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Dietary Management Of Diabetes And Hypertension

Management Of Hypertension And Diabetes In Obesity: Non-pharmacological Measures

Management Of Hypertension And Diabetes In Obesity: Non-pharmacological Measures

International Journal of Hypertension Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 398065, 6 pages 1Department of Medicine, Grantham and District Hospital, NG31 8DG East Midlands, UK 2Department of Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore 169608 3Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK 4Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Lincoln County Hospital, LN2 5QY East Midlands, UK Academic Editor: Kazuko Masuo Copyright © 2011 Joseph M. Pappachan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Obesity has become a global epidemic over the past few decades because of unhealthy dietary habits and reduced physical activity. Hypertension and diabetes are quite common among obese individuals and there is a linear relationship between the degree of obesity and these diseases. Lifestyle interventions like dietary modifications and regular exercise are still important and safe first-line measures for treatment. Recently, bariatric surgery has emerged as an important and very effective treatment option for obese individuals especially in those with comorbidities like hypertension and diabetes. Though there are few effective drugs for the management of obesity, their efficacy is only modest, and they should always be combined with lifestyle interventions for optimal benefit. In this paper we aim to outline the non-pharmacological measures for the management of hypertension and diabetes in obesity. 1. Introduction Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity together form 24% of the global risk for mortality [1]. Cardiovascular disorders related to these life Continue reading >>

Dash Diet

Dash Diet

Studies have shown that blood pressure can be lowered by following the DASH eating plan and by eating less salt (sodium). Following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan or reducing your intake of salt (sodium) will lower blood pressure, but combining both will provide the biggest benefit. The following measures - adapted from the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute - may help prevent the development of high blood pressure. Sodium intake & high blood pressure The DASH studies were based on two levels of sodium intake--1,500 and 2,300 milligrams per day. 2300 milligrams is the highest level considered acceptable by the National Institute of Health and Health Canada. Following the 1,500 milligram level of sodium per day can lower blood pressure further. It is also the amount recommended by the Institute of Medicine that most people should try to achieve. More than 65 million American adults suffer from high blood pressure (one in three). An estimated 28 per cent (59 million adults) have prehypertension, a condition that also increases the chance of heart disease and stroke. High blood pressure can be controlled if you take these steps: Maintain a healthy weight. Be moderately physically active on most days of the week. Follow a healthy eating plan, which includes foods lower in sodium. If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation. If you have high blood pressure and are prescribed medication, take it as directed. All steps but the last also help to prevent high blood pressure. How do I do the DASH? The DASH diet can easily be part of a healthy diet for people with diabetes. It emphasizes whole grains, vegetables and fruits, low-fat dairy products, lean meat Continue reading >>

Foods To Eat With High Blood Pressure & Diabetes

Foods To Eat With High Blood Pressure & Diabetes

High blood pressure increases your risk for heart attack, stroke and cardiovascular disease. Blood pressure management is critical if you have diabetes since it also increases your risk for diabetes complications. In addition to maintaining a healthy weight and limiting alcohol intake, a healthy diet can improve your blood pressure levels and your overall health, according to the American Heart Association. For best results, seek specified guidance from a qualified health care professional. Video of the Day Fruits and vegetables provide rich amounts of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and fiber. Fruits and vegetables also have a mellowing effect on blood sugar levels and can help lower blood pressure, according to the Harvard School of Public Health. Consume a variety of fresh, colorful fruits and vegetable regularly for broadest dietary benefits. Since fruit and starchy vegetables contain carbohydrates, consume appropriate portion sizes and daily amounts, as recommended by your doctor or diabetes specialist. Examples of nutrient-rich fruits and vegetables include citrus fruits, berries, apples, pears, plums, kiwi, cantaloupe, tomatoes, avocado, spinach, kale, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, red and green bell peppers, carrots and peas. Nutritious starchy vegetables include squash, sweet potatoes, baked potatoes and pumpkin. Whole grains also provide rich amounts of nutrients and fiber. As low-glycemic carbohydrate sources, whole grains can support healthy blood sugar levels and keep you fuller longer between meals. Consume a variety of whole grain foods as part of a balanced, healthy diet for best results. Foods rich in whole grain nutrition include whole grain breads, tortillas, pasta and cereals, brown rice, quinoa, wild rice, air-popped popcorn and Continue reading >>

Patient Education: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Diet (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Diet (beyond The Basics)

