Diabetes - A Major Risk Factor For Kidney Disease
Diabetes mellitus, usually called diabetes, is a disease in which your body does not make enough insulin or cannot use normal amounts of insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone that regulates the amount of sugar in your blood. A high blood sugar level can cause problems in many parts of your body. The most common ones are Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in children. It is also called juvenile onset diabetes mellitus or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In this type, your pancreas does not make enough insulin and you have to take insulin injections for the rest of your life. Type 2 diabetes, which is more common, usually occurs in people over 40 and is called adult onset diabetes mellitus. It is also called non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In Type 2, your pancreas makes insulin, but your body does not use it properly. The high blood sugar level often can be controlled by following a diet and/or taking medication, although some patients must take insulin. Type 2 diabetes is particularly prevalent among African Americans, American Indians, Latin Americans and Asian Americans. With diabetes, the small blood vessels in the body are injured. When the blood vessels in the kidneys are injured, your kidneys cannot clean your blood properly. Your body will retain more water and salt than it should, which can result in weight gain and ankle swelling. You may have protein in your urine. Also, waste materials will build up in your blood. Diabetes also may cause damage to nerves in your body. This can cause difficulty in emptying your bladder. The pressure resulting from your full bladder can back up and injure the kidneys. Also, if urine remains in your bladder for a long time, you can develop an infection from the rapid growth of bacteria in urine that h Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Kidney Failure
One of the causes of kidney failure is diabetes mellitus, a condition characterised by high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Over time, the high levels of sugar in the blood damage the millions of tiny filtering units within each kidney. There is no cure, and treatment must become ever more aggressive as the kidneys deteriorate towards failure. Treatment options include medications, dialysis and kidney transplant. On this page: The main job of the kidneys is to remove waste from the blood and return the cleaned blood back to the body. Kidney failure means the kidneys are no longer able to remove waste and maintain the level of fluid and salts that the body needs. One cause of kidney failure is diabetes mellitus, a condition characterised by high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Over time, the high levels of sugar in the blood damage the millions of tiny filtering units within each kidney. This eventually leads to kidney failure. Around 20 to 30 per cent of people with diabetes develop kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy), although not all of these will progress to kidney failure. A person with diabetes is susceptible to nephropathy whether they use insulin or not. The risk is related to the length of time the person has diabetes. There is no cure for diabetic nephropathy, and treatment is lifelong. Another name for the condition is diabetic glomerulosclerosis. People with diabetes are also at risk of other kidney problems, including narrowing of the arteries to the kidneys, called renal artery stenosis or renovascular disease. Symptoms of kidney failure For people with diabetes, kidney problems are usually picked up during a check-up by their doctor. Occasionally, a person can have type 2 diabetes without knowing it. This means their unchecked high blood sugar levels may be Continue reading >>
How Does Diabetes Damage The Kidney?
