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Diabetic Retinopathy In India 2016

The Emerging Epidemic Of Diabetic Retinopathy In India

The Emerging Epidemic Of Diabetic Retinopathy In India

The Emerging Epidemic of Diabetic Retinopathy in India This report provides crucial guidance on how best to tackle what is fast becoming a leading cause ofblindness in the Commonwealth and around the world. Diabetes, which has now reached epidemic levels, brings with it the devastating threat of vision loss andirreversible blindness. Of the estimated 385 million people diagnosed with diabetes globally, over 65 million are in India. This landmark research report details the provisions currently available in India toscreen and treat people for diabetic retinopathy, and highlights where improvements are still very much Research was conducted across 11 major cities in India, in over 80 eye hospitals or departments, 73diabetic clinics, and interviews conducted with 650 people with diabetes and diabetic retinopathy. The research gathered from this study has been used to inform The Queen Elizabeth Diamond JubileeTrust's (the Trust) five-year Initiative to tackle blindness caused by diabetes in India. The report's alarming finding that almost half of all people with diabetes had already lost vision by the time retinopathy wasdiagnosed shows that intervention is needed, and quickly. Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In Urban India: The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (cures) Eye Study, I | Iovs | Arvo Journals

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In Urban India: The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (cures) Eye Study, I | Iovs | Arvo Journals

Clinical and Epidemiologic Research| July 2005 Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban India: The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) Eye Study, I From the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India. From the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India. From the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India. From the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India. From the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India. From the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science July 2005, Vol.46, 2328-2333. doi:10.1167/iovs.05-0019 Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban India: The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) Eye Study, I You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the literature. You can manage this and all other alerts in My Account Mohan Rema, Sundaram Premkumar, Balaji Anitha, Raj Deepa, Rajendra Pradeepa, Viswanathan Mohan; Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban India: The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) Eye Study, I. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(7):2328-2333. doi: 10.1167/iovs.05-0019. ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present) purpose. To assess the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in type 2 diabetic subjects in urban India using four-field stereo color photography. methods. The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) is a population-based study conducted on a representative population of Chennai (formerly Madras) city in South India. Individuals 20 years in age (n = 26,001) were screened for diabetes. Of the 1529 known diabetic subjects, 1382 (90.4%) participated in the study. Subjects with newly detected diabetes (n = 354) by the oral glucose tolerance test (OG Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In Urban India: The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (cures) Eye Study, I | Iovs | Arvo Journals

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In Urban India: The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (cures) Eye Study, I | Iovs | Arvo Journals

Clinical and Epidemiologic Research| July 2005 Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban India: The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) Eye Study, I From the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India. From the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India. From the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India. From the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India. From the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India. From the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science July 2005, Vol.46, 2328-2333. doi:10.1167/iovs.05-0019 Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban India: The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) Eye Study, I You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the literature. You can manage this and all other alerts in My Account Mohan Rema, Sundaram Premkumar, Balaji Anitha, Raj Deepa, Rajendra Pradeepa, Viswanathan Mohan; Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban India: The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) Eye Study, I. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(7):2328-2333. doi: 10.1167/iovs.05-0019. ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present) purpose. To assess the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in type 2 diabetic subjects in urban India using four-field stereo color photography. methods. The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) is a population-based study conducted on a representative population of Chennai (formerly Madras) city in South India. Individuals 20 years in age (n = 26,001) were screened for diabetes. Of the 1529 known diabetic subjects, 1382 (90.4%) participated in the study. Subjects with newly detected diabetes (n = 354) by the oral glucose tolerance test (OG Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetes Mellitus And Diabetic Retinopathy In Rural Bihar, India | Tanwir Ahmed Khan | Akhand Jyoti Eye Hospitals, India | Glaucoma 2016 | Conferenceseries Ltd

Prevalence Of Diabetes Mellitus And Diabetic Retinopathy In Rural Bihar, India | Tanwir Ahmed Khan | Akhand Jyoti Eye Hospitals, India | Glaucoma 2016 | Conferenceseries Ltd

