in the combined treatment group in comparison with metformin alone. In multivariate analysis, change in thigh muscle adiposity remained a significant predictor of change in insulin (P = 0.04), controlling for changes in other body composition measurements. These data suggest that muscle adiposity, in addition to other fat depots, is an important determinant of hyperinsulinemia and that exercise has complex effects on regional fat depots in HIV-infected patients. Reduction in muscle adiposity may be an important mechanism by which exercise improves hyperinsulinemia in this population. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is the primary metabolite of testosterone in the prostate and skin. Testosterone is converted to DHT by 5α-reduc Continue reading >>
Metformin Weight Loss – Does It Work?
Metformin weight loss claims are something that are often talked about by health professionals to be one of the benefits of commencing metformin therapy, but are they true? At myheart.net we’ve helped millions of people through our articles and answers. Now our authors are keeping readers up to date with cutting edge heart disease information through twitter. Follow Dr Ahmed on Twitter @MustafaAhmedMD Metformin is possibly one of the most important treatments in Type II Diabetes, so the question of metformin weight loss is of the utmost importance, as if true it could provide a means to lose weight as well as control high sugar levels found in diabetes. What is Metformin? Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic medication – meaning it reduces levels of sugar, or more specifically glucose in the blood. It is so effective that the American Diabetes Association says that unless there is a strong reason not to, metformin should be commenced at the onset of Type II Diabetes. Metformin comes in tablet form and the dose is gradually increased until the maximum dose required is achieved. How Does Metformin Work & Why Would it Cause Weight Loss? Metformin works by three major mechanisms – each of which could explain the “metformin weight loss” claims. These are: Decrease sugar production by the liver – the liver can actually make sugars from other substances, but metformin inhibits an enzyme in the pathway resulting in less sugar being released into the blood. Increase in the amount of sugar utilization in the muscles and the liver – Given that the muscles are a major “sink” for excess sugar, by driving sugar into them metformin is able to reduce the amount of sugar in the blood. Preventing the breakdown of fats (lipolysis) – this in turn reduces the amount of fatt Continue reading >>
Metabolic Holy Grail?
Top scientists agree that metformin is an antiaging drug … Is Metformin the Treatment with metformin mimics some of the benefits of calorie restriction By Will Block M etformin is an oral antidiabetic drug used for the treatment of type-2 diabetes, a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose, insulin resistance, and relative insulin deficiency (even though insulin levels are higher than normal). It is also used for metabolic syndrome and glucose intolerance, prediabetic conditions. Metformin was introduced in Europe in 1958, and Canada in 1972. However, it was not until 1995 that the FDA got around to approving it in the United States. Falsely conflating it with the drug phenformin,* the FDA deemed that metformin research and clinical experience performed and gathered outside the US was substandard. In truth, metformin is much safer than phenformin, as the data show.1 “If the same criteria were used for older people as are used for younger people, nearly every senior citizen would be diagnosed as diabetic.” Plus, then as now, the FDA moaned that it had been “hobbled” by budgetary considerations. Compared to the National Institutes of Health’s budget ($31.3 billion requested for this fiscal year vs. $4.9 billion for the FDA), the FDA claims it doesn’t have enough to afford the regulatory work required for speedy approval.† Despite the retardation of its acceptance, metformin is now believed to be the most widely prescribed antidiabetic drug in the world and in the United States alone, more than 48 million prescriptions were filled in 2010 for its generic formulations. * Phenformin had been withdrawn in 1976 due to the stupidity of certain doctors who continued to prescribe it in the face of abnormal liver or kidney function. See ref. #2. † Continue reading >>
When Do I Take Metformin For My Diet: Morning Or Night?