Disclaimer: These stories are a part of the sponsored section created for Mehfil-e-Taj event. Kidneys are remarkable organs. Inside them are millions of small units known as nephrons that act as filters. Their job is to remove waste products from the blood. Sometimes this filtering system breaks down. Diabetes can damage the kidneys and cause them to fail. Failing kidneys lose their ability to filter out waste products, resulting in kidney disease. Diabetic kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy) is a complication that occurs in some people with diabetes. In this condition the filters of the kidneys, the glomeruli (part of nephron), become damaged. Because of this the kidneys 'leak' abnormal amounts of protein from the blood into the urine. The main protein that leaks out from the damaged kidneys is albumin. In normal healthy kidneys only a tiny amount of albumin is found in the urine. A raised level of albumin in the urine is the typical first sign that the kidneys have become damaged by diabetes. Diabetic kidney disease is divided into two main categories, depending on how much albumin is lost through the kidneys: Microalbuminuria- This is when the amount of albumin that leaks into the urine is between 30 and 300 mg per day. It is sometimes called incipient nephropathy. Proteinuria- This is when the amount of albumin that leaks into the urine is more than 300 mg per day. It is sometimes called macroalbuminuria or overt nephropathy. How does diabetic kidney disease develop and progress? A raised blood sugar (glucose) level that occurs in people with diabetes can cause albumin to leak into the urine. In addition, the raised blood glucose level may cause some proteins in the glomeruli to link together. These 'cross-linked' proteins can trigger a localised scarring process. Continue reading >>
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Diabetes And Kidney Disease
What are the kidneys? The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs that are connected to the bladder. They are located below the ribs near the back. What do the kidneys do? The kidneys have many different jobs, but one of the most important is to filter the blood, removing waste through the urine and return the clean blood back to the body. How does diabetes affect the kidneys? If you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes and have high blood glucose (sugar) and high blood pressure, you have an increased risk of developing kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy). Smoking further increases your risk of developing kidney disease. High blood glucose and high blood pressure can force the kidneys to work harder to clean the blood. When the kidneys are forced to work harder than usual, they may get worn out more quickly. However, the kidneys are able to keep working – even when they are getting worn out – without giving you any noticeable signs there are problems developing. Over time the kidneys become damaged so that only 10-25 per cent of the kidney is still working. When this happens, it is called kidney failure. What can I do to prevent kidney damage? There are many things you can do to reduce the risk of getting kidney disease. You can: eat healthy; monitor your blood glucose levels; keep your blood pressure and cholesterol under control; avoid smoking; get kidney or bladder infections treated immediately; get tested for kidney damage every year; and see your family physician / nurse practitioner and other health care professionals on a regular basis. Should I be screened for possible kidney damage? You may not experience any symptoms in the early stages of kidney disease, so it’s important to be screened regularly to detect any kidney problems, as early as possible. Your doctor Continue reading >>
Diabetic Nephropathy - Topic Overview
What is diabetic nephropathy? Nephropathy means kidney disease or damage. Diabetic nephropathy is damage to your kidneys caused by diabetes. In severe cases it can lead to kidney failure. But not everyone with diabetes has kidney damage. What causes diabetic nephropathy? The kidneys have many tiny blood vessels that filter waste from your blood. High blood sugar from diabetes can destroy these blood vessels. Over time, the kidney isn't able to do its job as well. Later it may stop working completely. This is called kidney failure. Certain things make you more likely to get diabetic nephropathy. If you also have high blood pressure or high cholesterol, or if you smoke, your risk is higher. Also, Native Americans, African Americans, and Hispanics (especially Mexican Americans) have a higher risk. What are the symptoms? There are no symptoms in the early stages. So it's important to have regular urine tests to find kidney damage early. Sometimes early kidney damage can be reversed. As your kidneys are less able to do their job, you may notice swelling in your body, most often in your feet and legs. How is diabetic nephropathy diagnosed? The problem is diagnosed using simple tests that check for a protein called albumin in the urine. Urine doesn't usually contain protein. But in the early stages of kidney damage-before you have any symptoms-some protein may be found in your urine, because your kidneys aren't able to filter it out the way they should. Finding kidney damage early can keep it from getting worse. So it's important for people with diabetes to have regular testing, usually every year. How is it treated? The main treatment is medicine to lower your blood pressure and prevent or slow the damage to your kidneys. These medicines include: Angiotensin-converting enzyme Continue reading >>
How Does Diabetes Affect Your Kidneys?