Title: Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in rural Bihar, India Tanwir Ahmed Khan has completed his MBBS and DO in Ophthalmology in the year 2004 and 2007, respectively from JNMCH and Institute of Ophthalmology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. He is the Chief Medical Officer of Akhand Jyoti Eye Hospital, Bihar, India. He has a surgical experience of over 40,000 surgeries. He has organized various CME and scientific seminars in the hospital. Background: There is no recent evidence on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy from rural Bihar. Aim: To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and DR in rural population of Bihar aged >50 years. Materials & Methods: We conducted a population-based study using validated rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB-6) in 57 clusters in Siwan district, Bihar, India from January to March 2016. The Scottish grading system was used to grade the diabetic retinopathy. Results: Among examined 3189 individuals (92% response rate) 134 persons reported with known diabetic history and 67 were newly diagnosed with RBS >200 mg/dl. Overall prevalence of known and newly diagnosed diabetes was 6.3% (95% CI, 5.4%-7.2%) persons. Prevalence of any retinopathy, maculopathy and sight threatening DR was 15%, 12.4% and 6%, respectively. Conclusion: Study shows the lack of awareness and underutilization of eye care services by the diabetic community at present, suggesting a focused community programs to reduce visual impairment caused due to diabetic retinopathy. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy: Global Prevalence, Major Risk Factors, Screening Practices And Public Health Challenges: A Review

Diabetic Retinopathy: Global Prevalence, Major Risk Factors, Screening Practices And Public Health Challenges: A Review

Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore Health Service (SingHealth), Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore Health Service (SingHealth), Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore DukeNUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore Health Service (SingHealth), Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore DukeNUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore Correspondence: Prof Tien Yin Wong, Singapore National Eye Center, 11 Third Hospital Avenue, Singapore 168751, Singapore. Email: [email protected] Search for more papers by this author Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore Health Service (SingHealth), Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore Health Service (SingHealth), Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore DukeNUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore Health Service (SingHealth), Singapore, Singapore Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore DukeNUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore Correspondence: Prof Tien Yin Wong, Singapore National Eye Center, 11 Third Hospital Avenue, Singapore 168751, Singapore. Email: [email protected] Search for more papers by this author Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In India: The All India Ophthalmological Society Diabetic Retinopathy Eye Screening Study 2014

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In India: The All India Ophthalmological Society Diabetic Retinopathy Eye Screening Study 2014

Aim: The aim of this study is to ascertain the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients across the nation and attempt to establish history-based risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of diabetic patients was conducted as an initiative of the All India Ophthalmological Society from 14th November to 21st November 2014. Known diabetics were evaluated voluntarily by members of the society at 194 centers using a structured protocol provided by the society for examination. The results were evaluated to ascertain the prevalence of DR in the population studied and to establish relation with gender, age, and history-based risk factors such as duration of diabetes, insulin use, and other end-organ disease using the Chi-square test. Results: A total of 6218 known diabetics were screened. Totally, 5130 data entry forms were considered suitable for further evaluation. About 61.2% were males, 88.6% were between 40 and 80 years of age, almost two-thirds of the patients were from the west and south zones, and over half had diabetes more than 5 years. The data set was predominantly urban 84.7% and 46.1% had no family history. DR prevalence in the entire data set was 21.7%. Prevalence was more in males (P = 0.007), diabetics more than 5 years (P = 0.001), those above 40 years (P = 0.01), insulin users (P = 0.001), and history of vascular accidents (P = 0.0014). Significantly 22.18% of patients detected with DR had a vision of 6/18 or better in the worse eye. Conclusion: The study reiterated the findings of earlier regional studies on a pan Indian scale and put data in perspective. Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In India: The All India Ophthalmological Society Diabetic Retinopathy Eye Screening Study 2014

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In India: The All India Ophthalmological Society Diabetic Retinopathy Eye Screening Study 2014

Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in India: The All India Ophthalmological Society Diabetic Retinopathy Eye Screening Study 2014 Head Office, All India Ophthalmological Society, Near Deepak Memorial Hospital, Karkardooma, New Delhi, India Correspondence to: Dr. Salil S Gadkari, All India Ophthalmological Society, 8A, Karkardooma Institutional Area, Near Deepak Memorial Hospital, Karkardooma, New Delhi - 110 092, India. E-mail: [email protected] Received 2015 Sep 10; Accepted 2015 Nov 3. Copyright : 2016 Indian Journal of Ophthalmology This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The aim of this study is to ascertain the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients across the nation and attempt to establish history-based risk factors. A cross-sectional study of diabetic patients was conducted as an initiative of the All India Ophthalmological Society from 14th November to 21st November 2014. Known diabetics were evaluated voluntarily by members of the society at 194 centers using a structured protocol provided by the society for examination. The results were evaluated to ascertain the prevalence of DR in the population studied and to establish relation with gender, age, and history-based risk factors such as duration of diabetes, insulin use, and other end-organ disease using the Chi-square test. A total of 6218 known diabetics were screened. Totally, 5130 data entry forms were considered suitable for further evaluation. About 61.2% were ma Continue reading >>

