Types Of Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body's ability to use the energy found in food. There are three major types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. All types of diabetes mellitus have something in common. Normally, your body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose fuels the cells in your body. But the cells need insulin, a hormone, in your bloodstream in order to take in the glucose and use it for energy. With diabetes mellitus, either your body doesn't make enough insulin, it can't use the insulin it does produce, or a combination of both. Since the cells can't take in the glucose, it builds up in your blood. High levels of blood glucose can damage the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, heart, eyes, or nervous system. That's why diabetes -- especially if left untreated -- can eventually cause heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage to nerves in the feet. Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It's caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. In people with type 1 diabetes, the damaged pancreas doesn't make insulin. This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition. It could also be the result of faulty beta cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin. A number of medical risks are associated with type 1 diabetes. Many of them stem from damage to the tiny blood vessels in your eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys (diabetic nephropathy). Even more serious is the increased risk of hea Continue reading >>
The Differences Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
I realize this might be old news for all you veterans of diabetes out there, but I thought this week I might write a little bit about the key differences between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. I thought this might be helpful for newcomers to our “Diabetian community” (and let me say that while I’m sorry you find yourself with the diagnosis, we’re happy to welcome you here), or as a resource to share with friends and family who can often have a hard time understanding the differences. The understanding within the general public tends to be something along the lines of this: Diabetics can’t have sugar. That’s about it. So odds are pretty good that someone new to this disease is coming in with an idea that diabetes means you can’t ever have another cookie, but food without sugar is OK. And most of your friends and family will probably CONTINUE to think that well after you’ve gathered more information. Furthermore, the understanding of “Type 1” and “Type 2,” even among people who understand that there ARE two types, is often limited to age brackets — Type 1 is diabetes that starts when someone is young, Type 2 is what you get if you’re post-30. Or, more recently, Type 2 diabetes is linked solely to obesity, while Type 1 is…still diabetes for young people. Two diseases, one name An author of a study I once read pointed out that it’s rather unfortunate that we give the same name to these two diseases, because the mechanisms for how they work, AND the regimen for how we treat them, are very different. So then, without further ado, here is the lowdown on Type 1 diabetes, with Type 2 diabetes in a nutshell to come next week. Type 1 diabetes is the result of an immune system malfunction. A virus moves through our body, usually without us ever even kno Continue reading >>
Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes | Prevention
When people hear that you have diabetes , they start to make assumptions that aren't always accurate. A lot of the confusion stems from the fact that there are two main types, yet many people don't understand how they're different. (Want to pick up some healthier habits? Sign up to get daily healthy living tips delivered straight to your inbox!) As someone with type 1 diabetesI was diagnosed with it nearly 40 years agoI'm all too familiar with the disease. I lived with it as a child, teen, and adult, and when I decided to have kids I had to figure out how to manage the condition while being pregnant. (I even wrote a book about it, Balancing Pregnancy With Pre-Existing Diabetes: Healthy Mom, Healthy Baby .) Having type 1 diabetes means I'm in the minority: Of the approximately 29 million Americans who have diabetes, only 1.25 million have type 1. Most have type 2, which is a totally different form. "Comparing type 1 to type 2 is like comparing apples to tractors," says Gary Scheiner, a Pennsylvania-based certified diabetes educator and author of Think Like a Pancreas . "The only thing they really have in common is that both involve an inability to control blood sugar levels." Here are 5 important distinctions. MORE: 7 Reasons You're Tired All The Time 1. Type 1 is an autoimmune disease; type 2 isn't. Diabetes happens when your body has trouble with insulin, a hormone that helps convert sugar from the food you eat into energy. When there isnt enough insulin in your body, sugar builds up in the bloodstream and can make you sick. People with type 1 and type 2 both face this problem, but how they arrived there is quite different. If you have type 1, you don't make any insulin at all. That's because type 1 is an autoimmune disease in which your immune system attacks and dest Continue reading >>
What Exactly Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?
