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Diabetic Stroke

Diabetes And Stroke

Diabetes And Stroke

Tweet Stroke is a condition in which blood supply to be the brain is affected. A stroke can sometimes lead to permanent damage including communication problems, paralysis and visual problems. The risk factors of stroke are similar to the risk factors for heart problems. Statistically, people with diabetes have a higher risk of dying from heart disease and stroke than the general population. By maintaining stable blood glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol, people with diabetes can increase their chances of preventing a stroke. What is a stroke? Stroke occurs when blood supply to the brain is interrupted and brain tissue is damaged. The two main types of stroke are: Ischaemic - where a blood clot forms in the brain. This accounts for about 8 out of 10 instances of stroke. Haemorrhagic - whereby a blood vessel in the brain bursts and causes a brain haemorrhage. Stroke can be especially damaging physically, but may also cause mental problems with thought or speech. What are stroke symptoms? The warning signs of a stroke are given the acronym FAST: Face - stroke will often affect muscles on one side of the face causing the mouth or eyes to droop down in contrast with the unaffected side Arms - a person having had a stroke may be unable to hold up one of their arms Speech - slurred speech may be a sign of a stroke Time - refers to the need for urgent action, call 999 immediately if one or more of the symptoms are present Other symptoms of a stroke may include: Sudden numbness or weakness on one side of the body Confusion Trouble seeing Dizziness Loss of balance Double vision Severe headache Sometimes people may experience a stroke without being fully aware that they have had one. This kind of stroke is called a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and is sometimes referred to Continue reading >>

Relationship Between Diabetes And Ischemic Stroke: Analysis Of Diabetes- Related Risk Factors For Stroke And Of Specific Patterns Of Stroke Associated With Diabetes Mellitus

Relationship Between Diabetes And Ischemic Stroke: Analysis Of Diabetes- Related Risk Factors For Stroke And Of Specific Patterns Of Stroke Associated With Diabetes Mellitus

1Internal Medicine Ward,Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica (Di.Bi.M.I.S), Università degli Studi di Palermo (Italy) 2Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Experimental Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Citation: Tuttolomondo A, Maida C, Maugeri R, Iacopino G, Pinto A (2015) Relationship between Diabetes and Ischemic Stroke: Analysis of Diabetes-Related Risk Factors for Stroke and of Specific Patterns of Stroke Associated with Diabetes Mellitus. J Diabetes Metab 6:544. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000544 Copyright: © 2015 Tuttolomondo A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism Abstract Diabetes and ischemic stroke are common diseases that frequently occurring together. Among patients with diabetes mellitus several factors contribute in varying degrees to the overall cerebrovascular risk including hyperglycemia, vascular risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia and also genetic, demographic, and lifestyle factors and several studies have shown that people with diabetes have approximately twice the risk of ischemic stroke compared with those without diabetes. The association between ischemic stroke and diabetes is bidirectional and it is not limited to acute ischemic stroke since diabetes may contribute to a more insidious brain damage represented by lacunar infarcts increasing the risk of dementia and leading to a steeper decline in cognitive function. The higher cerebrovascular risk profile of subjects with diabetes mellitus emphasizes the Continue reading >>

Signs And Prevention Of A Diabetic Stroke

Signs And Prevention Of A Diabetic Stroke

Diabetes patients are 2-3 times more likely to suffer from stroke than those that do not have diabetes. Studies have shown that people with diabetes are at a higher risk of death or paralysis due to stroke. What Causes a Stroke? In particular, the type of stroke that diabetes patients are so susceptible to is the most common type of stroke known as ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke happens due to a clogged blood vessel supplying blood to the brain. The blockage disrupts blood and oxygen flow to the brain which damages brain cells and hence leading to a stroke. The clogged blood vessels that causes the stroke are usually formed when: Fat accumulates on the walls of the blood vessel in the brain. A blood clot originally from another part of the body flows to the vessels in brain Common Signs of Stroke Stroke is a dangerous condition and can be fatal or debilitating. Anyone who is showing some signs of a stroke must be taken to the hospital immediately. The signs of stroke includes: bad headache, which is often sudden inability to control or move a limb tingling sensation and numbness of the limb difficulty in speaking, drooping of one side of the face fainting confusion blurred or loss of vision of both eyes. Proper diagnostic test should be done if symptoms of diabetic stroke are observed. One of these is to have the patient to hold up both arms at the same height. If he or she cannot do so, then it may be a stroke. Warning An ambulance or doctor must be immediately called for help in the event of a diabetic stroke, even if the person will strongly insist that they are okay and they do not want to go to the hospital. When someone suffers from stroke, this cuts off the energy to the brain and the longer that you will get help, the more damage in the brain will occur. How t Continue reading >>