Genetics In Diabetic Retinopathy - A Brief Review Pillai Gs, Varky R - Kerala J Ophthalmol

Genetics In Diabetic Retinopathy - A Brief Review Pillai Gs, Varky R - Kerala J Ophthalmol

Genetic factors are assumed to contribute to determining an individual's risk for the development of DR and for progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). This article aims to review the developments concerned with the genetics of DR. Keywords:Diabetic retinopathy; genetics; genome; linkage. Pillai GS, Varky R. Genetics in diabetic retinopathy - A brief review. Kerala J Ophthalmol 2016;28:14-9 Pillai GS, Varky R. Genetics in diabetic retinopathy - A brief review. Kerala J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2016 [cited2018 Apr 9];28:14-9. Available from: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a retinal vascular complication of diabetes mellitus, which has affected the world in pandemic proportions. Untreated patients develop vision loss due to macular edema. As the duration of diabetes increases with each passing year, we see an escalation in the number of patients with DR. Increasing number of diabetics have made India the world capital of diabetes and DR. Though environment and dietary habits play a role in the development of diabetes, genetic factors may also predispose these people to the risk of diabetes. Among these diabetics as well, there is definitely a need to find out the population at risk for DR using genetic markers. The identification of genetic variations underlying DR will help in the early recognition of presymptomatic diabetic individuals who are prone to develop retinopathy, and also to monitor progression in patients who are at risk of rapid progression. This can aid clinical management in terms of frequent examinations of high-risk patients with longer follow-ups of low-risk patients. An efficient allotment of health care resources can be executed. A specific management of disease based upon the patients' genetic and environmental profile maybe decided Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy: Battling The Global Epidemic

Diabetic Retinopathy: Battling The Global Epidemic

Diabetic retinopathy: Battling the global epidemic Author information Copyright and License information Copyright : 2016 Indian Journal of Ophthalmology This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. In 1969, William Beetham published his work in the journal, Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society about the efficacy of ruby laser in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).[ 1 ] Encouraged by these findings, the Diabetic Retinopathy Study, a National Institute of Health-sponsored landmark clinical trial confirmed the benefits of the panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) laser in PDR patients. Since then, the argon PRP laser became the main-stay treatment in these patients. In the same paper, the authors attributed the successful results to the reduction in the functioning retina., or the vasoformative factor, or both. Later this vasoformative factor proved to be vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and was targeted in many clinical trials in different retinal diseases. Almost four decades later, another landmark clinical trial, Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network just published that monthly anti-VEGF injections are no inferior to the gold standard PRP laser treatment and have the advantages of no visual field loss seen with the PRP laser.[ 2 ] Thus, we have now two effective evidence-based treatments available for regression of retinal neovascularization in PDR patients. Many other large randomized trials in diabetic re Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In India: The All India Ophthalmological Society Diabetic Retinopathy Eye Screening Study 2014.

Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy In India: The All India Ophthalmological Society Diabetic Retinopathy Eye Screening Study 2014.

Indian J Ophthalmol. 2016 Jan;64(1):38-44. doi: 10.4103/0301-4738.178144. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in India: The All India Ophthalmological Society Diabetic Retinopathy Eye Screening Study 2014. Head Office, All Ophthalmological Society, Near Deepak Memorial Hospital, Karkardooma, New Delhi, India. The aim of this study is to ascertain the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients across the nation and attempt to establish history-based risk factors. A cross-sectional study of diabetic patients was conducted as an initiative of the All India Ophthalmological Society from 14th November to 21st November 2014. Known diabetics were evaluated voluntarily by members of the society at 194 centers using a structured protocol provided by the society for examination. The results were evaluated to ascertain the prevalence of DR in the population studied and to establish relation with gender, age, and history-based risk factors such as duration of diabetes, insulin use, and other end-organ disease using the Chi-square test. A total of 6218 known diabetics were screened. Totally, 5130 data entry forms were considered suitable for further evaluation. About 61.2% were males, 88.6% were between 40 and 80 years of age, almost two-thirds of the patients were from the west and south zones, and over half had diabetes more than 5 years. The data set was predominantly urban 84.7% and 46.1% had no family history. DR prevalence in the entire data set was 21.7%. Prevalence was more in males (P = 0.007), diabetics more than 5 years (P = 0.001), those above 40 years (P = 0.01), insulin users (P = 0.001), and history of vascular accidents (P = 0.0014). Significantly 22.18% of patients detected with DR had a vision of 6/18 or better in the worse eye. The study reiterat Continue reading >>