We hear about diabetes all the time, so it’s easy to forget that there are two very different types of the condition. Both involve problems with insulin, but they deviate from there. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease where, in general, people have a complete lack of insulin. People with type 2 diabetes are unable to use their own insulin effectively, either because they don’t make enough or because their cells are resistant to the insulin they do make. (These are the silent signs you might have diabetes.) “Type 1 is largely a genetic condition, but since not all identical twins get diabetes, we do think that exposure to an additional environmental factor may trigger an immune response that ultimately destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas,” says Sarah Rettinger, MD, board-certified endocrinologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California. “On the other hand, type 2 diabetes has a stronger genetic component, caused by a complicated interaction of genes and environment. A person with a first degree relative with type 2 has a 5 to 10 times higher risk of developing the disease than a person the same age and weight without the same family history.” According to the 2014 National Diabetes Statistics Report, 29.1 million Americans have the disease. Of these people, one in four of them are undiagnosed and unaware of their condition. The prevalence is twice as high in non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native adults than non-Hispanic white adults, and higher in individuals aged 65 and older (1 in 4). The incidence of both type 1 and type 2 is increasing worldwide, and type 2 accounts for 95 percent of all diagnosed cases in adults. Type 2 is rare in children (5,000 youths diagnosed each year, c Continue reading >>
5 Differences Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
5 Differences Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Diabetes is one of the oldest and yet most misunderstood diseases. There are many different types of diabetes, however, the most common ones are Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. They differ based on how they are caused and treated. But the main similarity that Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes do share is elevated blood glucose levels. The inability to control blood glucose levels will also cause the same symptoms and complications in both. Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The immune system mistakes the insulin producing cells in the pancreas as invaders and attacks them. Once this happens, the cells can no longer produce insulin and a person is therefore insulin dependent for life in order to stay alive. Type 2 Diabetes is a metabolic condition. Its when the body doesnt produce enough insulin or becomes resistant to it. The condition can sometimes be controlled with proper diet and exercise, or a drug to enhance sensitivity to the bodys insulin production. But sometimes natural insulin production is insufficient and insulin injections are then needed to sustain normal blood glucose levels. People with Type 1 Diabetes DO NOT produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that a working pancreas releases to allow glucose (sugar) from carbohydrates thats eaten to be absorbed for energy. Without this hormone, the body starves and eventually dies. This is why everyday insulin injections is necessary for survival and early diagnosis detection is SO IMPORTANT. Insulin is normally still produced by people with Type 2 Diabetes. In order to regain sensitivity to insulin, proper diet and exercise is recommended. In some cases, insulin injections are needed to keep diabetes in better control. Currently, there is no prevention for Type 1 Diabet Continue reading >>
Differences Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
Despite sharing a name, type 1 and type 2 diabetes are quite different. Understanding the key differences in type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes is critical for research into finding a way to cure, treat and prevent diabetes, but also for caring for someone with diabetes and managing your own diabetes. How these diseases begin, how they affect the body and how they are treated are all quite different. What is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is the result of the human immune system mistaking the body’s beta cells, which produce insulin, for foreign cells and causing their destruction. Insulin is a protein that allows the transport of sugar into cells to provide energy. When sugar can’t get from the blood into the cells, the cells have no access to the glucose they need and cannot function correctly. The composition of our blood also gets off balance, with high blood sugar levels leading to detrimental effects on other organs of the body. Injecting synthetic insulin solves this problem because it keeps blood glucose levels in the right range and helps glucose reach our cells. What is Type 2 Diabetes? Although type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1, the causes for it aren’t fully understood. What doctors and scientists do know is that excess weight, inactivity, age and genetic makeup contribute to development of the disease. Patients with type 2 diabetes make insulin, but the cells in the body cannot respond to it adequately so they cannot take up glucose. Later on, especially when treatment fails, type 2 diabetes is aggravated by exhausted beta cells, decreasing their insulin production resulting in further increases in blood sugar levels. Since beta cells aren’t killed off in type 2 diabetes, at least initially, blood sugar levels often become elevated Continue reading >>
What Is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. Although diabetes has no cure, you can take steps to manage your diabetes and stay healthy. Sometimes people call diabetes “a touch of sugar” or “borderline diabetes.” These terms suggest that someone doesn’t really have diabetes or has a less serious case, but every case of diabetes is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes If you have type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. Your immune system attacks and destroys the cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive. Type 2 diabetes If you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not make or use insulin well. You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, this type of diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes. Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes develops in some women when they are pregnant. Most of the time, this type of diabetes goes away after the baby is born. However, if you’ve had gestational diabetes, you have a greater chan Continue reading >>
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What Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?
