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Diagnosis Of Diabetes Type 2

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis & Tests

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis & Tests

XIAFLEX® is a prescription medicine used to treat adults with Dupuytren's contracture when a "cord" can be felt. It is not known if XIAFLEX® is safe and effective in children under the age of 18. Do not receive XIAFLEX® if you have had an allergic reaction to collagenase clostridium histolyticum or any of the ingredients in XIAFLEX®, or to any other collagenase product. See the end of the Medication Guide for a complete list of ingredients in XIAFLEX®. XIAFLEX® can cause serious side effects, including: Tendon rupture or ligament damage. Receiving an injection of XIAFLEX® may cause damage to a tendon or ligament in your hand and cause it to break or weaken. This could require surgery to fix the damaged tendon or ligament. Call your healthcare provider right away if you have trouble bending your injected finger (towards the wrist) after the swelling goes down or you have problems using your treated hand after your follow-up visit Nerve injury or other serious injury of the hand. Call your healthcare provider right away if you get numbness, tingling, increased pain, or tears in the skin (laceration) in your treated finger or hand after your injection or after your follow-up visit Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis. Severe allergic reactions can happen in people who receive XIAFLEX® because it contains foreign proteins. Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of these symptoms of an allergic reaction after an injection of XIAFLEX®: hives swollen face breathing trouble chest pain low blood pressure dizziness or fainting Increased chance of bleeding. Bleeding or bruising at the injection site can happen in people who receive XIAFLEX®. Talk to your healthcare provider if you have a problem with your blood clotting. XIAFLEX® may not b Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus- Disease, Diagnosis And Treatment

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus- Disease, Diagnosis And Treatment

School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan Province, PR China #The authors have equal contribution Citation: Zhao Y, Xu G, Wu W, Yi X (2015) Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus- Disease, Diagnosis and Treatment. J Diabetes Metab 6:533. doi: 10.4172/2155-6156.1000533 Copyright: © 2015 Zhao Y, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing disease and a leading global public health concern. Multiple complications are associated with T2DM. Patient education with lifestyle modifications and pharmacotherapy are main methods for treatment of patients afflicted with T2DM. Lifestyle interventions are effective strategies but usually persist for a short term whereas T2DM patients with long-term treatment still present challenges in many cases. In this review, we have briefly summarized recent progress for T2DM diagnosis and treatment. We attempt to provide an outline for T2DM diagnosis and treatment. In addition, we introduce Chinese herbal medicine as an alternate treatment for physicians and T2DM patients Keywords Type 2 diabetes; Diagnosis; Treatment; Bariatric surgery; Chinese herbal medicine Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder and typically results from excess of caloric intake over energy expenditure. It is characterized by a progressive insulin secretory defect due to insulin resistance, which increases the body’s demand for insulin in order to retain glucose homeostasis. If pancreatic β-cells fail to s Continue reading >>

Tests For Screening And Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes

Tests For Screening And Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes

This article offers a discussion of available tests used to screen for and diagnose type 2 diabetes. It reviews the evidence supporting different screening strategies and describes the test characteristics of different diagnostic approaches, with particular reference to the American Diabetes Association's 1997 guidelines for diagnosis and 2009 standards of medical care for diabetes. The recent International Expert Committee report on the role of A1C in diagnosis is also discussed. Overview of Available Tests Proposed tests for diabetes screening are numerous and vary from history- and anthropometric-based questionnaires to proteomics-based risk assessment.12-15 Although some of these tests might prove to be useful, the current preferred tests are limited to two groups: serum glucose—based tests and glycated proteins. Serum glucose—based tests include fasting plasma glucose (FPG), random plasma glucose (RPG), and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The most well-studied and useful glycated protein is A1C. The 1997 ADA recommendations for diagnosis of diabetes focus on the FPG, whereas the World Health Organization (WHO) focuses on the OGTT. However, practicing physicians frequently employ other measures in addition to those recommended, including urinary glucose, RPG, and A1C. In one survey of primary care physicians and mid-level providers, 89% of providers reported using FPG for screening in some cases, 58% used RPG, and 42% used A1C. For confirmation of a diabetes diagnosis, 80% used A1C, and 64% used FPG. Only 7% of providers reported that they regularly use the OGTT to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).16 A survey conducted by Ealovega et al.17 found that 95% of opportunistic screening was done by RPG, 3% by FPG, 2% by A1C, and < 1% by OGTT. In addit Continue reading >>