DEAR DOCTOR K: I have Type 2 diabetes. My doctor said that kidney disease is a potential long-term complication of diabetes. What’s the connection between the two? DEAR READER: People with diabetes have elevated levels of blood sugar. Left untreated or poorly treated, diabetes can cause serious complications, such as eye, nerve and kidney damage. An important cause of all these complications is high blood sugar levels over many years. Other factors, such as high blood pressure, also contribute. But the long-term consequences of diabetes are not inevitable. They can be prevented through tight blood sugar control. High levels of blood sugar injure the walls of small blood vessels. They thicken and leak. The vessels may eventually clog, blocking blood flow to vital organs. You asked about kidney disease. The main function of the kidneys is to filter out toxic substances and waste matter from blood so they get flushed out of the body when we pass urine. And they keep important proteins and other useful substances inside the body. They also regulate fluid, salt and other minerals, so that just the right amounts of each remain in the body. The filtering work is done by glomeruli, delicate networks of tiny blood vessels. When the blood vessels that form the glomeruli — the filters — thicken, they begin to fail at their job. Protein leaks into the urine. Fluid, salt and some other minerals build up in the body. In addition, the damaged glomeruli stop filtering out wastes and toxins reliably. These wastes and toxins build up in the bloodstream, causing damage to tissues and organs throughout the body. (See illustration below.) The effects of diabetes on the kidneys The best way to avoid diabetes complications is to keep your blood sugar levels as close to normal as possibl Continue reading >>
How Does Diabetes Affect People?
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which there is increased blood glucose level. Now although there is excess of glucose in blood, the cells are not able to utilize that glucose. The cells are actually starving. Here comes the role of insulin. Insulin facilitates the intake of glucose by the cells. Almost all the cells in our body have these receptors. In diabetes mellitus there is insulin deficiency due to which cells are not able to utilize glucose. This insulin deficiency can be absolute or relative. I will not go into the details of the various causes of insulin deficiency. Let's just focus on what happens when cells cannot utilize glucose and there is excess of glucose in the blood. Excess of glucose in blood results in excess of glucose in urine. Glucose is a sugar and it produces osmotic effect due to which water and electrolytes of the urine are also increased. Hence there is polyuria along with polydypsia. If this persists the patient might go into shock. As the cells cannot utilize glucose the liver starts producing ketone bodies as a source of energy. Excessive formation of ketone bodies may lead to ketoacidosis. Long term diabetes may lead to microangiopathies like diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy and diabetic neuropathy. Continue reading >>
The Link Between Diabetes & Kidney Disease
How can diabetes affect the kidneys? People with diabetes need to watch their glucose levels and blood pressure, as over time high blood glucose levels and blood pressure can damage the tiny blood vessels in the filters of the kidneys. At this early stage, this damage causes small amounts of protein to be passed in the urine which is known as microalbumin. In a later stage, so much protein can be lost from the blood that water moves into the body tissues and causes swelling. After a number of years, the kidney filters can fail completely. Wouldn't I know if I had kidney damage? Not necessarily - there is actually a high chance you wouldn't know at all. There are no warning signs for chronic kidney disease and you could lose up to 90 per cent of your kidney function before you felt unwell. How can I find out if my kidneys are affected? Chronic kidney disease is common in people who have diabetes. The only way to know if you are affected is to have a yearly kidney health check by your doctor or diabetes specialist. The doctor or specialist will order a blood and urine test and will also check your blood pressure to determine if you have any signs of kidney damage. Although there is no cure for chronic kidney disease, early detection and treatment is extremely important to slow or halt the progression of the disease. If chronic kidney disease is not detected and treated early, kidney function may continue to worsen, progressing to end stage kidney disease. In order to survive, people with end stage kidney disease may need to have dialysis or a kidney transplant. Kidney disease can also worsen other serious diabetes complications such as eye disease, nerve damage and cardiovascular disease. For further information about your risk of developing chronic kidney disease talk to Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Renal Failure: Everything You Need To Know
Unfortunately, renal failure or nephropathy (commonly referred to as kidney failure) and unmanaged diabetes go hand in hand. In addition, 50 percent of people with diabetes will experience some form of kidney damage in their lifetime, even if they never experience kidney failure or end up on dialysis. In this article, we will look at how renal failure and insufficiency can have an impact on people with diabetes, and how people with diabetes can avoid renal failure and dialysis. We will look at risk factors, causes, and symptoms, as we explore the relationship between renal failure, diabetes, and high blood glucose. We will also look at what happens to a person with diabetes when their kidneys fail. We will discuss dialysis and kidney transplantation. First, let’s see what Lydia had to say when she contacted TheDiabetesCouncil. Lydia’s story Lydia had received a laboratory result from her doctor that was very alarming to her. She had an excess amount of protein in her urine, usually an early sign of kidney damage. He informed Lydia that her kidneys were being affected by her diabetes, and she needed to work on self-managing her diabetes. He ordered some more tests to further look at her kidneys. Was Lydia headed to the kidney dialysis center? Her friend Tracey, whom she’d met in a diabetes support group had been the first person she knew who was on dialysis. Tracey seemed to have a very difficult life in and out of the dialysis center. Lydia was afraid to end up like Tracey. Lydia knew that she hadn’t been efficiently self-managing her diabetes. Her A1C had been greater than 8 percent a few times over the last few years. While most of the time she kept it around 7.5 percent, she was aware that her doctor wanted her to get it below 7 percent, and keep it there in Continue reading >>
How Does Diabetes Affect Your Kidneys?
