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Dietary Guidelines For Diabetes Type 2

The Right Diet For Prediabetes

The Right Diet For Prediabetes

A prediabetes diagnosis can be alarming. This condition is marked by abnormally high blood sugar (glucose) most often due to insulin resistance. This is a condition in which the body doesn’t use insulin properly. It’s often a precursor to type 2 diabetes. According to the Mayo Clinic, people with prediabetes are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years. With prediabetes, you may also be at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. However, a prediabetes diagnosis doesn’t mean you will definitely get type 2 diabetes. The key is early intervention; to get your blood sugar out of the prediabetes range. Your diet is important, and you need to know the right kind of foods to eat. How diet relates to prediabetes There are many factors that increase your risk for prediabetes. Genetics can play a role, especially if diabetes runs in your family. Excess body fat and a sedentary lifestyle are other potential risk factors. In prediabetes, sugar from food begins to build up in your bloodstream because insulin can’t easily move it into your cells. Eating carbohydrates doesn’t cause prediabetes. But a diet filled with carbohydrates that digest quickly can lead to blood sugar spikes. For most people with prediabetes, your body has a difficult time lowering blood sugar levels after meals. Avoiding blood sugar spikes can help. When you eat more calories than your body needs, they get stored as fat. This can cause you to gain weight. Body fat, especially around the belly, is linked to insulin resistance. This explains why many people with prediabetes are also overweight. You can’t control all risk factors for prediabetes, but some can be mitigated. Lifestyle changes can help you maintain balanced blood sugar levels as well as a healthy weight. Watch carbs with Continue reading >>

Dietary Recommendations For The Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes: What Are They Based On?

Dietary Recommendations For The Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes: What Are They Based On?

Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 847202, 6 pages 1Diabetes Research, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 5WW, UK 2Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 5WW, UK Academic Editor: Tai C. Chen Copyright © 2012 Patrice Carter et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Introduction. Type 2 diabetes is increasing in all populations and all age groups across the world. Areas undergoing rapid westernisation and rapid nutrition transition are seeing the greatest increases in prevalence suggesting that environmental factors are important. Studies from around the world have shown that dietary modification for the prevention of T2DM can be successful; however which dietary factors are important remains to be fully elucidated. The WHO, ADA, and Diabetes UK have developed guidelines for the prevention of T2DM even though the WHO states that data from lifestyle modification programmes does not allow for the disentanglement of dietary factors. Aim of Review. The aim of this focused review is to evaluate the current dietary recommendations for the prevention of T2DM. In addition we aim to explore the available evidence from both observation studies and clinical trials to determine whether these recommendations are appropriate. 1. Introduction The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is currently estimated to be 6.4% worldwide [1] and is increasing in all populations and all age groups throughout the world. This rapid increase in prevalence over the last two decades suggests that environmental Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan: List Of Foods To Eat And Avoid

Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan: List Of Foods To Eat And Avoid

Currently, there are nine drug classes of oral diabetes medications approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Sulfonylureas, for example, glimepiride (Amaryl) and glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL) Meglitinides, for example, nateglinide (Starlix) and repaglinide (Prandin) Thiazolidinediones, for example, pioglitazone (Actos) DPP-4 inhibitors, for example, sitagliptin (Januvia) and linagliptin (Tradjenta) What types of foods are recommended for a type 2 diabetes meal plan? A diabetes meal plan can follow a number of different patterns and have a variable ratio of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. The carbohydrates consumed should be low glycemic load and come primarily from vegetables. The fat and proteins consumed should primarily come from plant sources. What type of carbohydrates are recommended for a type 2 diabetic diet plan? Carbohydrates (carbs) are the primary food that raises blood sugar. Glycemic index and glycemic load are scientific terms used to measure the impact of a carbohydrate on blood sugar. Foods with low glycemic load (index) raise blood sugar modestly and thus are better choices for people with diabetes. The main factors that determine a food's (or meal's) glycemic load are the amount of fiber, fat, and protein it contains. The difference between glycemic index and glycemic load is that glycemic index is a standardized measurement and glycemic load accounts for a real-life portion size. For example, the glycemic index of a bowl of peas is 68 (per 100 grams) but its glycemic load is just 16 (lower the better). If you just referred to the glycemic index, you'd think peas were a bad choice, but in reality, you wouldn't eat 100 grams of peas. With a normal portion size, peas have a healthy glycemic load as well as being an excellent source of pro Continue reading >>

