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Does Diabetes Affect The Kidneys

The Link Between Diabetes & Kidney Disease

The Link Between Diabetes & Kidney Disease

How can diabetes affect the kidneys? People with diabetes need to watch their glucose levels and blood pressure, as over time high blood glucose levels and blood pressure can damage the tiny blood vessels in the filters of the kidneys. At this early stage, this damage causes small amounts of protein to be passed in the urine which is known as microalbumin. In a later stage, so much protein can be lost from the blood that water moves into the body tissues and causes swelling. After a number of years, the kidney filters can fail completely. Wouldn't I know if I had kidney damage? Not necessarily - there is actually a high chance you wouldn't know at all. There are no warning signs for chronic kidney disease and you could lose up to 90 per cent of your kidney function before you felt unwell. How can I find out if my kidneys are affected? Chronic kidney disease is common in people who have diabetes. The only way to know if you are affected is to have a yearly kidney health check by your doctor or diabetes specialist. The doctor or specialist will order a blood and urine test and will also check your blood pressure to determine if you have any signs of kidney damage. Although there is no cure for chronic kidney disease, early detection and treatment is extremely important to slow or halt the progression of the disease. If chronic kidney disease is not detected and treated early, kidney function may continue to worsen, progressing to end stage kidney disease. In order to survive, people with end stage kidney disease may need to have dialysis or a kidney transplant. Kidney disease can also worsen other serious diabetes complications such as eye disease, nerve damage and cardiovascular disease. For further information about your risk of developing chronic kidney disease talk to Continue reading >>

High Blood Pressure And Diabetic Kidney Disease

High Blood Pressure And Diabetic Kidney Disease

High blood pressure (hypertension) is one of the principal causes of diabetic kidney disease and kidney failure. When blood pressure is high, there is a large amount of tension inside the blood vessels that leads to damage. These vessels may close off completely which can cause a heart attack, stroke, or kidney failure. High blood sugar and high cholesterol can also damage blood vessels. Thus people with diabetes who also have hypertension are at especially high risk for blood vessel damage. It usually takes years for blood vessels to completely close off and damage to blood vessels can be slowed down or reversed with treatment. Diagnosis Diagnosis of high blood pressure can only be done by having your blood pressure measured by a person trained in taking blood pressures. Usually, there are no symptoms that can tell you that you have high blood pressure. In diabetic patients the blood pressure is considered high if it is greater than 130/80. Your blood pressure should be measured on multiple occasions as blood pressures vary normally throughout the day and it is normal to have occasional high pressures. Blood pressure should be taken after you have rested for 5 minutes and may be taken sitting or standing. Your healthcare providers may ask you to check your blood pressure at home and record the readings as part of your blood pressure management. Treatment There are multiple ways to control your blood pressure. The first step is lifestyle changes. Most patients will also need one or several medications to achieve good blood pressure control. Lifestyle Changes Your diet and lifestyle can directly affect blood pressure. For example, too much salt, alcohol, or caffeine intake leads to your body increase your blood pressure. Your weight also affects your blood pressure. Incr Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And Kidney Disease

Type 2 Diabetes And Kidney Disease

Nephropathy, or kidney disease, is among the most serious complications for many people with diabetes. It’s the leading cause of kidney failure in the United States. According to the National Kidney Foundation, 465,000 Americans have end-stage kidney disease and are living by means of dialysis. Nephropathy has few early symptoms or warning signs, similar to other diseases associated with type 2 diabetes. Damage to the kidneys from nephropathy can occur for as long as a decade before the first symptoms appear. According to Dr. Charles M. Clark, Jr., M.D., former chairman of the National Diabetes Education Program, “A person can have type 2 diabetes for 9 to 12 years before it’s discovered. During those years, harmful changes are already occurring, causing 5 to 10 percent to [already] have kidney disease at the time of diagnosis.” Often, no symptoms of kidney disease appear until the kidneys are no longer functioning properly. Symptoms that indicate your kidneys could be at risk include: fluid retention swelling of the feet, ankles, and legs a poor appetite feeling exhausted and weak most of the time frequent headaches upset stomach nausea vomiting insomnia difficulty concentrating Early diagnosis of kidney disease is essential for preserving good health. If you have prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, or other known diabetes risk factors, your kidneys are already overworked and their function should be tested annually. Besides diabetes, other risk factors for kidney disease are: uncontrolled high blood pressure uncontrolled high blood glucose obesity high cholesterol a family history of kidney disease a family history of heart disease cigarette smoking advanced age A higher prevalence of kidney disease exists among: African-Americans American Indians Hispanic Americans Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Kidney Disease