There are three major types of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. All types of diabetes cause blood glucose levels to be higher than normal, but they do this in different ways Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but is most commonly diagnosed from infancy to the late 30s. With this type of diabetes, a person’s pancreas produces no insulin. It occurs when the body’s own defence system (the immune system) attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. What causes the immune system to do this is not yet completely understood, but we are funding research to find out. Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is by far the most common type of diabetes – in the UK over 90 per cent of people with diabetes have type 2. Type 2 diabetes usually affects those over 40, or 25 if you’re of South Asian descent. However, it is becoming more common among young people due to lifestyle. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes are not always obvious and, unlike with type 1, they can take a long time to develop. People with type 2 diabetes either don’t make enough insulin or don’t make insulin that the body can use properly. The cells in the body become resistant to insulin, making a greater amount of insulin necessary to keep blood glucose levels within a normal range. Eventually, the pancreas can wear out from producing extra insulin, and it may start making less and less. Type 2 can usually be managed through diet, exercise, and self-monitoring blood glucose, at least in the first few years following diagnosis. However, type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition, and most people will need to take tablets and/or inject insulin after living with it for five to 10 years. LADA Up to a third of people who were initially diagnosed as having type Continue reading >>
The Differences Between Type One And Type Two Diabetes
07/08/2017 7:40 AM AEST | Updated 08/08/2017 2:09 PM AEST The Differences Between Type One And Type Two Diabetes One Australian develops diabetes every five minutes, so it's time to get informed. Diabetes is an epidemic in 21st century Australia, with 280 Australians developing the disease every day. In 2017, approximately 1.7 million Australians are living with diabetes and around 500,000 of these people are undiagnosed . Diabetes, in both its forms, is a complex disease that affects the entire body and can cause secondary conditions such as heart and kidney disease. Diabetes in Australia has risen significantly in the past few decades and there are some fundamental differences between the two types that are important to understand. Here is what you need to know. When a person has diabetes, their body is unable to properly manage the levels of glucose -- or sugar -- in the blood. Insulin is the hormone that helps manage blood sugar and it is produced by the pancreas. For the body to function efficiently , it needs to be able to convert glucose -- a form of sugar -- into energy. Glucose is the main source of energy for the body. Type one diabetes is a condition where the immune system destroys the cells in the immune system that produce insulin. So essentially, type one diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce insulin . Type two diabetes is a condition where the body becomes resistant to insulin or eventually stops being able to produce enough insulin for the pancreas to function properly. This can be influenced by lifestyle and genetic factors (but we'll get to that later). Diabetes in Australia has gone up enormously over the last few decades and and it is likely to continue to go up. While the inability to manage level of glucose is the common thread from Continue reading >>
What's The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share the problem of high levels of blood sugar. The inability to control blood sugar causes the symptoms and the complications of both types of diabetes. But type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are two different diseases in many ways. According to the latest (2014) estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 29.1 million people, or 9.3 percent of the U.S. population, have diabetes. Type 1 diabetes affects just 5 percent of those adults, with type 2 diabetes affecting up to 95 percent. Here’s what else you need to know to be health-savvy in the age of the diabetes epidemic. What Causes Diabetes? "Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease — the body's immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that make insulin," a hormone, says Andjela Drincic, MD, associate professor of internal medicine in the division of diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolism at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha. The exact cause is not known, but it's probably a combination of the genes a person is born with and something in the environment that triggers the genes to become active. "The cause of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial," says Dr. Drincic. "People inherit genes that make them susceptible to type 2, but lifestyle factors, like obesity and inactivity, are also important. In type 2 diabetes, at least in the early stages, there is enough insulin, but the body becomes resistant to it." Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include a family history of the disease, a poor diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and obesity. African-Americans, Latin Americans, and certain Native American groups have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes than Caucasian Americans. Juvenile or Adult-Onset: When Does Diabetes Start? Usually, type 1 diabetes in dia Continue reading >>
Case Study: New-onset Diabetes: How To Tell The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
L.C., a 25-year-old white woman, presented to the Emergency Department reporting that she was in good health until ~ 3 weeks ago, when she began experiencing polyuria and polydipsia. She had had an unintentional weight loss of ~ 10 lb in the past 2 months. She denied visual disturbances, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dysuria, history of the same symptoms, and recent illness. She also denied alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use. Her medications included only oral birth control pills, and she was a competitive volleyball player. Family history was negative for diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and autoimmune diseases. Physical exam revealed a blood pressure of 129/82 mmHg, pulse of 88 bpm, and respiration rate of 20 breaths per minute. L.C.'s weight was 62 kg, and her BMI was 21 kg/m2. She seemed healthy and aware. Her eyes, throat, and thyroid were normal, and her neck was negative for lymphadenopathy. She had a regular heart rate and rhythm, negative for murmurs, rubs, or gallops, with normal first and second heart sounds. Lungs were clear with normal respirations. Abdominal exam revealed normal breath sounds and no tenderness, guarding, or rebound. Extremities were normal, and neurological motor and sensory functioning was intact. Her fingerstick glucose on admission was 571 mg/dl, and subsequently measured serum glucose was 617 mg/dl. Testing revealed a sodium level of 133 mEq/l (normal 135–145), potassium of 4.0 mEq/l (normal 3.5–5.0), chloride of 99 mEq/l (normal 96–108), carbon dioxide of 25 mEq/l (normal 21–30), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of 18 mg/dl (normal 7.0–20.0), and creatinine of 0.8 mg/dl (normal 0.4–10). Serum acetone was positive at 1:2. Urinalysis revealed a specific gravity of 1.010 (normal 1.005–1.300), glucose of 3+, Continue reading >>
Type 1 And Type 2
Differences Between Understanding diabetes starts with knowing the different types of diabetes and their key differences. The two most common types are type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes, the body makes little or no insulin due to an overactive immune system. So people with type 1 diabetes must take insulin every day. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in children and young adults but can also appear in older adults. Type 2 diabetes In type 2 diabetes, your body prevents the insulin it does make from working right. Your body may make some insulin but not enough. Most people with diabetes—about 90% to 95%—have type 2. This kind of diabetes usually happens in people who are older, although even younger adults may be diagnosed with it. Type 2 diabetes also usually occurs in people who are overweight. In fact, about 8 out of 10 people with type 2 diabetes are overweight. Diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes) Some women may develop diabetes during pregnancy, which is called gestational diabetes. Being diagnosed with gestational diabetes doesn't mean a woman had diabetes before or would continue to have diabetes after giving birth. A woman should follow her health care provider's advice closely during pregnancy. Continue reading >>
Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?