Getting Diagnosed

Getting Diagnosed

Type 2 diabetes is often diagnosed following blood or urine tests for something else. However, if you have any symptoms of diabetes you should see your GP straight away. To find out if you have type 2 diabetes, you usually have to go through the following steps: Speak to your GP about your symptoms. Your GP will check your urine and arrange a blood test to check your blood sugar levels. It usually takes about 1 to 2 days for the results to come back. If you have diabetes, your GP will ask you to come in again to explain the test results and what will happen next. If you’re diagnosed with diabetes What your GP will discuss with you during your appointment depends on the diagnosis and the treatment they recommend. Generally, they’ll talk to you about: what diabetes is what high blood sugar means for your health what medication you’ll have to take your diet and exercise your lifestyle, for example alcohol and smoking Your GP will do their best to discuss the diagnosis with you but this first appointment might only be 10 to 15 minutes. If you have questions about your diagnosis It’s usually difficult to take in everything the GP tells you during the appointment. Talk to family and friends about what the GP told you and write down all the questions you have. Then make another GP appointment and take your list of questions with you. There’s also a lot of information on diabetes available. What happens after the diagnosis Usually the following things happen after your diagnosis: Your GP will prescribe medication. It might take time for you to get used to the medication and to find the right amounts for you. You might need to make changes to your diet and be more active. You’ll have to go for regular type 2 diabetes check ups. You’ll have to look out for certain s Continue reading >>

Newly Diagnosed With Diabetes

Newly Diagnosed With Diabetes

Save for later Diabetes is a lifelong condition that means your body can't produce enough insulin, or the insulin that is produced doesn't work properly. If untreated, it can cause serious health problems. Find out more Call our helpline on 0345 123 2399 Explaining diabetes © Diabetes UK 2017 A charity registered in England and Wales (no. 215199) and in Scotland (no. SC039136) A company limited by guarantee. Registered in England (no. 339181) Registered office: Wells Lawrence House, 126 Back Church Lane, London, E1 1FH. Continue reading >>

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring Of Diabetes

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring Of Diabetes

According to the latest American Heart Association's Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics, about 8 million people 18 years and older in the United States have type 2 diabetes and do not know it. Often type 1 diabetes remains undiagnosed until symptoms become severe and hospitalization is required. Left untreated, diabetes can cause a number of health complications. That's why it's so important to both know what warning signs to look for and to see a health care provider regularly for routine wellness screenings. Symptoms In incidences of prediabetes, there are no symptoms. People may not be aware that they have type 1 or type 2 diabetes because they have no symptoms or because the symptoms are so mild that they go unnoticed for quite some time. However, some individuals do experience warning signs, so it's important to be familiar with them. Prediabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes No symptoms Increased or extreme thirst Increased thirst Increased appetite Increased appetite Increased fatigue Fatigue Increased or frequent urination Increased urination, especially at night Unusual weight loss Weight loss Blurred vision Blurred vision Fruity odor or breath Sores that do not heal In some cases, no symptoms In some cases, no symptoms If you have any of these symptoms, see your health care provider right away. Diabetes can only be diagnosed by your healthcare provider. Who should be tested for prediabetes and diabetes? The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that you should be tested if you are: If your blood glucose levels are in normal range, testing should be done about every three years. If you have prediabetes, you should be checked for diabetes every one to two years after diagnosis. Tests for Diagnosing Prediabetes and Diabetes There are three ty Continue reading >>

Top 10 Tips For People Newly Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes

Top 10 Tips For People Newly Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes

twitter summary: Ten tips for newly diagnosed T2 #diabetes: act NOW for long-term benefits, use healthy eating, exercise, meds + structured blood glucose testing short summary: This article offers ten tips for people newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes: 1) Know that developing type 2 diabetes does not represent a personal failing; 2) Start to take care of your diabetes as soon as you’re diagnosed (and even better, before, if you know you have prediabetes); 3) Recognize that type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease; 4) Keep in mind that food has a major impact on blood glucose; work to optimize your mealtime choices; 5) Exercise is a powerful and underutilized tool which can increase insulin sensitivity and improve health – use it as much as possible; 6) Use blood glucose testing to identify patterns; 7) Don’t forget that needing to take insulin doesn’t mean you failed; 8) Keep learning and find support; 9) Seek out the services of a Diabetes Educator; and 10) Review our Patient's Guide to Individualizing Therapy at www.diaTribe.org/patientguide. Know that developing type 2 diabetes does not represent a personal failing. It develops through a combination of factors that are still being uncovered and better understood. Lifestyle (food, exercise, stress, sleep) certainly plays a major role, but genetics play a significant role as well. Type 2 diabetes is often described in the media as a result of being overweight, but the relationship is not that simple. Many overweight individuals never get type 2, and some people with type 2 were never overweight. At its core, type 2 involves two physiological issues: resistance to the insulin made by the person’s beta cells and too little insulin production relative to the amount one needs. These problems can lead to high bl Continue reading >>

Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes In Adults

Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes In Adults

NYU Langone doctors are experts at identifying people with type 2 diabetes, a condition in which a person has chronically high levels of blood sugar. It occurs when the body lacks or is resistant to insulin, a hormone that helps the body use glucose, or sugar. As a result, the body is unable to convert glucose into energy. In prediabetes, a person has higher-than-normal levels of blood sugar, which increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. To help the body use some of the excess blood sugar levels, the pancreas produces more insulin. Over time, prediabetes may progress into type 2 diabetes. In most people, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes develop gradually. If you have prediabetes and take steps to prevent type 2 diabetes, you may be able to avoid it altogether. Risk Factors Being overweight, especially if you are age 45 or older, is the biggest risk factor for type 2 diabetes. In particular, people who are “apple-shaped”—meaning they carry more fat around the abdomen—have a higher risk. Experts believe excess belly fat produces hormones that increase inflammation, which can lead to insulin resistance. Being sedentary also raises the risk of type 2 diabetes. It can lead to weight gain and lower muscle mass, which is required to help use glucose efficiently. People with a family history of type 2 diabetes have a greater chance of developing the condition than those who don’t. The condition can also occur in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome, a hormone disorder associated with weight gain and insulin resistance. Conditions that harm insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, such as pancreatic cancer and pancreatitis, also increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that puts Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in people aged over 40 years. However, an increasing number of younger people, even children, are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The first-line treatment is diet, weight control and physical activity. If the blood sugar (glucose) level remains high despite these measures then tablets to reduce the blood glucose level are usually advised. Insulin injections are needed in some cases. Other treatments include reducing blood pressure if it is high, lowering high cholesterol levels and also using other measures to reduce the risk of complications. Although diabetes cannot be cured, it can be treated successfully. If a high blood sugar level is brought down to a normal level, your symptoms will ease. You still have some risk of complications in the long term if your blood glucose level remains even mildly high - even if you have no symptoms in the short term. However, studies have shown that people who have better glucose control have fewer complications (such as heart disease or eye problems) compared with those people who have poorer control of their glucose level. Therefore, the main aims of treatment are: To keep your blood glucose level as near normal as possible. To reduce any other risk factors that may increase your risk of developing complications. In particular, to lower your blood pressure if it is high and to keep your blood lipids (cholesterol) low. To detect any complications as early as possible. Treatment can prevent or delay some complications from becoming worse. Type 2 diabetes is usually initially treated by following a healthy diet, losing weight if you are overweight, and having regular physical activity. If lifestyle advice does not control your blood sugar (glucose) levels then medicines are used to help lower your Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis To diagnose type 2 diabetes, you'll be given a: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — that can make the A1C test inaccurate, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood s Continue reading >>

Understanding A Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis

Understanding A Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis

Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is a manageable condition. Once you’re diagnosed, you can learn what to do to stay healthy. Diabetes is grouped into different types. The most commonly diagnosed are gestational diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes. Gestational Diabetes Maybe you have a friend who was told she had diabetes during pregnancy. That type is called gestational diabetes. It can develop during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after the baby is born. Type 1 Diabetes You may have had a childhood friend with diabetes who had to take insulin every day. That type is called type 1 diabetes. The peak age of onset is in the midteens. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), type 1 makes up 5 percent of all cases of diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes makes up 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes, according to the CDC. It is also called adult-onset diabetes. Although it can occur at any age, it’s more common in people older than 40. If you think you might have diabetes, talk to your doctor. Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes can cause severe complications, such as: amputation of the legs and feet blindness heart disease kidney disease stroke According to the CDC, diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. People with diabetes are 1.5 times as likely to die as people of the same age who don’t have diabetes. Many of the severe side effects of diabetes can be avoided with treatment. That’s why it’s so important to be diagnosed as soon as possible. Some people are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes because they have symptoms. Early diabetes symptoms include: increased or frequent urination increased thirst fatigue cuts or sores that won Continue reading >>

