Why Does Diabetes Raise Cancer Risk?
More Questions Than Answers From Expert Panel on Diabetes, Cancer Link June 16, 2010 -- People with diabetes are at increased risk of certain cancers -- but why? Could it be that some diabetes treatments trigger or promote cancer ? Or do the underlying causes of diabetes also underlie cancer ? These are the questions put before an expert panel from the American Diabetes Association and the American Cancer Society (ACS). Even so, lifestyle changes that prevent or reverse diabetes will certainly cut cancer risk, says panel member Susan M. Gapstur, PhD, ACS vice president of epidemiology. "The full biologic link between diabetes and cancer has not been completely defined," Gapstur tells WebMD. "But first of all we should prevent diabetes. Then we can prevent some cancers. And for those who do have diabetes, it should be controlled as much as possible through a healthy lifestyle." Diabetes doubles the risk of liver , pancreas , and endometrial cancer . It increases the risk of colorectal, breast , and bladder cancer by 20% to 50%. But it cuts men's risk of prostate cancer . People with diabetes tend to have some known risk factors for cancer: older age, obesity , poor diet, and physical inactivity. And problems common in diabetes -- too-high insulin levels, too-high blood sugar levels , and inflammation -- increase cancer risk. "No matter what science ultimately reveals ... we already know what we need to do to lower risk for both cancer and diabetes," Alice Bender, RD, of the American Institute for Cancer Research, says in a news release. "Eat a healthy, varied, predominantly plant-based diet, be physically active every day, and maintain a healthy body weight ." Do Diabetes Treatments Raise Cancer Risk? There is evidence, but not definitive proof, that diabetes treatments Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Cancer: What's The Connection?
When Michelle Hall was diagnosed with breast cancer two years ago, she was shocked. "The standing joke in the family was that I came from a long line of stocky French women who lived forever," says Hall, 62, of Salem, N.H. "We had no breast cancer in the family." Hall had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in 2001, so she would have special challenges while facing down cancer. As diseases, cancer and diabetes seem a world away from each other. Yet, numerous studies suggest the conditions are linked. People with diabetes are more likely to be diagnosed with cancer than those without diabetes, but why remains unclear. Scientists are still trying to answer even the most basic questions: Does diabetes cause cancer? If so, what kinds of cancer and how? As the interplay between diabetes and cancer becomes clearer, researchers hope to gain an edge against both diseases. The link between diabetes and cancer may be partially explained by risk factors that underlie and raise the risk of both diseases. Sex: Overall, men are more likely to develop both cancer and type 2 diabetes than women. Weight: Overweight and obese people are more likely to develop cancer than lean people. The association between type 2 diabetes and weight is also well established. While it's clear that losing weight reduces the risk for type 2 diabetes, less is known about whether weight loss combats cancer. Diet: Eating patterns that are thought to help prevent and treat type 2 diabeteslimited red and processed meats and abundant vegetables, fruits, and whole grainsare also associated with a lower risk for many types of cancer. Exercise: Studies show that regular physical activity lowers the risk of developing several types of cancer. Likewise, 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per day can reduce th Continue reading >>
Cancer Incidence In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-based Cohort Study In Sweden
The two subtypes of diabetes mellitus have fundamentally different metabolic and hormonal characteristics. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired insulin release and/or decreased hepatic and extrahepatic insulin sensitivities (1,2), whereas type 1 diabetes is characterized by the cessation of insulin biosynthesis due to the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Increased circulating levels of insulin precursors (i.e., proinsulin and related peptides) have been implicated as mediators of the elevated risks of cancer of the liver, pancreas, kidney, and endometrium among type 2 diabetes patients (3–6). If hyperinsulinemia acts as a critical link between the observed increased cancer risk and type 2 diabetes, one would predict that patients with type 1 diabetes would have a different cancer risk pattern than patients with type 2 diabetes because the former patients are exposed to lower levels of exogenously administered insulin. Our previous attempts to examine cancer risks associated with type 1 diabetes were limited by small sample sizes, short follow-ups, and a questionable algorithm for the identification of patients with type 1 diabetes (4,7–9). Another cohort study from Denmark also had these limitations (6). We therefore sought to obtain precise estimates of cancer risk in type 1 diabetes patients by performing a large population-based retrospective cohort study. We used the Swedish Inpatient Register created by the National Board of Health and Welfare to identify the study cohort (10). Each record in this register includes the patient's national registration number and the discharge diagnoses coded throughout the study period according to the 7th through 10th revised versions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) Continue reading >>