Nutritional Recommendations For Individuals With Diabetes

Nutritional Recommendations For Individuals With Diabetes

Go to: INTRODUCTION This chapter will summarize current information on nutritional recommendations for persons with diabetes for health care practitioners who treat them. The key take home message is that the 1800 calorie ADA diet is dead! The modern diet for the individual with diabetes is based on concepts from clinical research, portion control, and individualized lifestyle changes. It cannot simply be delivered by giving a patient a diet sheet in a one-size-fits-all approach. The lifestyle modification guidance and support needed requires a team effort, best led by an expert in this area; a registered dietitian (RD), or a referral to a diabetes self-management education (DSME) program that includes instruction on nutrition therapy. Dietary recommendations need to be individualized for and accepted by the given patient. It’s important to note that the nutrition goals for diabetes are similar to those that healthy individuals should strive to incorporate into their lifestyle. Leading authorities and professional organizations have concluded that proper nutrition is an important part of the foundation for the treatment of diabetes. However, appropriate nutritional treatment, implementation, and ultimate compliance with the plan remain some of the most vexing problems in diabetic management for three major reasons: First, there are some differences in the dietary structure to consider, depending on the type of diabetes. Second, a plethora of dietary information is available from many sources to the patient and healthcare provider. Nutritional science is constantly evolving, so that what may be considered true today may be outdated in the near future. Different types of diabetes require some specialized nutritional intervention; however, many of the basic dietary princ Continue reading >>

Diabetes Diet: Create Your Healthy-eating Plan

Diabetes Diet: Create Your Healthy-eating Plan

Your diabetes diet is simply a healthy-eating plan that will help you control your blood sugar. Here's help getting started, from meal planning to exchange lists and counting carbohydrates. Definition A diabetes diet simply means eating the healthiest foods in moderate amounts and sticking to regular mealtimes. A diabetes diet is a healthy-eating plan that's naturally rich in nutrients and low in fat and calories. Key elements are fruits, vegetables and whole grains. In fact, a diabetes diet is the best eating plan for most everyone. Purpose If you have diabetes or prediabetes, your doctor will likely recommend that you see a dietitian to help you develop a healthy eating plan. The plan helps you control your blood sugar (glucose), manage your weight and control risk factors for heart disease, such as high blood pressure and high blood fats. When you eat excess calories and fat, your body responds by creating an undesirable rise in blood glucose. If blood glucose isn't kept in check, it can lead to serious problems, such as a dangerously high blood glucose level (hyperglycemia) and long-term complications, such as nerve, kidney and heart damage. You can help keep your blood glucose level in a safe range by making healthy food choices and tracking your eating habits. For most people with type 2 diabetes, weight loss also can make it easier to control blood glucose and offers a host of other health benefits. If you need to lose weight, a diabetes diet provides a well-organized, nutritious way to reach your goal safely. Diet details A diabetes diet is based on eating three meals a day at regular times. This helps your body better use the insulin it produces or gets through a medication. A registered dietitian can help you put together a diet based on your health goals, tas Continue reading >>

Grocery Lists For Type 2 Diabetes: What To Buy And What To Avoid

Grocery Lists For Type 2 Diabetes: What To Buy And What To Avoid

Diabetes is best managed by being mindful of carbohydrate intake, eating smaller meals regularly, and choosing nutrient dense, healthful options. Knowing what food to eat can make a huge difference to controlling, and, potentially, reversing type 2 diabetes. Making informed food choices can be helped by writing out a grocery list of foods that improve overall health, and benefit someone who has type 2 diabetes. Contents of this article: Lists of good foods A person who has type 2 diabetes can make it easier to avoid buying unhealthful foods by going to the grocery store armed with a list. Choosing healthful, satisfying foods that meet individual nutrition requirements can help people with type 2 diabetes manage their condition. By making smart food choices and buying the right foods, a person can ensure they have enough diabetic-friendly ingredients on hand to take them from breakfast through to the last meal, or snack, of the day. Vegetables Vegetables are the base of a healthy diet. Not only do they offer excellent sources of vitamins and minerals, but they are fibrous, too, and help the body feel full and satisfied. This in turn can deter overeating, which may cause blood sugar issues. Some vegetables to add to the shopping list include: salad greens broccoli cauliflower squash green beans asparagus Brussel sprouts red, green, orange, or yellow peppers Beans and legumes Beans are an excellent source of dietary fiber and protein. They can often be used in place of a portion of the protein that is needed in a diet. Here are some examples of what beans to pick up in either their canned or dried forms: black beans lentils white beans chickpeas kidney beans pinto beans Fruits Despite their high sugar content, fresh or frozen fruits pack a powerful nutritional punch with t Continue reading >>

