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Diabetic Retinopathy Fact Sheet

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy

About Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy and Macular Edema Diabetic Retinopathy FAQ Eye Doctor Q&A Diabetic retinopathy vision-threatening damage to the retina of the eye caused by diabetes is the leading cause of blindness among working-age Americans. The good news: Diabetic retinopathy often can be prevented with early detection, proper management of your diabetes and routine eye exams performed by your optometrist or ophthalmologist . According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the United States has the highest rate of diabetes among 38 developed nations, with approximately 30 million Americans roughly 11 percent of the U.S. population between the ages of 20 and 79 having the disease. About 90 percent of Americans with diabetes have type 2 diabetes, which develops when the the body fails to produce enough insulin a hormone secreted by the pancreas that enables dietary sugar to enter the cells of the body or the body becomes resistant to insulin. This causes glucose (sugar) levels in the bloodstream to rise and can eventually damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA). In the late stages of diabetic retinopathy, you may have blind spots and/or floaters. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include obesity, an unhealthful diet and physical inactivity. Unfortunately, the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes has increased significantly in the United States over the past 30 years. According to data released by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in December 2015, there were 1.4 million new cases of diabetes reported in the U.S. in 2014. Though this annual number is down from the historic high of 1.7 million new cases in 2009, it is still three times higher than w Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy affects the small blood vessels in the retina at the back of the eye and can cause vision problems and blindness if left untreated. Everyone who has diabetes is at risk of losing their sight through diabetic retinopathy. In the early stages, diabetic retinopathy will not affect your childs sight. However, the condition can progress and eventually cause blurred or distorted vision and permanent sight loss. Diabetic retinopathy is diagnosed by an examination of the back of the inside of the eye (the retina). This may involve taking digital images of the back of the eye. You will be referred to an ophthalmologist (eye specialist) if retinopathy is detected. Its important your child is screened at least once every two years after age 12 to ensure the condition is diagnosed and treated before your childs vision is seriously affected. If diabetes has been diagnosed before puberty, screening should start at age 12. However, an earlier examination may be required in some situations, e.g. poorly controlled diabetes. Why is it important to screen for diabetic retinopathy? Untreated diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common causes of sight impairment. Unfortunately there will be no symptoms until the condition is well advanced. Early detection (through regular diabetic retinopathy screening) allows for less invasive treatments and can help prevent or reduce sight loss. Your optometrist will look for signs of the condition during your childs eye exam. He/she will: check your childs details and explain the procedure check your childs distance vision (visual acuity) dilate your childs eyes using special eye drops to enlarge their pupils. This will enable the optometrist to take photographs of the back of the eye. The drops take approximately 15 to 20 minute Continue reading >>

Genentech: Retinal Diseases Fact Sheet

Genentech: Retinal Diseases Fact Sheet

Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration (Wet AMD) Approximately 90 percent of all AMD-related severe vision loss results from wet AMD1 11 million Americans have some form of AMD, while 1.1 million, or 10 percent, of those Americans have wet AMD1, 2 About 200,000 new cases of wet AMD are diagnosed each year in the United States3 Risk for wet AMD increases for people over age 604 Women tend to be at greater risk than men, and Caucasians are more likely to develop AMD than other races5 Similarly, smoking, obesity and family history could also increase a persons risk of developing wet AMD5 Difficulty seeing at a distance or doing detailed work1 Blind spots develop in the middle of the field of vision6 Diabetic retinopathy impacts nearly 7.7 million Americans. The number is expected to increase to 11.3 million by 20307 Between 40 and 45 percent of Americans diagnosed with diabetes have some stage of diabetic retinopathy8 Diabetic retinopathy can lead to conditions that threaten vision loss, including diabetic macular edema (DME) and advanced disease, both of which may lead to vision loss8 All people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are at risk8 The longer a person has diabetes, especially if it is poorly controlled, the higher the risk for developing diabetic retinopathy8 People with a history of high blood pressure and atherosclerosis are at an increased risk for developing diabetic retinopathy9 In its early stages, diabetic retinopathy is often without noticeable symptoms8 As the disease progresses, symptoms may include blurred vision and loss of contrast10 Symptoms may also include patches of vision loss, which may appear as small black dots or lines "floating" across the front of the eye10 DME is a type of DR that is a leading cause of vision loss for people with diabetes11 Continue reading >>