Trust Awards Major Grant To Reduce Blindness From Diabetes In India

Trust Awards Major Grant To Reduce Blindness From Diabetes In India

To mark World Diabetes Day, The Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust is pleased to announce it is joining forces with the Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI), a government-funded public-private partnership, in a focused effort to reduce the growing threat of blindness from diabetic retinopathy. The global diabetes epidemic is hitting India and other emerging economies the hardest. Over 61 million of the estimated 385 million people diagnosed with diabetes worldwide are in India. Blindness through diabetic retinopathy – which occurs when high blood sugar levels, high blood pressure and high lipid levels damage the blood vessels leading to the retina – is a life-long risk for all of them. About 6.5 million Indians are already being treated for the condition. As diabetes prevalence continues to increase, these numbers will too,not only in India, but in many other parts of the world. In twenty years time, diabetic retinopathy threatens to become the leading cause of avoidable blindness in low and middle-income countries. Once a patient goes blind from diabetic retinopathy, it is rarely reversible. The Trust has therefore awarded a £3.3 million grant to PHFI to establish sustainable and scalable services for the prevention, detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy, which will be integrated into the Government of India’s health systems at every level. This new approach will serve as a model for other governments and partners in the Commonwealth and beyond to follow. Over five years, the Initiative will establish: National guidelines for the detection and management of diabetic retinopathy across the country. Enhanced capacity of physicians and health support staff for improved control of diabetes and reduction of vision loss due to diabetic retinopathy. Th Continue reading >>

Enriching Lives Across The | The Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust

Enriching Lives Across The | The Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust

Pan India course launched to tackle diabetic retinopathy As diabetes is on the rise globally, more people are exposed to the risk of blindness. There are over 65 million people living with diabetes in India and in response the Trust partner, the Public Health Foundation of India, has launched the first of its kind "Certificate Course in Evidence Based Management of Diabetic Retinopathy". This unique 4-monthcourse aims to build capacity amongst primary care physicians to address management, counselling, referral and prevention of Diabetic Retinopathy. It is designed, delivered and implemented by the Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI) and supported by a grant from The Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust in partnership with The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust. The course is distributed across 9 states and 10 cities throughout India. Thus far, 185 participants have enrolled; of which, 66% are physicians working in the area of diabetes, and 34% are ophthalmologists Director of the Indian Institute of Public Health at the Public Health Foundation of India, Professor GVS Murthy said, Diabetic retinopathy is one of the important causes of preventable blindness especially in the productive years among Indians. The increasing incidence of diabetic blindness is a major public health concern hence there is an urgent need to address this ever increasing health hazard. To manage, treat and to prevent the complications of diabetic retinopathy we need a trained set of doctors who are equipped with the latest technology, and follow the cutting-edge international and national guidelines. At PHFI, IIPH, and our partner organisations Dr. Mohans Diabetes Education Academy, Aravind Eye Care System, The Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust and The Leona M. and Harry Continue reading >>

The Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy On Screening Patients With Diabetes Mellitus, Admitted To A Tertiary Care Centre In Rural South India

The Prevalence Of Diabetic Retinopathy On Screening Patients With Diabetes Mellitus, Admitted To A Tertiary Care Centre In Rural South India

The Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy on Screening Patients with Diabetes Mellitus, admitted to a Tertiary Care Centre in Rural South India Title:The Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy on Screening Patients with Diabetes Mellitus, admitted to a Tertiary Care Centre in Rural South India Authors: Harishankar S, Soman Mani, Anna Mathew, John Michael Raj Background: Diabetic retinopathy is recognized as one of the ocular diseases with public health implications in India. The number of diabetic patients are rising rapidly; most of whom are not even aware of its complications. The risk of sight-threatening retinopathies is higher in diabetics. Screening of patients with diabetic retinopathy (damage to microvascular system of the retina due to prolonged hyperglycemia) is important in early detection and prevention of blindness. The relationship between duration of diabetes and severity of retinopathy can be assessed to figure out a remedy. 1. To evolve a screening programme for early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) admitted to this tertiary care hospital. 2. To find out how factors such as glycemic control and duration of illness affect severity of diabetic retinopathy in these patients. Methodology: The study covered 70 diabetic patients from a rural tertiary care hospital. Demographic data, diabetic history and investigations were recorded in the case study form. The student investigator, who has earlier been trained in the skills lab and has practiced observing the fundus under supervision of ophthalmologists will perform a fundoscopic examination on the patient. They will then classify the patients into five groups. The data were collected and analyzed using chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of DR (35.7%) was found to Continue reading >>

Estimating The Proportion Of Persons With Diabetes Developing Diabetic Retinopathy In India: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Estimating The Proportion Of Persons With Diabetes Developing Diabetic Retinopathy In India: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Background: Available evidence from India shows that the control of diabetes is poor in majority of the population. This escalates the risk of complications. There is no systematic review to estimate the magnitude of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in India. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature search was carried out in Ovid Medline and EMBASE databases using Mesh and key search terms. Studies which reported the proportion of people with diabetes with DR in a representative community population were included. Two independent reviewers reviewed all the retrieved publications. Data were extracted using a predefined form. Review Manager software was used to perform meta-analysis to provide a pooled estimate. Studies included were assessed for methodological quality using selected items from the STROBE checklist. Results: Seven studies (1999–2014; n = 8315 persons with diabetes) were included in the review. In the meta-analysis, 14.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.7–19.0%) of known diabetics aged ≥30 years and 18.1% (95% CI 14.8–21.4) among those aged ≥50 years had DR. Heterogeneity around this estimate ranged from I2= 79–87%. No linear trend was observed between age and the proportion with DR. The overall methodological quality of included studies was moderate. Conclusions: Early detection of DR is currently not prioritized in public health policies for noncommunicable diseases and blindness programs. Methodological issues in studies suggest that the proportion of diabetics with DR is underestimated in the Indian population. Future research should emphasize more robust methodology for assessing diabetes and DR status. Table 2: Methods used to aascertain diabetes and diabetic retinopathy Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy And The Associated Risk Factors In Diabetes Type 2 Patients In Abha, Saudi Arabia Ahmed Ra, Khalil Sn, Al-qahtani Ma - J Fam Community Med

Diabetic Retinopathy And The Associated Risk Factors In Diabetes Type 2 Patients In Abha, Saudi Arabia Ahmed Ra, Khalil Sn, Al-qahtani Ma - J Fam Community Med

Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been known as a potentially disabling chronic disease with multiple complications. [1] In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), diabetes has emerged as a major public health problem that has reached an epidemic stage. [2] The crude prevalence of diabetes has been documented as 23.7%, accounting for 37.8% of Saudis aged between 30 and 70 years. [3] With the advances in the healthcare facilities in the Kingdom, the life expectancy of diabetic patients has increased. Therefore, the complications associated with longer duration of the disease have become one of the challenges faced by health care institutions. Of these complications, a retinal vascular disorder, retinopathy is considered the leading cause of blindness in the working age population [4] and accounts for considerable adult work disability. [5] Its presence may also indicate and predict other diabetic complications. [6] It is documented that more than 77% of patients who survive for over 20 years with DM are affected by retinopathy. [7] Untreated diabetic retinopathy (DR) not only leads to blindness, which is a personal catastrophe for the individual but also increases the economic burden of health care servicesin the community. [8] DR is characterized by signs of retinal ischemia (retinal microvascular abnormalities, microaneurysms, hemorrhages, intra-venous caliber abnormalities, cotton-wool spots, and neovascularization) and/or signs of increased retinal vascular permeability. Vision loss can result from several mechanisms, including neovascularization leading to vitreous hemorrhage and/or retinal detachment, macular edema, and retinal capillary nonperfusion. [4] Depending on these signs, retinopathy is classified into nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferative re Continue reading >>

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