TYPE 2 DIABETES OVERVIEW Diet and physical activity are critically important in the management of the ABCs (A1C, Blood pressure, and Cholesterol) of type 2 diabetes. To effectively manage glycated hemoglobin (A1C) and blood sugar levels, it is important to understand how to balance food intake, physical activity, and medication. Making healthy food choices every day has both immediate and long-term effects. With education, practice, and assistance from a dietitian and/or a diabetes educator, it is possible to eat well and control diabetes. This article discusses diet in the management of type 2 diabetes. The role of diet and activity in managing blood pressure and cholesterol are reviewed separately. (See "Patient education: High blood pressure, diet, and weight (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: High cholesterol and lipids (hyperlipidemia) (Beyond the Basics)".) Articles that discuss other aspects of type 2 diabetes are also available. (See "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Overview (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Insulin treatment (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Alcohol, exercise, and medical care (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Preventing complications in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) WHY IS DIET IMPORTANT? Many factors affect how well diabetes is controlled. Many of these factors are controlled by the person with diabetes, including how much and what is eaten, how frequently the blood sugar is monitored, physical activity levels, and accuracy and consi Continue reading >>

High Blood Pressure And Diabetes Diet: 3 Foods You Should Eat To Reduce Disease Risk

High Blood Pressure And Diabetes Diet: 3 Foods You Should Eat To Reduce Disease Risk

High Blood Pressure And Diabetes Diet: 3 Foods You Should Eat To Reduce Disease Risk This question originally appeared on Quora . Answer by MJ Thomas , Health and Nutrition Expert. Chronic inflammation is an increasingly common health condition that contributes to heart disease,diabetes, obesity arthritis and metabolic syndrome. Caused by a number of environmental factors including eating processed foods, saturated fats, sugar, and chemicals, inflammation is a dangerous condition that mimics many other serious health issues. Fortunately, there are a number ofnatural foods that reduce inflammation levels in the body - these include fresh fruits and vegetables, fish, whole grains, and certain spices. Increasing the amount of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet is perhaps the most important step in preventing inflammation in the body. With over 500 natural compounds, ginger has a number of health benefits - including calming an upset stomach, preventing motion sickness, and reducing inflammation. While science has yet discovered exactly how fresh ginger reduces inflammation in the body, it has been shown to reduce inflammation that contributes to arthritis and various cancers. Found in grapefruit, oranges, lemons and many vegetables, vitamin C is most commonly known for its cold fighting abilities. However, vitamin c is also a powerful antioxidant that reduces the harmful effects of stress and teams with vitamin E to serve as a very effective anti inflammatory food. Being water-soluble, vitamin C is not stored in the body; meaning it needs to be consumed throughout the day to maintain appropriate levels. Since the typical American diet is low in vitamin C, 1,000 to 4,000 mg (milligrams) a day through fresh fruit, vegetables, or supplement is recommended. Omega-3 and essential Continue reading >>

Got Diabetes And High Blood Pressure? 9 Diet Tips

Got Diabetes And High Blood Pressure? 9 Diet Tips

Two out of three people with diabetes also have high blood pressure. Keeping your diet in check -- counting carbs, limiting sugar, eating less salt -- is key. You can still eat well and manage your conditions with these easy tips. Since you have high blood pressure, you should get no more than 1,500 milligrams of sodium per day. That's less than a teaspoon. So retrain taste buds. Instead of reaching for the saltshaker, flavor food with citrus zest, garlic, rosemary, ginger, jalapeno peppers, oregano, or cumin. Cooking at home also helps. “If you’re eating something from a bag or box or off a restaurant menu, chances are you’re getting too much sodium,” says Janet Bond Brill, PhD, RD, author of Blood Pressure Down. To get in the habit of having a balanced diet, “visualize your plate as a clock,” says Amber L. Taylor, MD, who directs The Diabetes Center at Mercy Medical Center in Baltimore. Fill half your plate with fruits and vegetables. A quarter gets lean protein like baked fish, beans, or chicken. The last quarter holds grains, preferably whole, like brown rice. You’ll still need to count carbohydrates and make sure you're not getting too much sodium. Caffeine can raise your blood sugar and blood pressure. If you have higher blood sugar or blood pressure after drinking coffee, “limit your caffeine intake to 200 milligrams -- about 2 cups of coffee -- a day,” says Torey Jones Armul, RD, a spokeswoman for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Skip the French press or espresso and choose coffee made with a paper filter. The paper soaks up an oily compound in coffee beans called cafestol, which can hike up cholesterol. You can also consider switching to decaf. “Some research suggests it can reduce blood sugar,” Armul says. Continue reading >>