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Diabetes And Pancreatic Cancer
Approximately 25.8 million people in the United States, approximately 8.3% of the population, have diabetes. It is estimated that 18.8 million have been diagnosed, but unfortunately, 7.0 million people, or over one fourth, are unaware that they have the disease. Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not make or properly use a pancreatic hormone called insulin. Insulin helps the body utilize glucose (sugar) efficiently. Normally, insulin allows glucose to enter cells to be used for energy. In the case of diabetes, either the body does not produce enough insulin or the amount that is produced is not fully effective. Instead of entering cells, the glucose remains in the blood resulting in high blood glucose levels. Diabetes can cause major health problems, such as high-blood pressure, blindness, kidney disease and neuropathy. Long-term high blood glucose levels can lead to cell damage and long-term complications. There are several types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes results from the bodys inability to produce insulin and accounts for approximately 5% of those diagnosed with the disease. Type 2 diabetes results from the bodys failure to properly use insulin combined with insulin deficiency and accounts for most diagnosed cases of diabetes in the United States. Pre-diabetes occurs when a persons blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but are not high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Approximately 79 million Americans are pre-diabetic. Other types of diabetes result from specific genetic conditions, surgery, medications, infections, pancreatic diseases and other illnesses. How does diabetes relate to pancreatic cancer? Diabetes may be either a risk factor or a symptom of pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer is more likely to occur in people who have lon Continue reading >>
Diabetic Women At Greater Risk Of Cancer Than Men, According To New Study
Diabetic women at greater risk of cancer than men, according to new study Diabetes is linked with an increased risk of developing cancer particularly among women, new research suggests. A review of 47 studies involving almost 20 million people has shown for the first time that women with the condition are at a greater risk than men of developing any form of the disease, the authors said. They warned the gender differences were "not insignificant" and needed addressing. The research by The George Institute for Global Health, an affiliate of the University of Oxford, found women with diabetes are 27% more likely to develop cancer than women without the condition. Diabetes among men was linked with a 19% higher risk, according to the findings published in journal Diabetologia. Overall, the researchers found women with diabetes are 6% more likely to develop any form of cancer than men with diabetes. It is believed that heightened blood glucose may have cancer-causing effects by leading to DNA damage.Credit:Peter Byrne/PA Co-author Dr Sanne Peters, of the George Institute, said: "Historically we know that women are often undertreated when they first present with symptoms of diabetes, are less likely to receive intensive care and are not taking the same levels of medications as men. Historically we know that women are often undertreated when they first present with symptoms of diabetes. "All of these could go some way into explaining why women are at greater risk of developing cancer. "But, without more research we can't be certain. The differences we found are not insignificant and need addressing." Women with diabetes have an 11% higher chance of developing kidney cancer, 13% higher chance of oral cancer, 14% higher chance of stomach cancer and 15% higher chance of leukaem Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes Tied To Risk For A Wide Range Of Cancers
Type 1 diabetes tied to risk for a wide range of cancers (Reuters Health) People with type 1 diabetes are more likely than the general population to develop cancers of gastric organs and the kidneys, as well as endometrium and ovaries for women, according to a large new analysis. But the authors also found that other sex-specific cancers, including prostate and breast, were significantly less common among people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes has been tied generally to increased cancer risk in the past, but studies have relied mostly on data from people with type 2 diabetes, which develops slowly, usually in adults who are overweight or obese, and affects about 28 million Americans. Type 1 diabetes, typically diagnosed in children and young adults, affects about 1.25 million Americans, according to the American Diabetes Association. People with diabetes and (those with) cancer have many common risk factors, including obesity, poor diet, physical inactivity and smoking, said study coauthor Jessica H. Harding of the Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute in Melbourne, Australia. However, the overall excess cancer risk among type 1 diabetes is moderate, Harding told Reuters Health by email. People with type 1 diabetes should not be alarmed about the results from this study but follow current guidelines for cancer prevention and participate in national screening programs as per the general population. The researchers analyzed data from national registries of people with type 1 diabetes in Australia, Denmark, Finland, Scotland and Sweden through 2008 or 2012, and linked these records to national cancer registries. There were 9,149 first incidences of cancer in the diabetic patients they identified, half of which happened before age 51. Compared to the general population for Continue reading >>