Kidney damage is one of the more common long-term complications of diabetes. It is referred to as diabetic nephropathy or diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Diabetic kidney disease is a result of vascular abnormalities that happen because of diabetes. Your small blood vessels can get damaged by having diabetes, especially when your blood glucose levels or blood pressure stay too high for too long. Your kidneys have a lot of very fine blood vessels. This is why having diabetes can affect them. They initially become thick and damaged, and then they start to get leaky. Your kidneys normally filter out your blood and dispose of waste products in your urine. But when their fine blood vessels have been damaged, they start to malfunction. They let important things such as protein into your urine instead of keeping it in your body. In addition to letting the important things leak out, they also start retaining some of the bad waste toxins. These then build up in the body and cause more kidney damage. The Basics About Kidney Disease Based on the description of what happens to your kidneys, you might expect it to be obvious when your kidneys start to malfunction. But this actually isn’t the case! Renal insufficiency, or early kidney disease, often has no symptoms. It’s good to be aware of this because even if you don’t feel any different, damage is being done. Because you can’t physically feel the difference right off the bat, it’s important for diabetics to be tested for kidney disease. This is done with blood tests to evaluate kidney filtration rate and urine tests that check for protein. The earlier you detect any signs of kidney disease, the better because then you can treat it and slow the progression of the damage. You can slow your kidney disease down by keeping your Continue reading >>
How Does Diabetes Affect Our Kidneys?
The kidneys filter nearly 200 quarts of our blood every day. Diabetes is a disease of excess sugar in our blood. To remove this excess glucose from the body, the kidneys are under extreme stress and this can easily result in a kidney disorder, called diabetic nephropathy. In 2011, diabetes caused nearly 44% of kidney failure cases. This makes diabetic kidney disease the Number One complication of diabetes; one that is likely to affect almost every diabetic to some extent. In nearly half the cases of kidney disease, it could lead to kidney failure as well. Diabetes damages the kidneys and the urinary system in three main ways: Damage to blood vessels in the kidneys: Too much sugar damages the filters in the kidneys Damage to nerves: Fine nerves in the hands, feet, etc. are corroded by the extra sugar in the blood Damage to the urinary tract: Nerves run from our bladder to our brain and let us know when the bladder is full and we need to go. Damage to these nerves could mean we don’t react when our bladder is full. Result: extra pressure on the kidneys. Retained urine can also allow urinary tract infections to grow and migrate back to the kidneys. Read this excellent article for more info on how diabetes affects kidneys and how to reduce the risks of diabetic nephropathy. Continue reading >>
Bring In The Research Supporting The Blood Sugars You Want To Achieve Will Work.