Stroke: Diabetes And Other Risk Factors

Stroke: Diabetes And Other Risk Factors

Diabetes can increase your risk for many health conditions, including stroke. In general, people with diabetes are 1.5 times more likely to have a stroke than people without diabetes. People with diabetes are often left with too much sugar in their blood. That’s because their body is often unable to maintain the delicate balance that insulin plays in helping blood cells create energy from sugar. Over time, this excess sugar can lead to the buildup of clots or fat deposits inside vessels that supply blood to the neck and brain. If these deposits grow, they can cause a narrowing of the blood vessel wall or even a complete blockage. When blood flow to your brain stops for any reason, a stroke occurs. Stroke is a condition in which blood vessels in the brain are damaged. Strokes are characterized by a number of factors, including where in the brain blood vessels have been damaged and what event actually caused the damage. The main types of stroke are ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and transient ischemic attack (TIA). Ischemic stroke Ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke. It occurs when an artery that supplies oxygen-rich blood to the brain is blocked, most often by a blood clot. About 87 percent of strokes are ischemic strokes. Hemorrhagic stroke Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when an artery in the brain leaks blood or ruptures. Approximately 15 percent of strokes are hemorrhagic strokes. Hemorrhagic strokes can be very serious, and are responsible for about 40 percent of stroke-related deaths. Transient ischemic attack (TIA) A TIA is sometimes called a ministroke because the blood flow to the brain is blocked for a minute or so. Rarely, it can be blocked for more than 5 minutes. A TIA is an ischemic stroke, but a very short-lived one. You shouldn’t ignore, Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Your Stroke Risk

Diabetes And Your Stroke Risk

Saebo You may not think to connect two different health concerns like stroke and diabetes, but if you have diabetes, you are 1.5 times more likely to suffer a stroke. Why? It has to do with a key player in the body’s regulation of glucose (blood sugar): insulin. If insulin levels are off or it’s not put to proper use in the body, build up results and the likelihood of stroke increases. Fortunately, there a number of ways to control your diabetes, and if you do that, you simultaneously decrease your risk of having a stroke. The research cited below will help you to understand the link between stroke and diabetes and which steps to take if you’re concerned for your health or that of a loved one with diabetes. Understanding Diabetes For our body’s cells to get the energy they need, insulin is required to regulate the process. In a way, it acts as an energy supervisor in breaking down the sugars you eat so they can be converted into energy. Diabetes results when the pancreas doesn’t create insulin, it doesn’t make enough of it, or cells don’t use the hormone correctly. Diabetes is usually categorized as being Type 1 or 2. Type 1 diabetes typically manifests during childhood or adolescence, though it occasionally presents itself in young adults in their twenties or early thirties. This form of diabetes is characterized by a lack of insulin production in the body, and it is treated with insulin supplementation. Type 2 diabetes is more common than Type 1; nearly 90 percent of diabetes patients suffer from it. This kind of diabetes occurs when the body does not produce the right amount of insulin or does not use the insulin the pancreas produced correctly. While Types 1 and 2 are the most common forms of diabetes, gestational diabetes affects up to four percent of Continue reading >>

Diabetes, The Metabolic Syndrome, And Ischemic Stroke

Diabetes, The Metabolic Syndrome, And Ischemic Stroke

Epidemiology and possible mechanisms Stroke affects more than 700,000 individuals each year; it is the third largest cause of death and the largest cause of adult disability in the U.S. Diabetes is a major risk factor for the development of stroke, yet this risk is not realized or understood by patients with diabetes. This likely reflects a lack of understanding within the medical community of how diabetes confers this risk. We will explore the potential underlying mechanisms that lead to increased incidence of stroke among diabetic patients. Beyond diabetes itself, the metabolic syndrome and its components will also be discussed. The impact of diabetes and hyperglycemia on stroke outcomes and a discussion of current approaches to reduce stroke in this high-risk population are included. Because type 2 diabetes affects the vast majority of those diagnosed with diabetes, it will be the primary focus of this discussion. DEFINING THE PROBLEM— It has been well documented that diabetes confers a significantly increased risk of stroke, as well as increased mortality following stroke (1–7). Stroke is a preventable disease with high personal and societal cost. While great progress has been made in understanding the link between diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD), the literature on diabetes and stroke has been less enlightening. CHD is a larger problem that accounts for 40–50% of mortality in diabetes. Because of the overwhelming impact of CHD, the impact of stroke has been relatively underappreciated. Thus, physicians, diabetes educators, and nurses are less equipped to educate patients. We therefore review the relationship between diabetes and stroke. Given that more than one million people are diagnosed with diabetes yearly, a figure that is expected to rise, the Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Stroke: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Pharmaceuticals And Outcomes