Diabetes May Increase Risk For Cancer, Especially For Women
Diabetes May Increase Risk for Cancer, Especially for Women A nurse uses a glucometer to collect a blood sample at a free diabetes check-up camp on World Health Day in Hyderabad, India in 2016. People with diabetes appear to have a higher risk of developing cancer than those without diabetes, and the risk is greater in women than men, a new meta-analysis finds. In 2015, more than 400 million people had diabetes and 17.5 million people had cancer worldwide. And although previous studies have found a link between diabetes and cancer risk, it wasn't clear whether gender also played a role. In the study, published today (July 19) in the journal Diabetologia , the researchers sifted through earlier studies that reported a link between cancer and diabetes. After removing studies that looked at only a single gender and studies that hadn't adjusted for age, the researchers ended up analyzing data from more than 19 million individuals with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes across more than 100 studies and data sets. [ 10 Do's and Don'ts to Reduce Your Risk of Cancer ] The researchers found that women with diabetes had a 27 percent higher risk of cancer compared with women without diabetes, while men with diabetes had a 19 percent higher risk of cancer compared with men without diabetes. Comparing men and women, the researchers found that women with diabetes had a 6 percent higher risk of cancer than men with diabetes. "Given the epidemic of both diabetes and cancer, it is important that both women with and without diabetes, as well as health care providers, are aware [of] the heightened risk of cancer following diabetes in women than men and try to prevent the onset and manage the progression of diabetes," said lead author Toshiaki Ohkuma, a research fellow in the renal and meta Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Colon Cancer: An Emerging Link
More than 25 million adults aged 20 and older in the United States have diabetes. That figure has more than tripled since 1980. That is bad news for a number of reasons. Not only can diabetes cause heart disease, stroke, nerve damage, and eye issues, but recent research now shows there is also a clear link between type 2 diabetes and colon cancer. Colon cancer is one of the most preventable types of cancer, yet it is still the third most common cancer among both men and women in the U.S. And, many of the ways people can lower their risk for colon cancer are actually the same as how they can avoid developing type 2 diabetes. These include: Staying away from a diet high in red and processed meats Keeping physically active Maintaining a healthy weight Staying away from tobacco Avoiding heavy alcohol use Even though the two diseases share several common risk factors, research shows that type 2 diabetes itself is indeed linked to increased risk of developing colon cancer. Studies also show that among patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, those with diabetes were more likely than those without it to die – even after controlling for other factors such as disease stage, body weight, and smoking habits. There are a few major hypotheses for the link, according to Peter Campbell, Ph.D., an American Cancer Society researcher who has been studying the connection between diabetes and colon cancer for a number of years. One idea has to do with a condition that causes the amount of insulin in a person’s blood to be higher than normal, called hyperinsulinemia. Insulin is the body’s way of regulating the amount of sugar – or glucose – in the blood. Hyperinsulinemia can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. The thought, says Campbell, is that the abnormally high level Continue reading >>
Sugar The Reason Diabetics Have A Higher Risk Of Aggressive Cancers
Sugar the Reason Diabetics Have a Higher Risk of Aggressive Cancers New research offers the answer to a mystery that has perplexed scientists for decades: How do cancerous tumors in diabetics and others with metabolic problems like obesity grow even when their cells are starving for energy? A study published by doctors at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City shows that when dietary sugar combines with cancer genes all of a sudden you have a tumor that is a sink, Dr. Ross Cagan, lead author of the study, told Healthline. What's more, Cagan has found a way to combat the problem, at least in fruit flies. The report, published last week in the journal Cell , outlines Cagan's findings. Most importantly, it shows that even though a cancer cell's insulin pathways don't work in diabetics, cancerous tumors get around that roadblock and trigger the insulin receptors regardless. As a result, cancerous tumors metastasize and spread to other parts of the body. Cagan, a professor of developmental and regenerative biology, explained that Ras and Src, classic human cancer genes, can act similarly in fruit flies. When dietary sugar combines with these genes, it activates a pathway that allows the cells to take in sugar. Tumors love sugar, Cagan said. It helps them grow. The diabetes-cancer link is most often found in people with cancers of the pancreas, breast, liver, or colon, Cagan said. In what could be a monumental discovery if proven true in humans, Cagan found that medicating the flies with arcabose, AD81, and pyrvinium reduced tumor size and progression. Importantly, we showed that any of these drugsalonewas not effective, but the cocktailworked nicely to dramatically reduce the tumor and extend the fly's lifespan, he said. Arcabose is appr Continue reading >>