Metformin helps control blood sugar and increase your body's sensitivity to insulin. The drug is available only by prescription and sold under several different brand names, including Fortamet, Glumetza, Riomet, Glucophage and Glucophage XR. Your dosage will depend on your normal diet and exercise habits -- too much metformin can lead to low blood sugar and hypoglycemia. Always follow your doctor's directions for taking your medication. Video of the Day Metformin works by limiting your liver's production of glucose and stopping your body from absorbing some of the glucose in your bloodstream. Additionally, metformin increases your body's sensitivity to insulin, allowing your pancreas to produce less insulin. Keeping blood sugar levels stable can decrease hunger and food cravings, leading to weight loss. Metformin is not an appetite suppressant, nor does it boost metabolism; to lose weight, you'll still need to pay close attention to your diet and increase your physical activity. Standard vs. Extended Release Options The amount of metformin you'll take depends on why you are using the medication, how often you take the medicine, other medications you might be taking and the time between doses. The National Institutes of Health explains that metformin is available as a tablet or a liquid solution. Tablets come in an extended release dose -- Glucophage XR -- or in a standard release option. Extended release pills are designed to be taken once daily, with your evening meal. Standard tablet and liquid solutions may be taken once or multiple times daily -- with meals. Metformin should be taken with food. Always follow your doctor's orders. It's typical to start with a 500 milligram dose once daily, then increase both the amount of medication and the frequency. If you're using Continue reading >>
Long-term Effects Of Metformin On Metabolism And Microvascular And Macrovascular Disease In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Background We investigated whether metformin hydrochloride has sustained beneficial metabolic and (cardio) vascular effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Methods We studied 390 patients treated with insulin in the outpatient clinics of 3 hospitals in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with a follow-up period of 4.3 years. Either metformin hydrochloride, 850 mg, or placebo (1-3 times daily) was added to insulin therapy. The primary end point was an aggregate of microvascular and macrovascular morbidity and mortality. The secondary end points were microvascular and macrovascular morbidity and mortality, as separate aggregate scores. In addition, effects on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin requirement, lipid levels, blood pressure, body weight, and body mass index were analyzed. Results Metformin treatment prevented weight gain (mean weight gain, −3.07 kg [range, −3.85 to −2.28 kg]; P < .001), improved glycemic control (mean reduction in HbA1c level, 0.4% percentage point [95% CI, 0.55-0.25]; P < .001) (where CI indicates confidence interval), despite the aim of similar glycemic control in both groups, and reduced insulin requirements (mean reduction, 19.63 IU/d [95% CI, 24.91-14.36 IU/d]; P < .001). Metformin was not associated with an improvement in the primary end point. It was, however, associated with an improvement in the secondary, macrovascular end point (hazard ratio, 0.61 (95% CI, 0.40-0.94; P = .02), which was partly explained by the difference in weight. The number needed to treat to prevent 1 macrovascular end point was 16.1 (95% CI, 9.2-66.6). Conclusions Metformin, added to insulin in patients with DM2, improved body weight, glycemic control, and insulin requirements but did not improve the primary end point. Metformin did, howeve Continue reading >>
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Metformin & Metabolism??
If this is your first visit, be sure tocheck out the FAQ by clicking thelink above. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. To start viewing messages,select the forum that you want to visit from the selection below. Does Metformin speed up your Metabolism?? "Metformin belongs to a class of drugs known as biguanide medications and works in several ways. 1) The medicine reduces the amount of sugar made by the liver, 2) limits the amount of sugar absorbed into the body from the diet, and 3) makes receptors more sensitive (helping the body respond better to its own insulin). All of these effects cause a decrease in blood sugar levels. Many of these benefits result in the same benefit as increased metabolism, but not quite. You can be on Met and still not lose weight. Especially if you are older - which when our metabolism slows down. I think that older women tend to be discouraged by Met because they don't lose the weight that younger people do while on this drug. The slower your metabolism is, the more you will have to decrease your calories/increase your exercise to stop your body from storing the sugar as fat. All met does is make your ability to lose weight comparable to a healthy/normal person at your age and activity level. The Following User Says Thank You to abmonster For This Useful Post: I have a slow metabolism anyways cause i have an under active thyroid. (Hypothyroidism) I take Levothyoxine for it but I don't think it makes a difference. "Metformin belongs to a class of drugs known as biguanide medications and works in several ways. 1) The medicine reduces the amount of sugar made by the liver, 2) limits the amount of sugar absorbed into the body from the diet, and 3) makes receptors more sensitive (helping the b Continue reading >>
Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in people who are overweight. It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Limited evidence suggests metformin may prevent the cardiovascular disease and cancer complications of diabetes. It is not associated with weight gain. It is taken by mouth. Metformin is generally well tolerated. Common side effects include diarrhea, nausea and abdominal pain. It has a low risk of causing low blood sugar. High blood lactic acid level is a concern if the medication is prescribed inappropriately and in overly large doses. It should not be used in those with significant liver disease or kidney problems. While no clear harm comes from use during pregnancy, insulin is generally preferred for gestational diabetes. Metformin is in the biguanide class. It works by decreasing glucose production by the liver and increasing the insulin sensitivity of body tissues. Metformin was discovered in 1922. French physician Jean Sterne began study in humans in the 1950s. It was introduced as a medication in France in 1957 and the United States in 1995. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Metformin is believed to be the most widely used medication for diabetes which is taken by mouth. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale price in the developed world is between 0.21 and 5.55 USD per month as of 2014. In the United States, it costs 5 to 25 USD per month. Medical uses Metformin is primarily used for type 2 diabetes, but is increasingly be Continue reading >>
Can Metformin Help With Weight Loss?