Patient Education: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Diet (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Diet (beyond The Basics)

TYPE 2 DIABETES OVERVIEW Diet and physical activity are critically important in the management of the ABCs (A1C, Blood pressure, and Cholesterol) of type 2 diabetes. To effectively manage glycated hemoglobin (A1C) and blood sugar levels, it is important to understand how to balance food intake, physical activity, and medication. Making healthy food choices every day has both immediate and long-term effects. With education, practice, and assistance from a dietitian and/or a diabetes educator, it is possible to eat well and control diabetes. This article discusses diet in the management of type 2 diabetes. The role of diet and activity in managing blood pressure and cholesterol are reviewed separately. (See "Patient education: High blood pressure, diet, and weight (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: High cholesterol and lipids (hyperlipidemia) (Beyond the Basics)".) Articles that discuss other aspects of type 2 diabetes are also available. (See "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Overview (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Insulin treatment (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Alcohol, exercise, and medical care (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Preventing complications in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) WHY IS DIET IMPORTANT? Many factors affect how well diabetes is controlled. Many of these factors are controlled by the person with diabetes, including how much and what is eaten, how frequently the blood sugar is monitored, physical activity levels, and accuracy and consi Continue reading >>

Nutrition Therapy Recommendations For The Management Of Adults With Diabetes

Nutrition Therapy Recommendations For The Management Of Adults With Diabetes

A healthful eating pattern, regular physical activity, and often pharmacotherapy are key components of diabetes management. For many individuals with diabetes, the most challenging part of the treatment plan is determining what to eat. It is the position of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) that there is not a “one-size-fits-all” eating pattern for individuals with diabetes. The ADA also recognizes the integral role of nutrition therapy in overall diabetes management and has historically recommended that each person with diabetes be actively engaged in self-management, education, and treatment planning with his or her health care provider, which includes the collaborative development of an individualized eating plan (1,2). Therefore, it is important that all members of the health care team be knowledgeable about diabetes nutrition therapy and support its implementation. This position statement on nutrition therapy for individuals living with diabetes replaces previous position statements, the last of which was published in 2008 (3). Unless otherwise noted, research reviewed was limited to those studies conducted in adults diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Nutrition therapy for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and for the management of diabetes complications and gestational diabetes mellitus is not addressed in this review. A grading system, developed by the ADA and modeled after existing methods, was utilized to clarify and codify the evidence that forms the basis for the recommendations (1) (Table 1). The level of evidence that supports each recommendation is listed after the recommendation using the letters A, B, C, or E. A table linking recommendations to evidence can be reviewed at Members of the Nutrition Recommendations Writing Group Committee d Continue reading >>

Diabetes Type 2 - Meal Planning

Diabetes Type 2 - Meal Planning

Your main focus is on keeping your blood sugar (glucose) level in your target range. To help manage your blood sugar, follow a meal plan that has: Food from all the food groups Fewer calories About the same amount of carbohydrates at each meal and snack Healthy fats Along with healthy eating, you can help keep your blood sugar in target range by maintaining a healthy weight. Persons with type 2 diabetes are often overweight. Losing just 10 pounds (4.5 kilograms) can help you manage your diabetes better. Eating healthy foods and staying active (for example, 30 to 60 minutes of walking per day) can help you meet and maintain your weight loss goal. HOW CARBOHYDRATES AFFECT BLOOD SUGAR Carbohydrates in food give your body energy. You need to eat carbohydrates to maintain your energy. But carbohydrates also raise your blood sugar higher and faster than other kinds of food. The main kinds of carbohydrates are starches, sugars, and fiber. Learn which foods have carbohydrates. This will help with meal planning so that you can keep your blood sugar in your target range. MEAL PLANNING FOR CHILDREN WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES Meal plans should consider the amount of calories children need to grow. In general, three small meals and three snacks a day can help meet calorie needs. Many children with type 2 diabetes are overweight. The goal should be a healthy weight by eating healthy foods and getting more activity (60 minutes each day). Work with a registered dietitian to design a meal plan for your child. A registered dietitian is an expert in food and nutrition. The following tips can help your child stay on track: No food is off-limits. Knowing how different foods affect your child's blood sugar helps you and your child keep it in target range. Help your child learn how much food is a h Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Diet