Dash Diet: Healthy Eating To Lower Your Blood Pressure

Dash Diet: Healthy Eating To Lower Your Blood Pressure

The DASH diet emphasizes portion size, eating a variety of foods and getting the right amount of nutrients. Discover how DASH can improve your health and lower your blood pressure. DASH stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. The DASH diet is a lifelong approach to healthy eating that's designed to help treat or prevent high blood pressure (hypertension). The DASH diet encourages you to reduce the sodium in your diet and eat a variety of foods rich in nutrients that help lower blood pressure, such as potassium, calcium and magnesium. By following the DASH diet, you may be able to reduce your blood pressure by a few points in just two weeks. Over time, your systolic blood pressure could drop by eight to 14 points, which can make a significant difference in your health risks. Because the DASH diet is a healthy way of eating, it offers health benefits besides just lowering blood pressure. The DASH diet is also in line with dietary recommendations to prevent osteoporosis, cancer, heart disease, stroke and diabetes. DASH diet: Sodium levels The DASH diet emphasizes vegetables, fruits and low-fat dairy foods — and moderate amounts of whole grains, fish, poultry and nuts. In addition to the standard DASH diet, there is also a lower sodium version of the diet. You can choose the version of the diet that meets your health needs: Standard DASH diet. You can consume up to 2,300 milligrams (mg) of sodium a day. Lower sodium DASH diet. You can consume up to 1,500 mg of sodium a day. Both versions of the DASH diet aim to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet compared with what you might get in a typical American diet, which can amount to a whopping 3,400 mg of sodium a day or more. The standard DASH diet meets the recommendation from the Dietary Guidelines for Americ Continue reading >>

Dietary Approaches In The Management Of Diabetic Patients With Kidney Disease

Dietary Approaches In The Management Of Diabetic Patients With Kidney Disease

Dietary Approaches in the Management of Diabetic Patients with Kidney Disease Gang Jee Ko ,1,2 Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh ,1,3,4 Jordi Goldstein-Fuchs ,5,6 and Connie M. Rhee 1,* 1Harold Simmons Center for Kidney Disease Research and Epidemiology, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California Irvine, School of Medicine, Orange, CA 92868, USA; [email protected] (G.J.K.); [email protected] (K.K.-Z.) 2Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University, School of Medicine, Seoul 08308, Korea 1Harold Simmons Center for Kidney Disease Research and Epidemiology, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California Irvine, School of Medicine, Orange, CA 92868, USA; [email protected] (G.J.K.); [email protected] (K.K.-Z.) 3Department of Medicine, Tibor Rubin Veteran Affairs Health System, Long Beach, CA 90822, USA 4Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA, Torrance, CA 90502, USA 5Sierra Nevada Nephrology Consultants, Reno, NV 89511, USA; [email protected] 6Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nevada Reno, School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA 1Harold Simmons Center for Kidney Disease Research and Epidemiology, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California Irvine, School of Medicine, Orange, CA 92868, USA; [email protected] (G.J.K.); [email protected] (K.K.-Z.) 1Harold Simmons Center for Kidney Disease Research and Epidemiology, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California Irvine, School of Medicine, Orange, CA 92868, USA; [email protected] (G.J.K.); [email protected] (K.K.-Z.) 2Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University, School of Medicine, Seoul 08308, Korea 3Department of Medicine, Tibor Rubin Veteran Affairs Health System, Long Beach, CA 90822, USA 4Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute Continue reading >>

Dietary Practices Among Individuals With Diabetes And Hypertension Are Similar To Those Of Healthy People: A Population-based Study

Dietary Practices Among Individuals With Diabetes And Hypertension Are Similar To Those Of Healthy People: A Population-based Study

Dietary practices among individuals with diabetes and hypertension are similar to those of healthy people: a population-based study Currently, diabetes mellitus (DM) and systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) are among the top five global risks for mortality. Among the modifiable factors, careful dietary practice is one of the essential elements for the control of NCDs, since these diseases are often the result of unhealthy lifestyles. Thus, this study aimed to assess the frequency of dietary practices among adult males and females with DM and/or SAH, and compare whether or not they are more frequent than in healthy adults, through a population-based study conducted in the city of Florianpolis, southern Brazil. Cross-sectional population-based study, using as exposure self-reported DM and/or SAH status. Dietary practices were assessed using a semiquantitative food consumption questionnaire. The following were considered as adequate: regular intake ( 6 times/week) of fruit and vegetables, daily intake of fruit ( 3 times/day) and vegetables ( 2 times/day), intake lower than 2 times/week of meat fat, fried foods, and soda. Bivariate and adjusted analysis for sociodemographic variables were conducted using Poisson regression, stratified by gender. Location: Florianpolis, southern Brazil, 2009. Subjects: Representative sample of 20 to 59 year-old adults (n=1720). A total of 16.6% participants were diagnosed with DM and/or SAH. The most frequently consumed unhealthy foods were fried food (51.0%, 95% CI: 48.853.5) and soda (57.9% 95%CI: 55.560.2). Of healthy foods, fruit was the less consumed on a daily basis (11.1% 95%CI 9.6-12.5). In general, women showed better dietary practices than men. In adjusted analysis none of dietary practices was more frequent among diabetic and/or Continue reading >>

