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Do Diabetics Have A Compromised Immune System

Diabetes Mellitus And Infection

Diabetes Mellitus And Infection

Some types of infection occur more frequently in patients with diabetes. This increased risk is largely attributable to an altered immune response due to chronic hyperglycaemia, but increased susceptibility to infection may also result from diabetic complications such as diabetic neuropathy and vascular insufficiency. Risk of most common infections is only modestly increased (e.g. 1.2 fold), but a number of rare but potentially fatal infections occur primarily or even almost exclusively in patients with diabetes. These include mucormycosis, emphysematous urinary tract infections, emphysematous cholecystitis, necrotizing fasciitis and malignant otitis externa. Immediate antimicrobial and/or surgical treatment is needed to prevent serious complications from these infections, including death. In general, antimicrobial treatment of infections in patients with diabetes is not different than in patients without diabetes. Glucose lowering therapy often needs to be increased to counter the loss of control associated with infection. Vaccinations against influenza and pneumococcal infections are recommended for patients with diabetes. Incidence and contributing factors People with diabetes are reported to experience 21% more infections than the general population[1]. Several factors may contribute to this, for example possible ‘reporting bias’: more frequent medical visits due to diabetes may lead to better recording of infectious complications. Even so, it seems clear that the risk of many common infections increases in proportion to hyperglycemia. Special problems may also arise in relations to diabetic nephropathy, which may undermine host defences against infection, and peripheral vascular disease which may impair tissue nutrition, oxygen supply and the ability to mount a Continue reading >>

What Is The Immune System?

What Is The Immune System?

Your immune system protects you from some things and tolerates others. To maintain health, the balance between a destructive response and a tolerant one has to be just right. To understand the autoimmune attack of beta cells in type 1 diabetes, it helps to understand how the immune system normally functions. In humans, the immune system protects the person from outside invaders (also known as pathogens), such as bacteria or viruses, and abnormal or diseased cells, such as cancer cells. Additionally, the immune response allows some foreign material and normal cells for each individual (or “self”) to be tolerated. The balance between a destructive response and a tolerant response has to be just right; otherwise, people get autoimmune medical problems. On this page you will learn about: Lymphocytes & Immune Organs The immune cells are called lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells. Important immune organs or sites in the body are the thymus, bone marrow and lymph nodes. Lymphocytes include: T cells that can attack or kill infected or defective cells, and also regulate the immune response. The T cell receptors (TCRs) on their cell surface recognize and respond to foreign or abnormal tissue. This process is called cell-mediated immunity. See the glossary below for more about the different types of T cells B cells that make antibodies. B cells are involved in humoral – related to the blood – immunity. NK (natural killer) cells that cause cell death. Immune organs include: The thymus – a gland in the chest that programs the immune system. An important function is to choose and develop T cells that will protect the body and to eliminate T cells that could attack the body. Bone marrow – the source of precursor, or stem cells that can turn into new blood cells. Lymph Continue reading >>

6 Ways To Boost Your Immunity With Diabetes

6 Ways To Boost Your Immunity With Diabetes

Diabetes is often considered an autoimmune disease, especially type 1. The body is unable to produce any insulin. In type 2, the body either does not produce enough insulin or does not use it correctly. Either kind of diabetes can lower the actions of the immune system. People with diabetes are more prone to sickness and infection due to reduced action of white blood cells. Discover ways to boost your immunity with either type of diabetes and combat attacks from invaders such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Portion Size and Carbohydrates Make a Difference The foods we eat can boost our immune system and may help people with diabetes control blood sugar levels. Conversely, the wrong foods can be unhealthy and cause our blood sugar levels to rise which ends up decreasing our immunity. Portion control is crucial as weight gain can harm the immune system by increasing inflammation and make it more difficult to control blood sugar levels. Consider using portion plates to determine the proper amount of protein, carbohydrates and vegetables to serve during each meal. Never skip meals and always test your blood sugars as suggested. If snacks are recommended (depending on your medication regimen) eat them when scheduled. It may also be helpful to count calories. Too many calories can lead to weight gain which causes the immune system to slack. Instead of actual counting of calories, use a small kitchen scale or cup measurements to help you visualize portion size. After a while you will understand what a true portion is. You can also use common objects such as a fist, thumb, tennis ball or deck of cards to realize what a reasonable portion really looks like. Counting carbohydrates is critical to keeping blood sugars controlled and immune systems working properly. Schedule an app Continue reading >>