Diabetes And Stroke: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Pharmaceuticals And Outcomes

Go to: INTRODUCTION cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including stroke, are major healthcare issues in both developing and developed countries with deleterious effects at individual, family and societal levels. Between 2010 and 2030, the estimated total direct medical costs would escalate from $273–$818 billion in the United States alone.1 Major modifiable risk factors for stroke include hypertension, diabetes, smoking and dyslipidemia. Diabetes is a well-established risk factor for stroke. It can cause pathologic changes in blood vessels at various locations and can lead to stroke if cerebral vessels are directly affected. Additionally, mortality is higher and poststroke outcomes are poorer in patients with stroke with uncontrolled glucose levels. Whether tight control of hyperglycemia is associated with better outcomes in acute stroke phase needs to be further investigated in Phase III clinical trials. Controlling diabetes and other associated risk factors are effective ways to prevent initial strokes as well as stroke recurrence. In this narrative article, we review the epidemiology linking diabetes and stroke; the pathophysiology of diabetes and stroke patterns and outcomes in individuals with diabetes. Additionally, we summarize the influence of hyperglycemia on poststroke outcomes and management of hyperglycemia during the acute phase of stroke. Finally, we review stroke prevention strategies for individuals with diabetes. Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Heart Disease, And Stroke

Diabetes, Heart Disease, And Stroke

Having diabetes means that you are more likely to develop heart disease and have a greater chance of a heart attack or a stroke. People with diabetes are also more likely to have certain conditions, or risk factors, that increase the chances of having heart disease or stroke, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol. If you have diabetes, you can protect your heart and health by managing your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, as well as your blood pressure and cholesterol. If you smoke, get help to stop. What is the link between diabetes, heart disease, and stroke? Over time, high blood glucose from diabetes can damage your blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart and blood vessels. The longer you have diabetes, the higher the chances that you will develop heart disease.1 People with diabetes tend to develop heart disease at a younger age than people without diabetes. In adults with diabetes, the most common causes of death are heart disease and stroke. Adults with diabetes are nearly twice as likely to die from heart disease or stroke as people without diabetes.2 The good news is that the steps you take to manage your diabetes also help to lower your chances of having heart disease or stroke. What else increases my chances of heart disease or stroke if I have diabetes? If you have diabetes, other factors add to your chances of developing heart disease or having a stroke. Smoking Smoking raises your risk of developing heart disease. If you have diabetes, it is important to stop smoking because both smoking and diabetes narrow blood vessels. Smoking also increases your chances of developing other long-term problems such as lung disease. Smoking also can damage the blood vessels in your legs and increase the risk of lower leg infections, ulcers, a Continue reading >>

The Link Between Stroke And Diabetes

The Link Between Stroke And Diabetes

While multiple studies say diabetes puts you at risk of conditions such as heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure, a healthy lifestyle and insulin treatments can help keep your risk low. In a stroke, one of the many blood vessels that supply your brain with oxygen becomes damaged or blocked. If the blood flow is cut off for more than 3 to 4 minutes, that part of your brain begins to die. There are two types of strokes: Hemorrhagic strokes are caused by a ruptured artery. Ischemic strokes result from a blocked artery. Diabetes can also make it harder for your body to respond to a stroke. When your oxygen supply is cut off, other arteries can usually serve as a bypass. But if you have diabetes, those vessels may be hardened or clogged with plaque, a condition known as atherosclerosis. This makes it harder for blood to get to your brain. High blood pressure is the leading risk factor for stroke. Others include smoking cigarettes and high levels of LDL ("bad") cholesterol. A stroke is an emergency whether you have diabetes or not. If you or someone near you has any of these symptoms, call 911 at once. Sudden numbness or weakness in the face, arm, or leg (especially on one side of the body) Trouble speaking or understanding words or simple sentences Sudden trouble swallowing Dizziness, loss of balance, or lack of coordination Brief loss of consciousness Sudden inability to move part of the body (paralysis) Sudden, unexplainable, and intense headache One treatment for ischemic stroke is a clot-buster drug called tPA, which must be taken within the first 3 hours after stroke symptoms begin. It dissolves the clot that has clogged an artery and can restore blood flow to brain tissue. But this drug isn’t for all people who have an ischemic stroke, especially if you've had ma Continue reading >>