Diabetes And Kidney Disease

Diabetes is a disease that is caused by the lack of insulin in the body or the body's inability to properly use normal amounts of insulin. The body converts the food we eat into sugar (glucose). The body needs this sugar, in the form of energy, to perform its functions. The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood. If the body lacks insulin or does not use the insulin properly, then this imbalance results in high blood sugar. Eventually many unhealthy changes can occur in different body organs, including the kidneys. How diabetes affects the kidneys Damage to blood vessels Even with the use of injected insulin, people who have had diabetes for some time often suffer from damage to the small blood vessels of the body. This may cause damage to the retina of the eye and result in loss of vision. Also, the delicate blood vessels in the filters of the kidney may be damaged. At the early stage, this damage is shown by finding protein in the urine. Sometimes at a later stage, so much protein is lost from the blood that water from the blood moves into the body tissues and causes swelling (edema). After a number of years, the kidneys' filters can become so damaged by diabetes that the kidneys fail. Damage to nerves Diabetes can also damage the nerves in many parts of the body. When the bladder is affected, it may be difficult to pass urine. The pressure from urine building up in the bladder can damage the kidneys. Infections The urine of people with diabetes has a high sugar content. This encourages the growth of bacteria and kidney infections may occur. People with diabetes must take special care to avoid infections and have them treated immediately. Types of diabetes There are several types of diabetes. The most common one Continue reading >>

How Does Diabetes Affect Your Kidneys?

How Does Diabetes Affect Your Kidneys?

DEAR DOCTOR K: I have Type 2 diabetes. My doctor said that kidney disease is a potential long-term complication of diabetes. What’s the connection between the two? DEAR READER: People with diabetes have elevated levels of blood sugar. Left untreated or poorly treated, diabetes can cause serious complications, such as eye, nerve and kidney damage. An important cause of all these complications is high blood sugar levels over many years. Other factors, such as high blood pressure, also contribute. But the long-term consequences of diabetes are not inevitable. They can be prevented through tight blood sugar control. High levels of blood sugar injure the walls of small blood vessels. They thicken and leak. The vessels may eventually clog, blocking blood flow to vital organs. You asked about kidney disease. The main function of the kidneys is to filter out toxic substances and waste matter from blood so they get flushed out of the body when we pass urine. And they keep important proteins and other useful substances inside the body. They also regulate fluid, salt and other minerals, so that just the right amounts of each remain in the body. The filtering work is done by glomeruli, delicate networks of tiny blood vessels. When the blood vessels that form the glomeruli — the filters — thicken, they begin to fail at their job. Protein leaks into the urine. Fluid, salt and some other minerals build up in the body. In addition, the damaged glomeruli stop filtering out wastes and toxins reliably. These wastes and toxins build up in the bloodstream, causing damage to tissues and organs throughout the body. (See illustration below.) The effects of diabetes on the kidneys The best way to avoid diabetes complications is to keep your blood sugar levels as close to normal as possibl Continue reading >>

Effects Of Diabetes

Effects Of Diabetes

In some cases the effects may be short term and can be eliminated through appropriate treatment. In the case of long term complications, any damage sustained tends to be permanent. Whilst there are a lot of ways in which diabetes can affect the body, it’s important to note that the risks of developing health problems can be significantly reduced through good management of diabetes and living a healthy life. Heart Higher than normal blood sugar levels over a period of time can lead to an increase in risk of damage occurring to larger blood vessels in the body. This raises the risk of blood clots forming in blood vessels which can lead to heart attacks – a form of coronary heart disease. Approximately, 600,000 people die of heart disease in the United States every year–that’s 1 in every 4 deaths. Learn more about Heart disease. Brain The brain is another major organ that can pose a threat to life if it is affected by damage or blockages in its blood supply. Elevated blood sugar levels over a long period of time can cause blockages in the blood vessels supplying the brain, resulting in stroke, and can also damage the very small blood vessels in the outer part of the brain, increasing the risk of brain damage and conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. In the short term, too low blood glucose levels can lead to a reduced ability to make decisions and cause confusion and disorientation. Nerves The nerves play a very important part throughout the body. Not only do they allow us to sense touch, nerves also allow our organs to function properly. For instance, nerves are crucial in helping the digestive system to sense how it should respond. If the nerves become damaged we can lose our ability to sense pain in parts of the body that are affected and if nerve damage (ne Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Kidney Failure