People With Diabetes More Likely To Get Cancer
People with diabetes more likely to get cancer NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - People with diabetes are at higher risk for certain cancers than those without the blood sugar disease, suggests a new study. Based on data from a telephone survey of nearly 400,000 adults, researchers found 16 out of every 100 diabetic men and 17 out of every 100 diabetic women said they had cancer. That compares to just seven per 100 men and 10 per 100 women without diabetes. The significant association between cancer and diabetes does not surprise us, said Dr. Chaoyang Li, an epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, whose findings appear in the journal Diabetes Care. According to the CDC, nine percent of U.S. adults have diabetes. After taking into account things like age, race, smoking and drinking habits, the researchers concluded that diabetic men and women were 10 percent more likely to have had a cancer diagnosis of any kind. Li told Reuters Health other studies have also found a link between the two diseases, although there is no proof that one causes the other. The researchers found that the types of cancers that were more likely among diabetics differed between men and women. Compared to people without diabetes, diabetic men were more likely to report having colon, pancreas, rectum, urinary bladder, kidney or prostate cancer (the latter only occurs in men). Diabetic women had more cases of breast cancer, leukemia or cancer of the womb. For men, the greatest increase in risk was for pancreatic cancer, with 16 per 10,000 cases among diabetics and just two per 10,000 among non-diabetics. That corresponds to a four-fold difference after taking other factors into account. Womens risk of leukemia also varied greatly between the two groups. One pe Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Cancer: Whats The Link?
The researchers suggested that the link between the two diseases may be partly due to shared risk factors, including aging, overweight and obesity, diet, physical activity, alcohol and smoking. But its also possible that diabetes could directly affect cancer risk through metabolic abnormalities. These include excess blood sugar, insulin resistance , and high levels of insulin and related factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which has been implicated in cancer. Chronic inflammation, which occurs in people with diabetes, may also contribute to elevated cancer risks. Some risk factors common to diabetes and cancer are modifiable; they include being overweight or obese, smoking, and lack of physical activity. Maintaining a healthy weight, not smoking, and being physically active are lifestyle measures that can reduce the risks of both diseases. The question of whether insulin and drugs taken by diabetic patients influences their risk of cancer has been raised, but the issue has not been settled. Meanwhile, the authors of the American Diabetes Association and the American Cancer Society report said that cancer risk should not be a major factor in choosing diabetes therapy. The researchers added that patients with diabetes should be strongly encouraged to undergo appropriate cancer screenings as recommended for all people of their age and sex. Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Risk Of Cancer
1Department of Geriatric, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, South Texas Veterans Healthcare System, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA 2Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA 3Faculty of Medicine, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum at Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland Received 24 December 2012; Accepted 9 January 2013 Academic Editors: Y.Akiyama and G.Metro Copyright 2013 Samy L. Habib and Maciej Rojna. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Diabetes and cancer represent two complex, diverse, chronic, and potentially fatal diseases. Cancer is the second leading cause of death, while diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death with the latter still likely underreported. There is a growing body of evidence published in recent years that suggest substantial increase in cancer incidence in diabetic patients. The worldwide prevalence of diabetes was estimated to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. About 26.9% of all people over 65 have diabetes and 60% have cancer. Overall, 818% of cancer patients have diabetes. In the context of epidemiology, the burden of both diseases, small association between diabetes and cancer will be clinically relevant and should translate into significant consequences for future health care solutions. This paper summarizes most of the epidemiological association studies between diabetes and cancer including studies relating to the general all-site increase of malignancies in diabetes and elevated organ-specific cancer Continue reading >>
'link Between Diabetes And Cancer Risk Firmly Established'