Metformin is a drug prescribed to manage blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. You may have heard that metformin can also help you lose weight. But is it true? The answer is a resounding maybe. Here’s what you should know about what metformin can do for weight loss, as well as why your doctor may prescribe it for you. According to research, metformin can help some people lose weight. However, it’s not clear why metformin may cause weight loss. One theory is that it may prompt you to eat less by reducing your appetite. It may also change the way your body uses and stores fat. Although studies have shown that metformin may help with weight loss, the drug is not a quick-fix solution. According to one long-term study, the weight loss from metformin tends to occur gradually over one to two years. The amount of weight lost also varies from person to person. In the study, the average amount of weight lost after two or more years was four to seven pounds. Taking the drug without following other healthy habits may not lead to weight loss. Individuals who follow a healthy diet and exercise while taking metformin tend to lose the most weight. This may be because metformin is thought to boost how many calories you burn during exercise. If you don’t exercise, you likely won’t have this benefit. In addition, any weight loss you have may only last as long as you take the medication. That means if you stop taking metformin, there’s a good chance you will return to your original weight. And even while you’re still taking the drug, you may slowly gain back any weight you’ve lost. In other words, metformin may not be the magic diet pill some people have been waiting for. It has been shown to reduce weight in some, but not others. One of the benefits of metformin Continue reading >>
Metabolism: Little Things Mean A Lot
My metabolic rate is low and has been for most of my adult life. Im perfectly happy sitting in front of a computer for hours. But according to the experts, this is asking for trouble. It is an especially bad idea for anyone with Type 2 diabetes . Fidgety people make me nervous. They tap a foot, play with their fingers, bounce their knees. Now Im told those who fidget have a higher metabolism, meaning they burn calories at a higher rate. Trying to become fidgety does not work for me, so when I come across articles about raising metabolism in other ways, my interest is caught. As I understand it, a higher metabolic rate is desirable if you want to lose weight. This means that if you are sedentary, as I am, you will have to make an effort to change. You will need all the help you can get to increase your metabolic rate. Here is a short list of little things you can do, small changes that will speed up that sluggish metabolism and make losing weight a little easier. Each of these ideas has been proven to help, but it is important to remember that everyone is different. Some approaches will work better for you than others. The easiest thing to change is how much water you drink. You may have to make a real effort to drink more water if you are not used to doing this. But studies show that drinking a pint of water helps briefly increase metabolism, burning about an extra 25 calories. I keep a glass of water on the desk beside me and even use sticky notes to remind myself to drink. If you are not used to drinking water, it is easy to think you are hungry when you are really thirsty. Before grabbing a snack or eating a meal, drink some water first. It also helps to eat snacks that have water in them, like fruits and vegetables, instead of dry things like crackers and chips. It Continue reading >>
The Multiple Benefits Of Metformin