Immune Systems Of Type 1 Diabetics Can Be Retrained To Stop Destroying Insulin, Scientists Show

Immune Systems Of Type 1 Diabetics Can Be Retrained To Stop Destroying Insulin, Scientists Show

Immune systems of type 1 diabetics can be retrained to stop destroying insulin, scientists show Scientists have shown for the first time that the immune system can be retrained to stop it attacking insulin producing beta cellsCredit:Bill Cheyrou / Alamy The damaged immune systems of diabetics can be retrained to stop them destroying insulin, scientists believe, following successful trials of a pioneering new therapy. Researchers at Kings College London and Cardiff University showed that injecting patients with tiny protein fragments prevented immune cells from targeting vital insulin. Type 1 diabetes develops when a patient's immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Without treatment the number of beta cells will slowly decrease and the body will no longer be able to maintain normal blood sugar (blood glucose) levels, leading to patients needing daily injections. involving 27 people showed it was possible to halt the loss of beta cells with fortnightly or monthly injections for six months. There were also no toxic side-effects. The new treatment stops immune cells (t-cells) attacking beta cells which produce insulin A placebo group who were not given the new treatment declined over the same period, while the trial patients all remained stable. The team is now planning larger trials. Professor Mark Peakman, of Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London, said: "When someone is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes they still typically have between 15 per cent and 20 per cent of their beta cells. We wanted to see if we could protect these remaining cells by retraining the immune system to stop attacking them. "We still have a long way to go, but these early results suggest we are heading in the right direction. T Continue reading >>

Infections In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Review Of Pathogenesis

Infections In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Review Of Pathogenesis

Go to: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a clinical syndrome associated with deficiency of insulin secretion or action. It is considered one of the largest emerging threats to health in the 21st century. It is estimated that there will be 380 million persons with DM in 2025.[1] Besides the classical complications of the disease, DM has been associated with reduced response of T cells, neutrophil function, and disorders of humoral immunity.[2–4] Consequently, DM increases the susceptibility to infections, both the most common ones as well as those that almost always affect only people with DM (e.g. rhinocerebral mucormycosis).[4] Such infections, in addition to the repercussions associated with its infectivity, may trigger DM complications such as hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis. This article aims to critically review the current knowledge on the mechanisms associated with the greater susceptibility of DM for developing infectious diseases and to describe the main infectious diseases associated with this metabolic disorder. Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Affects Immune System

How Diabetes Affects Immune System

How Diabetes affects Immune system ? Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that affects how the body uses food for energy due to insulin resistance. Diabetes affects the metabolism as well as the immune system. The disease causes the immune system to destroy insulin producing cells within the pancreas. The immune response is also much lower in people who have diabetes so they are more susceptible to getting infections that could result in the loss of a limb. Diabetes is widely recognized as one of the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. In 2006, it was the seventh leading cause of death. However, diabetes is likely to be underreported as the under lying cause of death on death certifi cates. In 2004, among people ages 65 years or older, heart disease was noted on 68 percent of diabetes-related death certifi cates; stroke was noted on 16 percent of diabetes-related death certificates for the same age group. Diabetes is associated with long-term complications that affect almost every part of the body. The disease often leads to blindness, heart and blood vessel disease, stroke, kidney failure, amputations, and nerve damage. Uncontrolled diabetes can complicate pregnancy, and birth defects are more common in babies born to women with diabetes. People with diabetes should see a health care provider who will help them learn to manage their diabetes and who will monitor their diabetes control. Most people with diabetes get care from primary care physicians—internists, family practice doctors, or pediatricians. Often, having a team of providers can improve diabetes care. A team can include a primary care provider such as an internist, a family practice doctor, or a pediatrician an endocrinologist—a specialist in diabetes care a dietitian, a nurse, and o Continue reading >>