Type 1 Diabetes Diet

Maintaining a healthy diet is important for type 1 diabetes management. A type 1 diabetes diet is designed to provide maximum nutrition, while also monitoring intake of carbohydrates, protein, and fat. However, there’s no single universal diabetes diet. It involves being mindful of how you eat and how your body will respond to certain foods. People with type 1 diabetes need to monitor their blood sugar levels. Without proper diet, exercise, and insulin therapy, a person with type 1 diabetes could experience health complications. Complications associated with type 1 diabetes include: high blood pressure, which increases risk for heart attack, stroke, and poor circulation kidney damage nerve damage skin sores and infections, which can cause pain and may lead to tissue death Following proper dietary guidelines can help mitigate the difficulties of type 1 diabetes and help you avoid health complications. It can also improve your overall quality of life. Just like there’s no standard treatment for type 1 diabetes, there’s no standard diet for diabetes. A nutritionist or dietitian can help you come up with meal plans and create a diet that works for you in the long term. It’s easy to reach for fast food and other processed foods when you’re short on time and money. However, these foods offer minimal nutrients and are high in fat, sugar, and salt. Planning your meals ahead of time and grocery shopping regularly can help cut down on any “emergency eating.” A well-stocked kitchen of healthy food can also cut down on unnecessary sugar, carbohydrates, sodium, and fat that can spike blood sugar. An important aspect of any diabetic diet is consistency. To maintain blood sugar levels, don’t skip meals, try to eat around the same time each day, and pay attention to foo Continue reading >>

Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

Nutrition and physical activity are important parts of a healthy lifestyle when you have diabetes. Along with other benefits, following a healthy meal plan and being active can help you keep your blood glucose level, also called blood sugar, in your target range. To manage your blood glucose, you need to balance what you eat and drink with physical activity and diabetes medicine, if you take any. What you choose to eat, how much you eat, and when you eat are all important in keeping your blood glucose level in the range that your health care team recommends. Becoming more active and making changes in what you eat and drink can seem challenging at first. You may find it easier to start with small changes and get help from your family, friends, and health care team. Eating well and being physically active most days of the week can help you keep your blood glucose level, blood pressure, and cholesterol in your target ranges prevent or delay diabetes problems feel good and have more energy What foods can I eat if I have diabetes? You may worry that having diabetes means going without foods you enjoy. The good news is that you can still eat your favorite foods, but you might need to eat smaller portions or enjoy them less often. Your health care team will help create a diabetes meal plan for you that meets your needs and likes. The key to eating with diabetes is to eat a variety of healthy foods from all food groups, in the amounts your meal plan outlines. The food groups are vegetables nonstarchy: includes broccoli, carrots, greens, peppers, and tomatoes starchy: includes potatoes, corn, and green peas fruits—includes oranges, melon, berries, apples, bananas, and grapes grains—at least half of your grains for the day should be whole grains includes wheat, rice, oats, co Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

What you eat makes a big difference when you have diabetes. When you build your diet, four key things to focus on are carbs, fiber, fat, and salt. Here's what you should know about each of them. Carbs give you fuel. They affect your blood sugar faster than fats or protein. You’ll mainly get them from: Fruit Milk and yogurt Bread, cereal, rice, pasta Starchy vegetables like potatoes, corn, and beans Some carbs are simple, like sugar. Other carbs are complex, like those found in beans, nuts, vegetables, and whole grains. Complex carbohydrates are better for you because they take longer for your body to digest. They give you steady energy and fiber. You may have heard of “carbohydrate counting.” That means you keep track of the carbs (sugar and starch) you eat each day. Counting grams of carbohydrate, and splitting them evenly between meals, will help you control your blood sugar. If you eat more carbohydrates than your insulin supply can handle, your blood sugar level goes up. If you eat too little, your blood sugar level may fall too low. You can manage these shifts by knowing how to count carbs. One carbohydrate serving equals 15 grams of carbohydrates. A registered dietitian can help you figure out a carbohydrate counting plan that meets your specific needs. For adults, a typical plan includes two to four carb servings at each meal, and one to two as snacks. You can pick almost any food product off the shelf, read the label, and use the information about grams of carbohydrates to fit the food into your meal plan. Anyone can use carb counting. It’s most useful for people who take more than one daily injection of insulin, use the insulin pump, or want more flexibility and variety in their food choices. You get fiber from plant foods -- fruits, vegetables, whole g Continue reading >>