The Role Of Nutrition In The Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

The Role Of Nutrition In The Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

2013 Folorunso and Oguntibeju, licensee InTech. This is an open access chapter distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is Olabiyi Folorunso and Oluwafemi Oguntibeju Additional information is available at the end of the chapter Scientific evidence abound to show that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus(DM) is increasing around the world at a rate that appears dramatic as to have been characterized as an epidemic[1]. Among several factors that have been postulated to contribute to DM epidemic, environmental factors have drawn particular attention because of the rapidity of the increase in type 2 or the so called maturity on- set diabetes mellitus. Nobuko Seike, Mitsuhiko Noda and Takashi Kadowaki [2] evaluated the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of type 2 DM, it was pointed out that type 2 diabetes mellitus is closely related to life style factors including diet, physical activities, alcohol and smoking as well as obesity and a family history of diabetes. According to the researchers, in Japan the prevalence of diabetes mellitus both for men over age 50 and women over 60 well exceeds 10% and most have type 2 DM which is associated with excessive energy intake, lack of physical exercise and obesity. In addition, Mayes and Botham[3] revealed that obesity particularly, abdominal obesity(a diet related disorder) is a risk factor for increased mortality, hypertension, type 2 DM, hyperlipidaemia and various endocrine dysfunctions. On the other hand, type 1 DM, or Juvenile DM or insulin-dependent diabetes is less common than type 2. Only 10% of all diabetics have type 1. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas produces n Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitustreatment & Management

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitustreatment & Management

Type 2 Diabetes MellitusTreatment & Management Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD more... The goals in caring for patients with diabetes mellitus are to eliminate symptoms and to prevent, or at least slow, the development of complications. Microvascular (ie, eye and kidney disease) risk reduction is accomplished through control of glycemia and blood pressure; macrovascular (ie, coronary, cerebrovascular, peripheral vascular) risk reduction, through control of lipids and hypertension, smoking cessation, and aspirin therapy; and metabolic and neurologic risk reduction, through control of glycemia. New abridged recommendations for primary care providers The American Diabetes Association has released condensed recommendations for Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes: Abridged for Primary Care Providers , highlighting recommendations most relevant to primary care. The abridged version focusses particularly on the following aspects: Diagnosis and treatment of vascular complications Intensification of insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes The recommendations can be accessed at American Diabetes Association DiabetesPro Professional Resources Online, Clinical Practice Recommendations 2015 . [ 121 ] Type 2 diabetes care is best provided by a multidisciplinary team of health professionals with expertise in diabetes, working in collaboration with the patient and family. [ 2 ] Management includes the following: Appropriate self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) Ideally, blood glucose should be maintained at near-normal levels (preprandial levels of 90-130 mg/dL and hemoglobin A1C [HbA1c] levels < 7%). However, focus on glucose alone does not provide adequate treatment for patients with diabetes mellitus. Treatment involves multiple goals (ie, Continue reading >>

Diabetes Diet And Exercise

Diabetes Diet And Exercise

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Pre-diabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance) article more useful, or one of our other health articles. Interventions aimed at increasing exercise combined with diet have been shown to decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in high-risk groups (people with impaired glucose tolerance or the metabolic syndrome).[1]However, there are no high-quality data on the efficacy of dietary intervention for the prevention of type 2 diabetes.[2]Exercise appears to improve glycated haemoglobin at six and twelve months in people with type 2 diabetes.[3] Nutritional advice and information are essential for the effective management of type 1 diabetes. Exercise reduces mortality in type 1 diabetes and can reduce HbA1c by 0.7% in type 2 diabetes.[4] See also the separate Healthy Diet and Enjoyable Eating article. The goals of dietary advice are: To maintain or improve health through the use of appropriate and healthy food choices. To achieve and maintain optimal metabolic and physiological outcomes, including: Reduction of risk for microvascular disease by achieving near normal glycaemia without undue risk of hypoglycaemia. Reduction of risk of macrovascular disease, including management of body weight, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. To optimise outcomes in diabetic nephropathy and in any other associated disorder. Eat three meals a day. Avoid skipping meals and space breakfast, lunch and evening meal out over the day. At each meal include starchy carbohydrate foods - eg, bread, pasta, chapatis, potatoes, yam, noodles, rice and cereals. Eat more slowly absorbed (l Continue reading >>