Does Diabetes Affect Your Immune System?-how To Boost It Naturally

Does Diabetes Affect Your Immune System?-how To Boost It Naturally

What is the immune system? The immune system is without a doubt the most important system in your body. It is the center of your system. But does diabetes affect your immune system? It most certainly does and when it is compromised then you need to learn how to boost the immune system naturally. Your immune system is your defense against any invaders either from outside your body or from inside your body. Once your blood sugar is elevated, it affects your immune system. We have to get your immune system back up and working in top notch form again. If these invaders are not stopped, they can cause disease or even death. You cannot take lightly how crucial your immune system is. As far as toxins go, the less you have the better off you are and the more you have the worse it is for your health. You have to turn things around and reverse an immune system that isn’t healthy. Three factors determine the health of your immune system You are what you eat. Isn’t that what was always said? It’s true. Bad eating will weaken your immune system and healthy eating will strengthen your immune system. You should know that fruits and vegetables are what you should be feeding your body. Foods with sugar are the worst for you. There are suppressors that are toxic to your body and your immune system. Examples are chemicals, metals, and even radiation that will disrupt the health of your immune system. Refined sugars in your diet can damage your immune system too because of the bacteria and fungi which are fed on from the sugars. Is it heredity? If it’s in your genes, there isn’t anything you can do about that. But some folks eat healthy and do everything right and will die early and others eat junk and don’t look after their health and live a longer life. Or maybe you’re sick Continue reading >>

Is Type 2 Diabetes An Autoimmune Disease?

Is Type 2 Diabetes An Autoimmune Disease?

Type 2 diabetes is in the process of being redefined as an autoimmune disease rather than just a metabolic disorder, said an author of a new study published in Nature Medicine this week, the findings of which may lead to new diabetes treatments that target the immune system instead of trying to control blood sugar. As part of the study the researchers showed that an antibody called anti-CD20, which targets and eliminates mature B cells in the immune system, stopped diabetes type 2 developing in lab mice prone to develop the disease, and restored their blood sugar level to normal. Anti-CD20, available in the US under the trade names Rituxan and MabThera, is already approved as a treatment for some autoimmune diseases and blood cancers in humans, but more research is needed to see if it will work against diabetes in humans. The researchers believe that insulin resistance, the hallmark of type 2 diabetes (unlike type 1 diabetes where it is the insulin-producing cells that are destroyed), is the result of B cells and other immune cells attacking the body's own tissues. Co-first author Daniel Winer, now an endocrine pathologist at the University Health Network of the University of Toronto in Ontario, Canada, started working on the study as a postdoctoral scholar at Stanford University School of Medicine in California, USA. He told the press that: "We are in the process of redefining one of the most common diseases in America as an autoimmune disease, rather than a purely metabolic disease." "This work will change the way people think about obesity, and will likely impact medicine for years to come as physicians begin to switch their focus to immune-modulating treatments for type-2 diabetes," he added. The discovery brings type 2 diabetes, until now considered to be more of a Continue reading >>

10 Little-known Facts About Your Immune System

10 Little-known Facts About Your Immune System

I honestly thought that with Type 1 diabetes, my immune system was shot to hell. But my husband and oldest daughter always get sick faster and longer than I do. Somehow I seem to fight off "bugs" better than they do. How can this be? Curious as ever, I spent a little time looking into the human immune system and found some pretty intriguing trivia, compiled here for your reading pleasure: 1) Type 1 diabetes doesn't hamper the day-to-day activity of your immune system if you have good blood glucose control. "The autoimmune part of type 1 is very particular, as only the beta cells in the islets are targeted; not the other cells in the islet, and not the other cells in the pancreas. In all of the usual ways, the immune system is just fine," my co-author Dr. Jackson tells me. "There are a few other autoimmune endocrine disorders that are slightly more likely if you have type 1 diabetes. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most common, resulting in either an overactive or underactive thyroid." 2) Autoimmune (AI) disease is primarily a women's issue. This according to Rosalind Joffe in her new book, "Women, Work, and Autoimmune Disease" (due out in May '08). The ratios of AI diseases vary from 2:1 to 50:1 in favor of women, she says. 3) Allergies are also an "immune system mistake." "For some reason, in people with allergies, the immune system strongly reacts to an allergen that should be ignored. The allergen might be a certain food, or a certain type of pollen, or a certain type of animal fur. For example, a person allergic to a certain pollen will get a runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing, etc." 4) Your immune system is a three-layer deal. Backing up for a moment, did you know that the immune system is composed of these three "layers" or mechanisms? (info from Bio-Medicine) i) Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications: The Immune System