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

It's important for diabetes to be diagnosed early so treatment can be started as soon as possible. If you experience the symptoms of diabetes, visit your GP as soon as possible. They'll ask about your symptoms and may request blood and urine tests. Your urine sample will be tested for glucose. Urine doesn't normally contain glucose, but glucose can overflow through the kidneys and into your urine if you have diabetes. If your urine contains glucose, a specialised blood test known as glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) can be used to determine whether you have diabetes. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) In people who have been diagnosed with diabetes, the glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) test is often used to show how well their diabetes is being controlled. The HbA1c test gives your average blood glucose levels over the previous two to three months. The results can indicate whether the measures you're taking to control your diabetes are working. If you've been diagnosed with diabetes, it's recommended you have your HbA1c measured at least twice a year. However, you may need to have your HbA1c measured more frequently if: you've recently been diagnosed with diabetes your blood glucose remains too high your treatment plan has been changed Unlike other tests, such as the glucose tolerance test (GTT), the HbA1c test can be carried out at any time of day and doesn't require any special preparation, such as fasting. However, the test can't be used in certain situations, such as during pregnancy. The advantages associated with the HbA1c test make it the preferred method of assessing how well blood glucose levels are being controlled in a person with diabetes. HbA1c can also be used as a diagnostic test for diabetes and as a screening test for people at high risk of diabetes. HbA1c as a diagno Continue reading >>

Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

There is a continuum of risk for poor patient outcomes as glucose tolerance progresses from normal to overt type 2 diabetes. AACE-defined glucose tolerance categories are listed in Table 1.1 Table 1. Glucose Testing and Interpretation1 Normal High Risk for Diabetes Diabetes FPG < 100 mg/dL IFG FPG ≥100-125 mg/dL FPG ≥126 mg/dL 2-hour PG <140 mg/dL (measured with an OGTT performed 2 hours after 75 g oral glucose load taken after 8-hour fast) IGT 2-hour PG ≥140-199 mg/dL 2-hour PG ≥200 mg/dL Random PG ≥200 mg/dL plus symptoms of diabetes (polyurea, polydipsia, or polyphagia) A1C < 5.5% 5.5% to 6.4% For screening of prediabetesa ≥6.5% Secondaryb Abbreviations: A1C = hemoglobin A1C; FPG = fasting plasma glucose; IFG = impaired fasting glucose; IGT = impaired glucose tolerance; PG = plasma glucose. a A1C should be used only for screening prediabetes. The diagnosis of prediabetes, which may manifest as either IFG or IGT, should be confirmed with glucose testing. b Glucose criteria are preferred for the diagnosis of DM. In all cases, the diagnosis should be confirmed on a separate day by repeating glucose or A1C testing. When A1C is used for diagnosis, follow-up glucose testing should be done when possible to help manage diabetes. The diagnostic cut points recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) differ slightly from the AACE recommendations; please see the ADA Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes for details.2 In addition to glucose criteria, type 1 diabetes (T1D) is diagnosed according to the presence of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, pancreatic islet (beta) cells, or insulin.1,2 Type 2 diabetes (T2D) accounts for 90% of diabetes cases and is usually identified in individuals 30 years or older who are overweight or obese and/or have Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms, Signs, Diet, And Treatment

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms, Signs, Diet, And Treatment

Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which cells cannot use blood sugar (glucose) efficiently for energy. This happens when the cells become insensitive to insulin and the blood sugar gradually gets too high. There are two types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2. In type 2, the pancreas still makes insulin, but the cells cannot use it very efficiently. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cannot make insulin due to auto-immune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells. Type 2 can be caused by: Lack of activity (sedentary behavior) Genetics Risk factors include: Being overweight Being sedentary including watching more than 2 hours of TV per day Drinking soda Consuming too much sugar and processed food The signs and symptoms of this type of this type of diabetes are sometimes subtle. The major symptom is often being overweight. Other symptoms and signs include: Urinating a lot Gaining or losing weight unintentionally Dark skin under armpits, chin, or groin Unusual odor to urine Blurry vision Often there are no specific symptoms of the condition and it goes undiagnosed until routine blood tests are ordered. A blood sugar level more than 125 when fasting or more than 200 randomly is a diagnosis for diabetes. Treatment is with diet and lifestyle changes that include eating less sugary foods, and foods that are high in simple carbohydrates (sugar, bread, and pasta.) Sometimes a person will need to take drugs, for example, metformin (Glucophage). People with both types of diabetes need monitor their blood sugar levels often to avoid high (hyperglycemia) and low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia). Complications include heart and kidney disease, neuropathy, sexual and/or urinary problems, foot problems, and eye problems. This health condition can be prevented by following a Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Type 2

Diabetes, Type 2

Content provided by NHS Choices www.nhs.uk and adapted for Ireland by the Health A-Z. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Search for a Condition or Treatment: Continue reading >>

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