Diabetes And Kidney Failure

One of the causes of kidney failure is diabetes mellitus, a condition characterised by high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Over time, the high levels of sugar in the blood damage the millions of tiny filtering units within each kidney. There is no cure, and treatment must become ever more aggressive as the kidneys deteriorate towards failure. Treatment options include medications, dialysis and kidney transplant. On this page: The main job of the kidneys is to remove waste from the blood and return the cleaned blood back to the body. Kidney failure means the kidneys are no longer able to remove waste and maintain the level of fluid and salts that the body needs. One cause of kidney failure is diabetes mellitus, a condition characterised by high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Over time, the high levels of sugar in the blood damage the millions of tiny filtering units within each kidney. This eventually leads to kidney failure. Around 20 to 30 per cent of people with diabetes develop kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy), although not all of these will progress to kidney failure. A person with diabetes is susceptible to nephropathy whether they use insulin or not. The risk is related to the length of time the person has diabetes. There is no cure for diabetic nephropathy, and treatment is lifelong. Another name for the condition is diabetic glomerulosclerosis. People with diabetes are also at risk of other kidney problems, including narrowing of the arteries to the kidneys, called renal artery stenosis or renovascular disease. Symptoms of kidney failure For people with diabetes, kidney problems are usually picked up during a check-up by their doctor. Occasionally, a person can have type 2 diabetes without knowing it. This means their unchecked high blood sugar levels may be Continue reading >>

Kidneys And Diabetes

Kidneys And Diabetes

Tweet The kidneys are remarkable organs of the human body that are responsible for many essential regulatory roles, including filtering the blood to keep it clean and chemically balanced. Diabetes, however, can cause this vital filtering system to break down. High levels of blood sugar can damage the kidneys and cause them to fail, thus eliminating their ability to filter out waste, which over time can lead to kidney disease (nephropathy). What are the Kidneys? The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that are located near the middle of the back, just below the rib cage with one on each side of the spine. Of the many roles they perform, one of the most important is the removal of waste products from the blood, which come from food and the normal breakdown of active tissues, such as muscles. Other key functions of the kidneys include the secretion of three important hormones: Erythropoietin - which is released in response to hypoxia (low levels of oxygen at tissue level) to stimulate the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Calcitriol - the active form of vitamin D, which helps maintain calcium for bones and for normal chemical balance in the body Renin - an enzyme involved in the regulation of blood pressure The Kidneys and Blood Sugar Levels Each kidney is made up of millions of tiny blood vessels called nephrons, which act as filters to help keep the blood clean. Each nephron interlinks with a small tube to keep useful substances, such as proteins and red blood cells, in the bloodstream and allow extra fluid and waste products to pass through, where they become part of the urine. This filtration system can, however, be damaged by high levels of blood sugar. Excess glucose in the bloodstream can cause the kidneys to filter too much blood. Over time, this extra w Continue reading >>

How Does Diabetes Affect The Human Body?

How Does Diabetes Affect The Human Body?

I am not an expert, Just a Learner. Knowing how diabetes affects your body can help you look after your body and prevent diabetic complications from developing. Many of the effects of diabetes stem from the same guilty parties; namely high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels and a lack of blood glucose control. Signs of diabetes When undiagnosed or uncontrolled, the effects of diabetes on the body can be noticed by the classic symptoms of diabetes, namely: Long term effects of diabetes on the body In addition to the symptoms, diabetes can cause long term damage to our body. The long term damage is commonly referred to as diabetic complications. Diabetes affects our blood vessels and nerves and therefore can affect any part of the body. However, certain parts of our body are affected more than other parts. Diabetic complications will usually take a number of years of poorly controlled diabetes to develop. Complications are not a certainty and can be kept at bay and prevented by maintaining a strong level of control on your diabetes, your blood pressure and cholesterol. These can all be helped by keeping to a healthy diet, avoiding cigarettes and alcohol, and incorporating regular activity into your daily regime in order to keep blood sugar levels within recommendedblood glucose level guidelines. The effect of diabetes on the heart Diabetes contributes to high blood pressure and is linked with high cholesterol which significantly increases the risk of heart attacks and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes and strokes Similar to how diabetes affects the heart, high blood pressure and cholesterol raises the risk of strokes. How diabetes affects the eyes As with all complications, this condition is brought on by a number of years of poorly controlled or uncontrolled diabetes Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Renal Failure: Everything You Need To Know