Diabetes Complications: The Immune System

Renegade macrophages—the garbage collectors of the immune system—go rogue in obesity and Type 2 Diabetes The interrelationship between obesity, type 2 diabetes, complications of diabetes, and immune dysfunction has been suspected for more than a decade1. But it has only been in recent years that many of the threads connecting these conditions have been defined. The diagram below illustrates how energy imbalance in adipose tissue, innate immune activation, and alterations in gut microbiota all contribute to potential chronic inflammation, type 2 diabetes, and diabetic complications. The starting point for this begins in white adipose tissue where innate immune cells such as macrophages and maturing adipocytes interact as they deal with diet-driven energy imbalances. The latter causes a massive infiltration of macrophages (the big eaters of the immune system) changing their representation in the tissue from 10% to an estimated 40% of cells. These macrophages polarize into a subtype (called M1) that are pro-inflammatory and behave as if they are fighting a never-ending bacterial infection. Specific lipid metabolites use toll-like and NOD receptors on macrophages to activate a protein complex known as the inflammasome, and this further increases cytokine (and other) mediators of inflammation produced by the M1 macrophages. The macrophage-driven inflammatory attack depletes the maturing adipocyte population causing those cells that survive to swell as they accumulate an inordinate amount of lipids per adipocyte. This progression of the macrophage inflammatory attack in the adipose tissue is bad enough but unlike what happens in Las Vegas, the inflammatory insult does not stay just in the adipose tissue. Instead, an increasing number of metabolically-intolerant, polarized Continue reading >>

Immune Dysfunction In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus (dm).

Immune Dysfunction In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus (dm).

Abstract Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have infections more often than those without DM. The course of the infections is also more complicated in this patient group. One of the possible causes of this increased prevalence of infections is defects in immunity. Besides some decreased cellular responses in vitro, no disturbances in adaptive immunity in diabetic patients have been described. Different disturbances (low complement factor 4, decreased cytokine response after stimulation) in humoral innate immunity have been described in diabetic patients. However, the clinical relevance of these findings is not clear. Concerning cellular innate immunity most studies show decreased functions (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, killing) of diabetic polymorphonuclear cells and diabetic monocytes/macrophages compared to cells of controls. In general, a better regulation of the DM leads to an improvement of these cellular functions. Furthermore, some microorganisms become more virulent in a high glucose environment. Another mechanism which can lead to the increased prevalence of infections in diabetic patients is an increased adherence of microorganisms to diabetic compared to nondiabetic cells. This has been described for Candida albicans. Possibly the carbohydrate composition of the receptor plays a role in this phenomenon. Continue reading >>

Immune (lymphatic) System And Diabetes - Components, White Blood Cells

Immune (lymphatic) System And Diabetes - Components, White Blood Cells

The immune system is also known as the lymphatic system The immune system plays an important role in the body by keeping us free from infection. As with other organ systems, problems with the immune system can occur, leading to the development of long term conditions, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes . The role of the immune system is to protect the body from bacteria, viruses and tumours. The immune system deals with these threats in a number of different ways, from engulfing bacteria to killing parasites, tumours and cells infected with viruses. The following organs make up the immune system: A key part of the immune system are the white blood cells which are produced by bone marrow and help the immune system to perform its role. Bone marrow is a spongy tissue found within bones. Bone marrow is responsible for producing red and white blood cells . White blood cells play an important role in how the body fights infection. Read more about bone marrow Link to new content The thymus is an organ located between the heart and the breast bone. The thymus produces hormones involved in the immune system and is also responsible for the maturation of powerful immune cells called lymphocytes. The spleen is located between the stomach and the diaphragm and performs a number of activities for the immune system. The spleen filters bacteria and viruses out of the blood and stores red blood cells and lymphocytes for release when required. For example, if the body contracts an infection, the spleen can release a ready supply of lymphocytes to control the infection. The lymph nodes are situated at several parts of the body including at the: The lymph nodes filter the lymph fluid and white blood cells attack any bacteria or viruses that are present. The white blood cells play a very Continue reading >>