There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Both types of diabetes are chronic diseases that affect the way your body regulates blood sugar, or glucose. Glucose is the fuel that feeds your body’s cells, but to enter your cells it needs a key. Insulin is that key. People with type 1 diabetes don’t produce insulin. You can think of it as not having a key. People with type 2 diabetes don’t respond to insulin as well as they should and later in the disease often don’t make enough insulin. You can think of this as having a broken key. Both types of diabetes can lead to chronically high blood sugar levels. That increases the risk of diabetes complications. Both types of diabetes, if not controlled, share many similar symptoms, including: frequent urination feeling very thirsty and drinking a lot feeling very hungry feeling very fatigued blurry vision cuts or sores that don’t heal properly People with type 1 diabetes may also experience irritability and mood changes, and unintentionally lose weight. People with type 2 diabetes may also have numbness and tingling in their hands or feet. Although many of the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are similar, they present in very different ways. Many people with type 2 diabetes won’t have symptoms for many years. Then often the symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop slowly over the course of time. Some people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at all and don’t discover their condition until complications develop. The symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop fast, typically over the course of several weeks. Type 1 diabetes, which was once known as juvenile diabetes, usually develops in childhood or adolescence. But it’s possible to get type 1 diabetes later in life. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes may have simi Continue reading >>
Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?
If your child or someone you know has been recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you may be wondering how the disease differs from type 2 diabetes — the form people tend to know more about. What causes type 1 versus type 2 diabetes? Are the symptoms the same? And how is each treated? Here to clear up the confusion with an overview of key differences — and similarities — between these two types of diabetes are experts Julie Settles, M.S.N., A.C.N.P.-B.C., C.E.N., a clinical research scientist at Lilly Diabetes, and Rosemary Briars, N.D., P.N.P.-B.C., C.D.E., C.C.D.C., clinical director and program co-director of the Chicago Children’s Diabetes Center at La Rabida Children’s Hospital. Causes Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus, as it’s formally known in medical terms, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which a person develops high blood glucose (blood sugar). The underlying health factors causing the high blood sugar will determine whether someone is diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which “the body’s immune system starts to make antibodies that are targeted directly at the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (islet cells),” explains Briars. Over time, the immune system “gradually destroys the islet cells, so insulin is no longer made and the person has to take insulin every day, from then on,” she says. As for why this happens, Settles notes, “The immune system normally fights off viruses and bacteria that we do not want in our body, but when it causes diabetes, it is because something has gone wrong and now the body attacks its own cells.” Triggering this autoimmune response is a complex mix of genetic and environmental factors that researchers are still trying to fully understand. O Continue reading >>
What's The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?
First, the formal name for what we commonly call diabetes is diabetes mellitus, which translates from the Greek as making lots of urine with sugar in it or making lots of sweet urine. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are diseases that have in common, sugar in the urine and the increased urination. When there are high amounts of sugar in the blood, the kidneys filter sugar into the urine. Sugar can be measured in the urine through a lab test commonly called a urinalysis. Urine dipsticks are also used to show sugar in the urine. Patients who develop diabetes mellitus most commonly have initial symptoms of increased thirst, increased urination and blurred vision due to high amounts of sugar in the fluids of the eye. Type 1 diabetes results from a rheumatoid-like autoimmune reaction in which one's own body attacks and destroys the beta cells of the pancreas. These are the cells that normally produce insulin. Type 1 is a disease in which the patient in a relatively short time has no insulin production. All patients with type 1 diabetes can also develop a serious metabolic disorder called ketoacidosis when their blood sugars are high and there is not enough insulin in their body. Ketoacidosis can be fatal unless treated as an emergency with hydration and insulin. Type 1 was once commonly called juvenile diabetes mellitus because it is most commonly diagnosed in children. It should be noted that even older adults in their 60s have occasionally been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus. One should think of it as a disease of high blood sugars due to a deficiency of insulin production. It must be treated by administration of insulin. Insulin is given at least twice a day and is often given four times a day in type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes rates are growing dramatically Continue reading >>