One of the worst things high blood sugars do to your body is that they slowly destroy your kidneys. Unfortunately, as is the case with so many "diabetic" complications, this organ destruction also appears to begin long before many people are given a diabetes diagnosis. The landmark UKPDS study found that one out of eight people diagnosed with diabetes already were leaking small amounts of protein into their urine. This symptom, called "microalbuminuria." is an early sign that kidneys have been damaged. Though there is no total agreement as to why this occurs, some factors that promote kidney damage are: 1. High blood pressure. When blood pressure is high, large protein molecules, including those that are glycosylated (covered with sticky excess sugar molecules) are pushed through the pores of the kidney's filtration units, damaging them. 2. High blood sugar. When normal glucose regulation fails, the kidneys must remove excess glucose from the blood, leading to high concentrations of glucose in the kidneys. These glucose molecules clog up tiny capillaries in the kidneys as they do those elsewhere in the body. Eventually this clogging destroys the glomeruli, the filtration units of the kidney. An eleven year study of over 1800 people with diabetes found a straight line relationship between the risk of developing chronic kidney disease and the A1c. The risk began to increase significantly when the A1c rose over 6.0%. Poor Glycemic Control in Diabetes and the Risk of Incident Chronic Kidney Disease Even in the Absence of Albuminuria and Retinopathy: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Lori D. Bash et al. Arch Intern Med. Vol. 168 No. 22, Dec 8/22, 2008 Another study, that followed people with Type 1 diabetes for more than a decade found that those who had achi Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes And Kidney Disease
Nephropathy, or kidney disease, is among the most serious complications for many people with diabetes. It’s the leading cause of kidney failure in the United States. According to the National Kidney Foundation, 465,000 Americans have end-stage kidney disease and are living by means of dialysis. Nephropathy has few early symptoms or warning signs, similar to other diseases associated with type 2 diabetes. Damage to the kidneys from nephropathy can occur for as long as a decade before the first symptoms appear. According to Dr. Charles M. Clark, Jr., M.D., former chairman of the National Diabetes Education Program, “A person can have type 2 diabetes for 9 to 12 years before it’s discovered. During those years, harmful changes are already occurring, causing 5 to 10 percent to [already] have kidney disease at the time of diagnosis.” Often, no symptoms of kidney disease appear until the kidneys are no longer functioning properly. Symptoms that indicate your kidneys could be at risk include: fluid retention swelling of the feet, ankles, and legs a poor appetite feeling exhausted and weak most of the time frequent headaches upset stomach nausea vomiting insomnia difficulty concentrating Early diagnosis of kidney disease is essential for preserving good health. If you have prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, or other known diabetes risk factors, your kidneys are already overworked and their function should be tested annually. Besides diabetes, other risk factors for kidney disease are: uncontrolled high blood pressure uncontrolled high blood glucose obesity high cholesterol a family history of kidney disease a family history of heart disease cigarette smoking advanced age A higher prevalence of kidney disease exists among: African-Americans American Indians Hispanic Americans Continue reading >>
Effects Of Diabetes
In some cases the effects may be short term and can be eliminated through appropriate treatment. In the case of long term complications, any damage sustained tends to be permanent. Whilst there are a lot of ways in which diabetes can affect the body, it’s important to note that the risks of developing health problems can be significantly reduced through good management of diabetes and living a healthy life. Heart Higher than normal blood sugar levels over a period of time can lead to an increase in risk of damage occurring to larger blood vessels in the body. This raises the risk of blood clots forming in blood vessels which can lead to heart attacks – a form of coronary heart disease. Approximately, 600,000 people die of heart disease in the United States every year–that’s 1 in every 4 deaths. Learn more about Heart disease. Brain The brain is another major organ that can pose a threat to life if it is affected by damage or blockages in its blood supply. Elevated blood sugar levels over a long period of time can cause blockages in the blood vessels supplying the brain, resulting in stroke, and can also damage the very small blood vessels in the outer part of the brain, increasing the risk of brain damage and conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. In the short term, too low blood glucose levels can lead to a reduced ability to make decisions and cause confusion and disorientation. Nerves The nerves play a very important part throughout the body. Not only do they allow us to sense touch, nerves also allow our organs to function properly. For instance, nerves are crucial in helping the digestive system to sense how it should respond. If the nerves become damaged we can lose our ability to sense pain in parts of the body that are affected and if nerve damage (ne Continue reading >>