Managing Diabetes With Diet & Food Planning

Managing Diabetes With Diet & Food Planning

Alongside exercise, a healthy diet is an important element of the lifestyle management of diabetes, as well as being preventive against the onset of type 2 diabetes. Maintaining a good diet is also a vital part of keeping tight control of blood sugar levels, itself important for minimizing the risk of diabetes complications.1 The good news for people living with diabetes is that the condition does not preclude any particular type of food or require an unusual diet - the goal is much the same as it would be for anyone wishing to eat a healthy, balanced diet.2 What diet is best for diabetes? Having diabetes does not involve any particularly difficult dietary demands, and while sugary foods obviously affect blood glucose levels, the diet does not have to be completely sugar-free.2 Dietary concerns vary slightly for people with different types of diabetes. For people with type 1 diabetes, diet is about managing fluctuations in blood glucose levels while for people with type 2 diabetes, it is about losing weight and restricting calorie intake.3 For people with type 1 diabetes, the timing of meals is particularly important in terms of glycemic control and in relation to the effects of insulin injection.3 In general, however, a healthy, balanced diet is all that is needed, and the benefits are not confined to good diabetes management - they also mean good heart health.2,4 A healthy diet typically includes a variety of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, skinless poultry and fish, nuts and legumes and non-tropical vegetable oils.4 The following are some general dietary tips for a healthy lifestyle:2-5 Eat regularly - avoid the effects on glucose levels of skipping meals or having delayed meals because of work or long journeys (take healthy snacks with y Continue reading >>

Letters To The Editor

Letters To The Editor

Original Article: Nonpharmacologic Management of Hypertension: What Works? See additional reader comments at: Original Article: Nonpharmacologic Management of Hypertension: What Works? See additional reader comments at: to the editor: Drs. Oza and Garcellano provide a useful overview of nonpharmacologic approaches for the management of hypertension. The problem is that hypertension is a surrogate, disease-oriented outcome. What family physicians should care about is not elevated blood pressure per se, but patient-oriented outcomes that matter. It is true that elevated blood pressure raises the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, renal failure, and death. However, it is imperative that physicians not cause more of these adverse events in attempting to control blood pressure. For example, a previous letter in AFP reports how beta blockers may lower blood pressure but nonetheless increase patient-oriented harms (e.g., cardiovascular events and deaths). 1 Nonpharmacologic approaches for the management of hypertension may do the same. Reducing dietary sodium intake may lower blood pressure (at least minimally on average) 2 but may produce other cardiovascular effects that are undesirable (e.g., through renin, aldosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, cholesterol, and triglycerides). 3 Beyond disease-oriented outcomes, dietary sodium restriction may increase cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus and increase hospitalizations and mortality in patients with congestive heart failure. 3 Hospital admissions and deaths are outcomes that matter. The Institute of Medicine (now the National Academy of Medicine) found insufficient evidence to support the recommendation to limit sodium restriction to 2,300 mg per day. 4 However, it did find evidence Continue reading >>

Nutrition Therapy For Hypertension

Nutrition Therapy For Hypertension

, Volume 3, Issue5 , pp 404411 | Cite as A contemporary approach to hypertension and prevention are covered in this article. It contains important information for clinicians, such as hypertension management, metabolic syndrome issues, lifestyle behavioral management, nutrient issues, weight loss treatments (ie, medications and surgical procedures) the role of physical activity, and pharmacologic treatment. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial eating plan is discussed at length, as well as information from recent trials on hypertension, prevention, and treatment. Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric BandingOrlistatSibutramineDiabetes Prevention ProgramHypertension Optimal Treatment These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Treatment of hypertension in adults with diabetes. American Diabetes Association [no authors listed]. Diabetes Care 2003, 26:S80-S82. Recommendations, such as target levels of BP in patients with diabetes, nondrug management of hypertension, and drug therapy, based on the ADA Technical Review Treatment of Diabetes in Adult Patients with Hypertension. CrossRef Google Scholar Kaplan NM: Hypertension and diabetes. J Hum Hypertens 2002, 16(suppl 1):S56-S60. PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Gans KM, Ross E, Barner CW, et al.: REAP and WAVE: new tools to rapidly assess/discuss nutrition with patients. J Nutr 2003, 133:556S-562S. PubMed Google Scholar Medscape: The obesity epidemic: prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome. viewprogram/2015. Accessed February 15, 2003. Google Scholar Pereira MA, Jacobs DR, H Continue reading >>

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