What Infections Are You At Risk For With Diabetes?

What Infections Are You At Risk For With Diabetes?

People with diabetes are more susceptible to developing infections, as high blood sugar levels can weaken the patient's immune system defenses. In addition, some diabetes-related health issues, such as nerve damage and reduced blood flow to the extremities, increase the body's vulnerability to infection. What Kinds of Infections Are Most Likely If You Have Diabetes? When you have diabetes, you are especially prone to foot infections, yeast infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, yeast cells (Candida albicans) are more likely to colonize the mucous membranes (e.g., mouth, vagina, nose) in people with diabetes. These Candida cells then interfere with the normal infection-fighting action of white blood cells. With white blood cells impaired, Candida can replicate unchecked, causing yeast infections. High blood sugar levels contribute to this process. Other Sources of Diabetes-Related Infection Diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage) causes problems with sensation, particularly in the feet. This lack of sensation sometimes means foot injuries go unnoticed. Untreated injuries can lead to infection. Some types of neuropathy can also lead to dry, cracked skin, which allows a convenient entry point for infection into the body. People with diabetes often have low blood flow to the extremities. With less blood flow, the body is less able to mobilize normal immune defenses and nutrients that promote the body's ability to fight infection and promote healing. Why Are Infections Risky for People With Diabetes? People with diabetes are more adversely affected when they get an infection than someone without the disease, because you have weakened immune defenses in diabetes. Studies have shown that even those who have minimally elevated blood sugar le Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Infectious Diseases: Controlling Chronic Hyperglycemia

Diabetes Mellitus And Infectious Diseases: Controlling Chronic Hyperglycemia

As the incidence of diabetes mellitus continues to rise, common focus areas for diabetes control are blood glucose levels, diet, and exercise. Addressing and controlling these factors as well as other factors associated with diabetes are essential for a better quality of life; however, awareness of an increased risk of infections is also warranted in diabetes patients with chronic hyperglycemia. The immune system is comprised of two subcategories: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity, the first line of defense, is activated when a pathogen initially presents itself. This portion of immunity is inherited at birth and is not specific in its mechanism of defense. In addition, it serves the overall immune system by alerting specific cells of pathogen invasion to activate the adaptive immune system. The innate immune system has physical and chemical mechanisms of response. These include but are not limited to sneezing, coughing, sweating, maintenance of normal body temperature, and gram-positive normal flora on the skin. Adaptive immunity is a very specific aspect of a properly functioning immune system that provides protection against previous infections experienced by the host. These responses are mediated by lymphocytes, which consist of natural killer (NK) cells, B cells and T cells. Vaccinations and exposure to pathogens benefit the adaptive immune system by establishing immunologic memory. In the event of another attack by the same foreign organism, the adaptive immune system is able to provide a more efficient response. Complications of Chronic Hyperglycemia Patients with uncontrolled diabetes are considered immunosuppressed due to the negative effects of elevated blood sugars on the immune system. Hyperglycemia impairs overall immunity through diffe Continue reading >>

Can High Blood Sugar Affect The Immune System?

Can High Blood Sugar Affect The Immune System?

When you have an injury or infection, your body sends white blood cells to heal the damaged tissue. But too much glucose in your blood can slow the work of white blood cells, resulting in cuts and bruises that never seem to heal. Even minor injuries like a cut with a razor will take longer to heal and may become infected. When your blood sugar goes up above 200, your white blood cells can't fight really well. And that weakens your immune system. Continue reading >>

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