Nutrition Principles And Recommendations In Diabetes

Nutrition Principles And Recommendations In Diabetes

Medical nutrition therapy is an integral component of diabetes management and of diabetes self-management education. Yet many misconceptions exist concerning nutrition and diabetes. Moreover, in clinical practice, nutrition recommendations that have little or no supporting evidence have been and are still being given to persons with diabetes. Accordingly, this position statement provides evidence-based principles and recommendations for diabetes medical nutrition therapy. The rationale for this position statement is discussed in the American Diabetes Association technical review “Evidence-Based Nutrition Principles and Recommendations for the Treatment and Prevention of Diabetes and Related Complications,” which discusses in detail the published research for each principle and recommendation (1). Historically, nutrition recommendations for diabetes and related complications were based on scientific knowledge, clinical experience, and expert consensus; however, it was often difficult to discern the level of evidence used to construct the recommendations. To address this problem, the 2002 technical review (1) and this position statement provide principles and recommendations classified according to the level of evidence available using the American Diabetes Association evidence grading system. However, the best available evidence must still take into account individual circumstances, preferences, and cultural and ethnic preferences, and the person with diabetes should be involved in the decision-making process. The goal of evidence-based recommendations is to improve diabetes care by increasing the awareness of clinicians and persons with diabetes about beneficial nutrition therapies. Because of the complexity of nutrition issues, it is recommended that a registered d Continue reading >>

Diabetes Management Guidelines

Diabetes Management Guidelines

American Diabetes Association (ADA) Nutrition Guidelines for Adults With Diabetes Source: Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, et al. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(suppl 1):S120-S143. Available here. Refer to source document for full recommendations, including level of evidence rating. Jump to a topic Nutrition Therapy Energy Balance Macronutrients Eating Patterns Carbohydrates Sweeteners Protein Fats Dietary Omega-3 Micronutrients, Herbal Supplements Alcohol Sodium Priorities for All Patients Priorities by Medication Insulin Requirements Summary Component of overall treatment for all with types 1 and 2 diabetes No “one-size-fits-all” eating approach Chosen eating pattern should improve glucose, BP, and lipid Individualized nutrition therapy, ideally provided by registered dietitian Type 1 Flexible insulin therapy education program using carb counting meal planning Fixed-dose daily insulin Consistent carb intake (time, amount) Type 2 Portion control, healthful food choices for literacy concerns, older adults DSME and support at diagnosis and thereafter Overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes For weight loss: reduce energy intake while maintaining healthful eating pattern Optimal macronutrient intake to reduce weight not established Modest weight loss may improve glycemia, BP, lipids Particularly early in disease process Recommended for modest weight loss Intensive lifestyle interventions: nutrition therapy counseling, physical activity, behavior change Ongoing support No ideal percentage of calories from carbohydrate, protein, or fat for individuals with diabetes Macronutrient distribution to be based on individualized assessment of Consider personal preferences and metabolic goals when recommen Continue reading >>

The Best And Worst Foods To Eat In A Type 2 Diabetes Diet

The Best And Worst Foods To Eat In A Type 2 Diabetes Diet

Following a type 2 diabetes diet doesn’t mean you have to give up all the things you love — you can still enjoy a wide range of foods and, in some cases, even help reverse type 2 diabetes. Indeed, creating a diet for diabetes is a balancing act: It includes a variety of healthy carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The trick is ultimately choosing the right combination of foods that will help keep your blood sugar level in your target range and avoid big swings that can cause diabetes symptoms — from the frequent urination and thirst of high blood sugar to the fatigue, dizziness, headaches, and mood changes of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). The Basics of the Type 2 Diabetes Diet: What Should You Eat? To follow a healthy diet for type 2 diabetes, you must first understand how different foods affect your blood sugar. Carbohydrates, which are found to the largest degree in grains, bread, pasta, milk, sweets, fruit, and starchy vegetables, are broken down into glucose in the blood faster than other types of food, which raises blood sugar, potentially leading to hyperglycemia. Protein and fats do not directly impact blood sugar, but both should be consumed in moderation to keep calories down and weight in a healthy range. To hit your blood sugar level target, eat a variety of foods but monitor portions for foods with a high carbohydrate content, says Alison Massey, RD, CDE, the director of diabetes education at Mercy Medical Center in Baltimore. “[Foods high in carbohydrates] have the most impact on blood sugar level. This is why some people with diabetes count their carbohydrates at meals and snacks,” she says. How Many Carbs Can You Eat If You Have Diabetes? According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), you can calculate Continue reading >>

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