Metformin (brand name "Glucophage") has been used in the treatment of type II diabetes for the past 40 years.1 This drug counteracts many of the underlying factors that result in the manifestation of this insidious disease. Metformin also produces helpful side benefits that can protect against the lethal complications of type II diabetes. Frequently prescribed anti-diabetic drugs fail to address the fundamental causes of type II diabetes and can induce serious side effects. Type II diabetes affects between 16 to 19 million Americans. About 75% of type II diabetics will die from a cardiovascular-related disease. Conventional doctors often prescribe drugs for the purpose of lowering blood sugar levels. These drugs do not adequately address the multiple underlying pathologies associated with the type II diabetic state. Type II diabetes is characterized by cellular insulin resistence. The result is excess accumulation of glucose in the bloodstream as cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. Type II diabetes is characterized by cellular insulin resistence. The result is excess accumulation of glucose in the bloodstream because cells become resistant to the effects of insulin and fail to take up glucose As the type II diabetic condition progresses, many people gain weight and develop more fat cells.2 Treating type II diabetes with insulin-enhancing therapy increases the risk of cardiovascular complications, induces weight gain, and fails to correct the underlying cause of the disease. Many type II diabetics produce too much insulin in a futile attempt to drive glucose into insulin-resistant cells. When doctors prescribe insulin-enhancing drugs to these type II diabetics, a temporarily reduction of serum glucose may occur, but the long-term effects of this excess insu Continue reading >>
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Metformin Rapidly Increases Insulin Receptor Activation In Human Liver And Signals Preferentially Through Insulin-receptor Substrate-2
Metformin decreases endogenous glucose production by the liver. Few studies have examined the effect of metformin on the insulin-signaling pathway in liver models, and none have presented data on the effect in normal human liver. Huh7 human hepatoma cells and primary human hepatocytes were used. Insulin receptor (IR) and IR substrates (IRS)-1 and -2 were assessed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot. Normal human liver was used to assay IR kinase activity (IR-KA). Tyrphostin AG1024 was used to inhibit IR-KA and examine effects on deoxyglucose uptake. Metformin (1 μg/ml) increased IR tyrosine phosphorylation by 78% (P = 0.0007) in 30 min in human hepatocytes and Huh7 cells and increased IRS-2 but not IRS-1 activation, and the downstream increase in deoxyglucose uptake was mediated via increased translocation of GLUT-1 to the plasma membrane. Metformin did not augment maximal or submaximal insulin-stimulated IR activation. Metformin increased basal IR-KA by 150% (P = 0.0001). AG1024 inhibited metformin-induced IR-β phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner and abolished metformin-induced 2-deoxyglucose uptake. This study demonstrates that the mechanism of action of metformin in liver involves IR activation, followed by selective IRS-2 activation, and increased glucose uptake via increased GLUT-1 translocation. The effect of metformin was completely blocked by an IR inhibitor. Estrogen, which acts through estrogen receptors (ERs) α and β, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of benign and malignant human prostatic tumors, i.e. benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer, thought to originate from different zones of the prostate [the transition zone (TZ) and peripheral zone (PZ), respectively]. Here, we examined the cellular distribution of ERα and E Continue reading >>
Why Metformin (glucophage) Causes Weight Loss And Reduced Appetite Despite Stimulating Ampk?