Preventing Stroke

Preventing Stroke

Having a stroke can have devastating consequences. A stroke occurs when the flow of blood to the brain is disrupted. Brain tissue that is deprived of blood for more than three minutes will begin to die. Emergency treatment should be started as soon as possible and ideally within three hours after the onset of stroke symptoms. The longer the brain goes without fresh blood and oxygen, the greater the damage. Depending on what part of the brain is affected, a stroke can cause a wide range of physical and mental disabilities. Unfortunately, having diabetes raises the risk of having a stroke. But like many potential diabetes complications, stroke is not inevitable, and the risk of having one can be lowered by identifying and addressing any risk factors you may have besides diabetes. You may already be aware of some of your risks, but if you’re not sure about any of the items listed here, ask your doctor whether you have these risk factors. Uncontrollable risk factors Some of the risk factors for stroke cannot be changed by your actions. Those that cannot include the following: Age. The likelihood of having a stroke increases after age 55. Sex. Stroke is more common in men than women. Women, however, are more likely to die of stroke. Heredity. People who have a family history of stroke are more likely to have a stroke than someone whose family has not had strokes. African-Americans have a higher risk of stroke than other races and a much higher risk of death from stroke, in part because of their higher rates of diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), obesity, and smoking. Prior stroke or heart attack. People who have previously had a stroke or heart attack are at greater risk of having a stroke. Mini-stroke. People who have had a transient ischemic attack (TIA), or a Continue reading >>

Diabetic Emergencies: Warning Signs And What To Do

Diabetic Emergencies: Warning Signs And What To Do

Diabetes symptoms can quickly turn into emergencies. The disease of diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States in 2010, claiming nearly 70,000 lives. Responding promptly to symptoms of a diabetic emergency can be lifesaving. Causes and types Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes inhibit the body's ability to manage blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes does so by destroying the cells that produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes reduces how responsive the body is to insulin, while not enough insulin is produced to counter the sugar in the body. Hence, most diabetic emergencies are related to disruptions in a person's blood sugar levels. Occasionally, even too much of a drug being used to treat diabetes can trigger a diabetic emergency. The most common diabetic emergencies include the following: Severe hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is when blood sugar levels are abnormally low. When blood sugar dips very low, it becomes a medical emergency. Hypoglycemia normally only occurs in people with diabetes who take medication that lowers blood sugar. Blood sugar levels may drop dangerously low when a person is: consuming too much alcohol exercising, especially without adjusting food intake or insulin dosage missing or delaying meals overdosing on diabetic medication Diabetic ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body does not have enough insulin to break down glucose properly, and hormones that normally work opposite insulin are high. Over time, the body releases hormones that break down fat to provide fuel. This produces acids called ketones. As ketones build up in the body, ketoacidosis can occur. Common causes of ketoacidosis include: uncontrolled or untreated diabetes an illness or infection that changes hormone production an illness or infection that chang Continue reading >>

Stroke

Stroke

Damage to brain tissue caused by a disruption in blood flow to the brain. Strokes can be fatal and can result in temporary or permanent disability. Common aftereffects of a stroke include paralysis, weakness, muscular contractions, loss of sensation, and speech difficulties. Stroke is the third largest cause of death in the United States, and it is estimated to affect as many as 700,000 Americans each year. There are two types of strokes: ischemic and hemorrhagic. Ischemic strokes, which account for 70% to 80% of all strokes, occur when fatty material or a blood clot blocks one of the blood vessels in the brain. Without the oxygen and nutrients carried in blood, brain cells can die within minutes. Hemorrhagic strokes occur when arterial blood leaks into the brain. This not only deprives some areas of the brain of blood and oxygen, but the accumulated blood may also exert pressure on surrounding tissue and cause further brain damage. Some risk factors for stroke cannot be controlled. These include age (risk increases with age), gender (men are at greater risk than women), race (African-Americans are at greatest risk), and a family history of stroke. Other risk factors, including the following, can be avoided or managed: High blood pressure is the most important controllable factor. It makes a person four to six times more likely to have a stroke. Controlling blood pressure by losing excess weight, exercising more, reducing sodium intake, drinking less alcohol, and eating more fruits and vegetables or by taking medicines can significantly reduce your risk of stroke. Smoking doubles a person’s risk of having a stroke. You can significantly reduce your risk of stroke and many other health problems by quitting smoking. Atrial fibrillation, a condition in which the upper ch Continue reading >>