Diabetes And Renal Failure: Everything You Need To Know

Unfortunately, renal failure or nephropathy (commonly referred to as kidney failure) and unmanaged diabetes go hand in hand. In addition, 50 percent of people with diabetes will experience some form of kidney damage in their lifetime, even if they never experience kidney failure or end up on dialysis. In this article, we will look at how renal failure and insufficiency can have an impact on people with diabetes, and how people with diabetes can avoid renal failure and dialysis. We will look at risk factors, causes, and symptoms, as we explore the relationship between renal failure, diabetes, and high blood glucose. We will also look at what happens to a person with diabetes when their kidneys fail. We will discuss dialysis and kidney transplantation. First, let’s see what Lydia had to say when she contacted TheDiabetesCouncil. Lydia’s story Lydia had received a laboratory result from her doctor that was very alarming to her. She had an excess amount of protein in her urine, usually an early sign of kidney damage. He informed Lydia that her kidneys were being affected by her diabetes, and she needed to work on self-managing her diabetes. He ordered some more tests to further look at her kidneys. Was Lydia headed to the kidney dialysis center? Her friend Tracey, whom she’d met in a diabetes support group had been the first person she knew who was on dialysis. Tracey seemed to have a very difficult life in and out of the dialysis center. Lydia was afraid to end up like Tracey. Lydia knew that she hadn’t been efficiently self-managing her diabetes. Her A1C had been greater than 8 percent a few times over the last few years. While most of the time she kept it around 7.5 percent, she was aware that her doctor wanted her to get it below 7 percent, and keep it there in Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Kidney Damage (nephropathy)

Diabetes And Kidney Damage (nephropathy)

Over time, high blood sugars can cause damage to the kidneys. This is called kidney disease, kidney damage or nephropathy. Your kidneys contain special filters that help clean your blood, remove waste, and control your fluid balance. These filters are called nephrons. Over time, high blood sugar can damage them and cause them to leak protein, called albumin, into your urine. You may experience no symptoms if the damage is minor. However, the extra protein (albumin) can show up on routine blood work conducted by your doctor. Untreated, damage to your kidneys can grow until kidney dialysis or a kidney transplant are necessary. Long-term studies show that achieving your HbA1c targets dramatically lowers your risk for kidney disease.1 The National Institute of Health’s (NIH) Medline Plus center states that kidney damage is more likely to occur if you: Have uncontrolled blood sugar Have high blood pressure Have type 1 diabetes that began before you were 20 years old Have family members who also have diabetes and kidney problems Smoke Are African American, Mexican American, or Native American See your healthcare provider yearly to get tested for any early signs of kidney damage or signs that there could soon be damage to the kidneys. There are different tests available that your healthcare provider should use. Urine albumin test (microalbuminuria): This involves a urine sample which is tested for the presence of a protein called albumin which may leak into the urine from the kidneys. This may indicate the presence of kidney damage. Blood urea nitrogen test (BUN): This involves a sample of blood from a vein and checks kidney function. Serum creatinine: This can be done by urine or blood sample and measures creatinine which should normally be removed by your kidneys so testin Continue reading >>

How Does Diabetes Affect Your Kidneys?

How Does Diabetes Affect Your Kidneys?

Kidney damage is one of the more common long-term complications of diabetes. It is referred to as diabetic nephropathy or diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Diabetic kidney disease is a result of vascular abnormalities that happen because of diabetes. Your small blood vessels can get damaged by having diabetes, especially when your blood glucose levels or blood pressure stay too high for too long. Your kidneys have a lot of very fine blood vessels. This is why having diabetes can affect them. They initially become thick and damaged, and then they start to get leaky. Your kidneys normally filter out your blood and dispose of waste products in your urine. But when their fine blood vessels have been damaged, they start to malfunction. They let important things such as protein into your urine instead of keeping it in your body. In addition to letting the important things leak out, they also start retaining some of the bad waste toxins. These then build up in the body and cause more kidney damage. The Basics About Kidney Disease Based on the description of what happens to your kidneys, you might expect it to be obvious when your kidneys start to malfunction. But this actually isn’t the case! Renal insufficiency, or early kidney disease, often has no symptoms. It’s good to be aware of this because even if you don’t feel any different, damage is being done. Because you can’t physically feel the difference right off the bat, it’s important for diabetics to be tested for kidney disease. This is done with blood tests to evaluate kidney filtration rate and urine tests that check for protein. The earlier you detect any signs of kidney disease, the better because then you can treat it and slow the progression of the damage. You can slow your kidney disease down by keeping your Continue reading >>

Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Report From An Ada Consensus Conference

Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Report From An Ada Consensus Conference

The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus have grown significantly throughout the world, due primarily to the increase in type 2 diabetes. This overall increase in the number of people with diabetes has had a major impact on development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), one of the most frequent complications of both types of diabetes. DKD is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), accounting for approximately 50% of cases in the developed world. Although incidence rates for ESRD attributable to DKD have recently stabilized, these rates continue to rise in high-risk groups such as middle-aged African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanics. The costs of care for people with DKD are extraordinarily high. In the Medicare population alone, DKD-related expenditures among this mostly older group were nearly $25 billion in 2011. Due to the high human and societal costs, the Consensus Conference on Chronic Kidney Disease and Diabetes was convened by the American Diabetes Association in collaboration with the American Society of Nephrology and the National Kidney Foundation to appraise issues regarding patient management, highlighting current practices and new directions. Major topic areas in DKD included 1) identification and monitoring, 2) cardiovascular disease and management of dyslipidemia, 3) hypertension and use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade and mineralocorticoid receptor blockade, 4) glycemia measurement, hypoglycemia, and drug therapies, 5) nutrition and general care in advanced-stage chronic kidney disease, 6) children and adolescents, and 7) multidisciplinary approaches and medical home models for health care delivery. This current state summary and research recommendations are designed to guide advances in care and the gener Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Affects The Kidneys

How Diabetes Affects The Kidneys

The kidneys are shaped like, well, kidney beans. Or kidney-shape pools. You have two of them -- kidneys, not pools -- one on each side, just above the waist in the back of the abdomen. (In most people, the right kidney sits slightly lower than the left in order to make room for the liver above.) Each kidney is about five inches long and weighs just four to six ounces. Yet these relatively small organs receive roughly 25 percent of the blood pumped from your heart. However, the kidneys quickly put all but a small fraction of that fluid back into circulation. In fact, while these hard-working organs process 200 quarts of blood per day, they only retain about 2 quarts, though they don't keep it for long. The process goes like this: Kidneys receive blood from large vessels called renal arteries that branch from the aorta, the body's main artery, which delivers blood pumped from the heart. Once inside the kidney, the renal arteries divide into smaller blood vessels, which divide into even smaller blood vessels, and so on until they're just tiny capillaries that end in structures called nephrons. There are about one million nephrons in each kidney. (Each nephron consists of two parts: clusters of capillaries called glomeruli, which are connected to tube-shape channels aptly known as tubules.) Since you have so many of them, nephrons must be pretty important, right? You bet -- nephrons filter excess, unnecessary, and downright dangerous stuff from the blood. Yes, it's true: Blood is full of junk. For example, when proteins in the body outlive their usefulness, they break down into waste products. When cells use food as a source of energy and to rebuild tissue, they toss out the leftovers. And it all ends up in the blood, like toxic sludge dumped into a river. The nephrons act Continue reading >>

Diabetic Nephropathy

Diabetic Nephropathy

Practice Essentials Diabetic nephropathy is a clinical syndrome characterized by the following [1] : Persistent albuminuria (>300 mg/d or >200 μg/min) that is confirmed on at least 2 occasions 3-6 months apart Elevated arterial blood pressure (see Workup) Proteinuria was first recognized in diabetes mellitus in the late 18th century. In the 1930s, Kimmelstiel and Wilson described the classic lesions of nodular glomerulosclerosis in diabetes associated with proteinuria and hypertension. (See Pathophysiology.) By the 1950s, kidney disease was clearly recognized as a common complication of diabetes, with as many as 50% of patients with diabetes of more than 20 years having this complication. (See Epidemiology.) Currently, diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease in the United States and other Western societies. It is also one of the most significant long-term complications in terms of morbidity and mortality for individual patients with diabetes. Diabetes is responsible for 30-40% of all end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cases in the United States. (See Prognosis.) Generally, diabetic nephropathy is considered after a routine urinalysis and screening for microalbuminuria in the setting of diabetes. Patients may have physical findings associated with long-standing diabetes mellitus. (See Clinical Presentation.) Good evidence suggests that early treatment delays or prevents the onset of diabetic nephropathy or diabetic kidney disease. This has consistently been shown in both type1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. (See Treatment and Management). Regular outpatient follow-up is key in managing diabetic nephropathy successfully. (See Long-term Monitoring.) Recently, attention has been called to atypical presentations of diabetic nephropathy with dissociati Continue reading >>

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