'Link between diabetes and cancer risk firmly established' That diabetes and cancer are linked in some way is by no means a new idea, but it had never previously been confirmed. Now, a major new study draws a firm conclusion: diabetes raises a person's risk of developing cancer. New research warns that the risk of cancer is sex-specific in people with diabetes, and that we need to learn more about the reasons why. Research suggests that a diagnosis of diabetes places a person at an increased risk of various types of cancer . Now, a review analyzing the data collected by 47 studies from across the globe including the United States, United Kingdom, China, Australia, and Japan, to name but a few confirms, beyond doubt, that diabetes heightens the risk for cancer. The study authors note that women with diabetes are especially affected. They appear to be more exposed than men to the development of malign tumors. The findings of this global review which assessed the health-related data of almost 20 million people are discussed in a paper now published in the journal Diabetologia. The review was conducted by researchers led by Dr. Toshiaki Ohkuma, from the George Institute for Global Health at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. His colleagues hailed from the University of Oxford in the U.K., and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD. Dr. Ohkuma and his colleagues discovered not only that diabetes both type 1 and type 2 put people at risk of developing specific types of cancer, but also that this risk is much higher for women than it is for men. Women with diabetes are 27 percent likelier to develop cancer, compared with healthy women. By contrast, men with diabetes are 19 percent more likely to develop cancer than healthy men. And, women with diabetes Continue reading >>
Prediabetes And Cancer: Is There A Link?
By Athena Philis-Tsimikas, MD, Special to Everyday Health A new research study has troublesome news for the 86 million Americans who have a condition known as prediabetes: Not only are you at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes, you also may have an increased risk of cancer. People with prediabetes have blood glucose levels that are higher than normal, but not yet high enough to qualify as diabetes. A diagnosis of prediabetes includes individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or a combination of both. Despite the fact that the number of Americans diagnosed with type 2 diabetes is skyrocketing, the disease does not develop overnight. Instead, blood glucose levels generally increase over time as a result of lifestyle factors, such as poor diet, lack of exercise, and obesity. Aging alone also contributes to decline in beta cell function of the pancreas and onset of diabetes. If this increase in blood sugar isn’t controlled, prediabetes will likely result, followed by full-blown type 2 diabetes within 10 years. Now, research shows that prediabetes can also raise your risk of developing cancer, according to a study just published in Diabetologia, the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. The article, a meta-analysis that included a total of 16 studies and 891,426 participants from the US, Europe, Asia, and Africa, shows that prediabetes raises overall cancer risk by 15 percent. Delving deeper into specific types of cancer risk, the analysis found that prediabetes was significantly associated with increased risks of cancer of the stomach and colorectum, liver, pancreas, breast, and endometrium. No significant association was found between prediabetes and cancer of the bronchus amd lung, prostate, ovary, Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Cancer: American Diabetes Association
Researchers are trying to learn more about the link between type 2 diabetes and certain cancers. Type 2 diabetes and certain cancers share some risk factors: Age As you get older, your risk for both type 2 diabetes and cancer goes up. Gender Overall, cancer occurs more often in men. Men also have a slightly higher risk of diabetes than women. Race/ethnicity African Americans and non-Hispanic whites are more likely to develop cancer. African Americans, Native Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders are at higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Overweight Being overweight can increase your risk of type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancer. Inactivity Higher physical activity levels lower the risk of type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancer. Smoking Smoking is linked to several types of cancer. Studies suggest that smoking is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Alcohol Drinking more than one drink a day for women or two drinks a day for men raises the risk for both diabetes and cancer. Lose weight If you are overweight, even losing 7% of your weight (15 pounds if you weigh 200 pounds) can make a big difference. Use the Body Mass Index (BMI) Calculator to find out how much weight you need to lose. Eat healthy Choose a diet with plenty of: Fresh vegetables The best choices are fresh, frozen, and canned vegetables and vegetable juices without added sodium, fat, or sugar. For good health, try to eat at least 3-5 daily servings of vegetables, including asparagus, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, eggplant, greens, peppers, snap peas and tomatoes. A serving of vegetables is cup of cooked vegetables or vegetable juice; or 1 cup of raw vegetables. Whole grains A whole grain is the entire grain, which includes Continue reading >>
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