In regard to weight loss, Metformin provides two primary benefits. First, it significantly improves glycemic control. This stabilizes your blood sugar, and makes you less likely to experience the up-and-down rollercoaster experience that often comes along with dieting. The second benefit of Metformin (partially a result of the first benefit) is suppressed appetite. Users typically note a measurable improvement from their usual cravings for food. By simply not desiring as much food, and still feeling normal despite eating less (due to the improved glycemic control), the result can be profound weight loss. That’s the good news, but you can’t just take the pill and expect everything to change on its own. Weight loss just doesn’t work that way. Metformin won’t work for you – rather, it will work with you. Continue reading >>
Metformin Plus Weight Loss Intervention Reduces Symptoms Of Metabolic Syndrome In Obese Children
Metformin Plus Weight Loss Intervention Reduces Symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children June 20, 2008 (San Francisco) A 6-month trial has demonstrated that twice-daily metformin in conjunction with a monthly weight loss intervention significantly improves 3 markers of metabolic syndrome in severely overweight children with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Lead investigator Jack Yanovski, MD, PhD, head of the Developmental Endocrinology Branch of the National Institutes of Health Unit on Growth and Obesity presented the results of the study here at ENDO 2008, the Endocrine Society 90th Annual Meeting. "There are several studies that suggest that metformin treatment leads to weight loss or weight stabilization in diabetic and nondiabetic adults," Dr. Yanovski explained in his presentation. "There are also some small, randomized clinical trials in adolescents that have found that metformin induces small weight reductions of about 3 kg or 1.5 [body mass index (BMI; kg/m2)] units. However, there are no randomized trials that have been carried out in younger children to test the effects of metformin on body weight." The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial enrolled 100 overweight children (60% girls, 11% Hispanic, 3% Asian, 40% black) aged 6 to 12 years (mean, 10.2 0.5 years) between October 2000 and April 2007. Researchers obtained baseline BMI, lipid levels, body composition, and glucose homeostasis for each patient before and after 6 months of treatment with either 1000 mg of metformin twice a day (n = 53) or placebo (n = 47). A dietician administered a monthly weight loss program for participants in both groups. At the end of the 6-month treatment program, participants who received metformin achieved a reduction in BMI (0.91 0.3 kg/m2), whe Continue reading >>
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Metformin Significantly Affects Metabolic Pathways, Researchers Report
Metformin significantly affects metabolic pathways, researchers report Metformin significantly affects metabolic pathways, researchers report New trial scheduled to assess glucagon-inhibiting drug in type 2 diabetes patients 14 September 2016 The commonly prescribed diabetes drug metformin has been shown to significantly affect metabolic pathways , according to German scientists. Specifically, metformin was found to modulate the body's nitrogen and urea metabolism following a study of patients with type 2 diabetes. The findings were made by a research group from the Helmholtz Zentrum Mnchen and the German Diabetes Centre in Dsseldorf, who wanted to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie the effects of metformin in the body. Metformin, which is first-line treatment for people with type 2 diabetes , helps to lower blood glucose levels and increase insulin sensitivity . It has also been shown in previous studies to reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications and modulate cancer growth . The German study team examined 353 'small' molecules of participants who entered the population-based KORA study. Patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with metformin were compared to those not treated with the drug , and researchers evaluated differences in the distribution of metabolites in the blood. They confirmed that metformin modulated the body's nitrogen and urea metabolism following samples of more than 1,500 participants, and believe that changes in an amino acid called citrulline were particularly significant. Those who took metformin had significantly lower levels of citrulline, which could be a consequence of metformin activating AMPK pathways, which play a key role in glucose regulation . "Our analysis indicates that the activation of the AMPK pathway Continue reading >>
Effect Of Metformin On Metabolic Improvement And Gut Microbiota
Effect of Metformin on Metabolic Improvement and Gut Microbiota aCenter for Human and Environmental Microbiome, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea bN-Bio, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea Metformin is commonly used as the first line of medication for the treatment of metabolic syndromes, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, metformin-induced changes in the gut microbiota have been reported; however, the relationship between metformin treatment and the gut microbiota remains unclear. In this study, the composition of the gut microbiota was investigated using a mouse model of high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity with and without metformin treatment. As expected, metformin treatment improved markers of metabolic disorders, including serum glucose levels, body weight, and total cholesterol levels. Moreover, Akkermansia muciniphila (12.44% 5.26%) and Clostridium cocleatum (0.10% 0.09%) abundances increased significantly after metformin treatment of mice on the HFD. The relative abundance of A. muciniphila in the fecal microbiota was also found to increase in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium supplemented with metformin in vitro. In addition to the changes in the microbiota associated with metformin treatment, when other influences were controlled for, a total of 18 KEGG metabolic pathways (including those for sphingolipid and fatty acid metabolism) were significantly upregulated in the gut microbiota during metformin treatment of mice on an HFD. Our results demonstrate that the gut microbiota and their metabolic pathways are influenced by metformin treatment. Metformin is a common antidiabetic agent in the biguanide class and is known to suppress glucose production in the liver, increase insulin sensitivity, an Continue reading >>