Incidence And Risk Factors For Stroke In Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Incidence And Risk Factors For Stroke In Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Abstract Background and Purpose— Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a strong predictor of cerebrovascular disease, yet few studies have assessed the incidence of stroke and the role of other risk factors in unselected type 2 diabetes mellitus populations. Methods— We prospectively followed-up 14 432 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, aged 40 to 97 years, with and without a history of cardiovascular disease at enrollment, and we estimated the incidence of stroke and the hazards ratios with respect to clinical variables. Results— During a 4-year follow-up, 296 incident stroke events were recorded. In persons with no history of cardiovascular disease, the age-standardized incidence of stroke (per 1000 person-years) was 5.5 (95% confidence interval, 4.2 to 6.8) in men and 6.3 (95% confidence interval, 4.5 to 8.2) in women. In persons with a history of cardiovascular disease, it was 13.7 (95% confidence interval, 7.5 to 19.8) in men and 10.8 (95% confidence interval, 7.3 to 14.4) in women. The hazards ratios of stroke incidence varied according to age, sex, and history of cardiovascular disease. Among men with no history, HbA1c and smoking were predictors of stroke. Among patients with a history, the risk factors were, in men, therapy with insulin plus oral agents, treated high total cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol, whereas in women microvascular complications were a risk factor. Previous stroke was a strong predictor of stroke in both sexes. Conclusions— Age and previous stroke are the main predictors of stroke in diabetes. The combined role of Hba1c, microvascular complications, low HDL cholesterol, and treatment with insulin plus oral agents highlights the importance of diabetic history and clinical background in the development of stroke. Comparisons of epidemiologi Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Stroke 101

Diabetes And Stroke 101

If you have diabetes, your risk of having a stroke is greater than that of someone without diabetes, even if you are otherwise healthy. Here's why: Diabetes can damage your blood vessels, so they are more prone to blockage. Your brain needs oxygen to survive. When you have a stroke, one or more of the blood vessels that delivers oxygen to the brain has become blocked. Also, with diabetes, the blood is thicker and more prone to clotting, thus slowing or blocking circulation. In addition, those with diabetes who suffer strokes often have a worse prognosis than those without diabetes. When the oxygen to the brain is blocked, other arteries can sometimes bypass the blockage and get enough oxygen to the brain. If you have diabetes, you may have blocked or narrow arteries that are less able to come to the rescue. How Do I Know When I'm Having a Stroke? You can improve your odds of surviving a stroke by knowing the symptoms. Signs of a stroke include sudden onset of any of the following: numbness (especially on one side, of your face, arm, or leg), paralysis in one part of the body, blurred vision or trouble swallowing, intense headache, difficulty speaking or understanding what is being said, and a brief period of unconsciousness. Call 911 as soon as possible if you or someone you are with experiences any of these symptoms. What Happens After a Stroke? If you suffer a stroke, your doctor may prescribe medication. Alternatively, your doctor may recommend surgery. Surgical options for treating a stroke include surgically removing the blockage from the carotid artery (this supplies blood to the brain) or inserting a stent into the blocked artery to hold it open and allow the blood to flow. You Can Prevent Stroke With the addition of controlling blood sugar, the tips to help prev Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Stroke

Diabetes And Stroke

Diabetes and stroke: : What is diabetes? (Type 1 or Type 2) Our bodies need a hormone called insulin to turn sugar (from our food) into energy. If you have Type 1 diabetes, your body does not produce insulin. If you have Type 2 diabetes, your body does not make enough insulin. This means your body has difficulty absorbing the sugars from food. If diabetes is left untreated or uncontrolled it increases the risk of vascular disease (disease of the blood vessels). This is when your artery walls become hard and narrow. This increases the risk of stroke, particularly ischaemic stroke. People with diabetes are also more likely to have high blood pressure. This can also increase your risk of further strokes. If you have diabetes it is important to maintain healthy blood sugar levels to reduce your risk of having a stroke or second stroke. I have diabetes If you have diabetes it is important to keep your blood sugars within a recommended range. (This is sometimes called ‘controlling’ your blood sugar levels). This requires regular monitoring of blood sugar levels (BSLs) usually through finger-prick test. If you have Type 1 diabetes you should have your blood sugar level checked 4–6 times per day. If you have Type 2 diabetes you should talk to your doctor or diabetes educator about how often to check your blood sugar level. It should be at least two times a day but could be more often. If you have Type 1 diabetes you will need to use insulin to keep their blood sugars in the healthy range. Insulin is usually taken by an injection. If you have Type 2 diabetes you can usually use a healthy diet and regular exercise to keep your blood sugars in the healthy range. Talk to your doctor or diabetes educator about the things you should do. Continue reading >>

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