Resources And Support For Adults With Diabetes And Diabetic Retinopathy

Resources And Support For Adults With Diabetes And Diabetic Retinopathy

By Debra A. Sokol-McKay, MS, CVRT, CDE, CLVT, OTR/L, SCLV The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: The nation's largest organization of food and nutrition professionals. Provides Nutrition Fact Sheets, a Diabetes Reading List, and Nutrition Information. AccessWorld®: Technology News for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired: American Foundation for the Blind's free monthly online technology magazine that reviews the accessibility of blood glucose monitors, insulin pens, insulin pumps, and a wide variety of mainstream and assistive technologies. The American Association of Diabetes Educators: Provides a directory of diabetes education programs and patient tip sheets. The American Diabetes Association: Provides information and updates on diabetes research and conducts programs in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Publishes Diabetes eNewsletters and provides information on living with diabetes, food and fitness, and advocacy. Children with Diabetes (CWD) Online Community: Developed by the father of a child with diabetes. Provides chat rooms, forums, information on upcoming CWD conferences, as well as the latest developments and information about diabetes for children and adults. Diabetic Lifestyle: Provides recipes and practical information for managing diabetes. Has a diabetic supply center, diabetic bookstore, and provides guidelines for diabetic meal planning. DiabetesNet: Provides information on a variety of diabetes-related topics, including Carb Counting, Cookbooks, Diabetes Types and Nutrition. The Joslin Diabetes Center: An affiliate of Harvard Medical School that provides online diabetes articles and information, including Diabetes Glossary, and The Joslin Guide to Diabetes: Revised Edition. Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International: Provid Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy

Retinopathy is a disease of the retina . The retina is the nerve layer that lines the back of your eye. It is the part of your eye that "takes pictures" and sends the images to your brain. Many people with diabetes get retinopathy. This kind of retinopathy is called diabetic retinopathy (retinal disease caused by diabetes). Diabetic retinopathy can lead to poor vision and even blindness. Most of the time, it gets worse over many years. At first, the blood vessels in the eye get weak. This can lead to blood and other liquid leaking into the retina from the blood vessels. This is called non-proliferative retinopathy. And this is the most common retinopathy. If the fluid leaks into the centre of your eye, you may have blurry vision. Most people with non-proliferative retinopathy have no symptoms. If blood sugar levels stay high, diabetic retinopathy will keep getting worse. New blood vessels grow on the retina. This may sound good, but these new blood vessels are weak. They can break open very easily, even while you are sleeping. If they break open, blood can leak into the middle part of your eye in front of the retina and change your vision. This bleeding can also cause scar tissue to form, which can pull on the retina and cause the retina to move away from the wall of the eye ( retinal detachment ). This is called proliferative retinopathy. Sometimes people don't have symptoms until it is too late to treat them. This is why having eye examinations regularly is so important. Retinopathy can also cause swelling of the macula of the eye. This is called macular edema . The macula is the middle of the retina, which lets you see details. When it swells, it can make your vision much worse. It can even cause legal blindness . If you are not able to keep your blood sugar levels Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy

Print Overview Diabetic retinopathy (die-uh-BET-ik ret-ih-NOP-uh-thee) is a diabetes complication that affects eyes. It's caused by damage to the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina). At first, diabetic retinopathy may cause no symptoms or only mild vision problems. Eventually, it can cause blindness. The condition can develop in anyone who has type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The longer you have diabetes and the less controlled your blood sugar is, the more likely you are to develop this eye complication. Symptoms You might not have symptoms in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. As the condition progresses, diabetic retinopathy symptoms may include: Spots or dark strings floating in your vision (floaters) Blurred vision Fluctuating vision Impaired color vision Dark or empty areas in your vision Vision loss Diabetic retinopathy usually affects both eyes. When to see a doctor Careful management of your diabetes is the best way to prevent vision loss. If you have diabetes, see your eye doctor for a yearly eye exam with dilation — even if your vision seems fine. Pregnancy may worsen diabetic retinopathy, so if you're pregnant, your eye doctor may recommend additional eye exams throughout your pregnancy. Contact your eye doctor right away if your vision changes suddenly or becomes blurry, spotty or hazy. Causes Over time, too much sugar in your blood can lead to the blockage of the tiny blood vessels that nourish the retina, cutting off its blood supply. As a result, the eye attempts to grow new blood vessels. But these new blood vessels don't develop properly and can leak easily. There are two types of diabetic retinopathy: Early diabetic retinopathy. In this more common form — called nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy

Information and resources provided courtesy of The Fred Hollows Foundation (FHF) and IAPB Vision Atlas 2016 Diabetes mellitus is becoming a global epidemic and is now one of the top causes of vision loss globally. In 2014, there were approximately 422 million people (8.5% of the world’s adult population) living with diabetes; compared to 108 million in 1980 (2016 WHO Global Report on Diabetes). Increased urbanisation, consumption of less – nutritious food, more sedentary lifestyles and resulting obesity have all contributed to the dramatic rise in the global prevalence of diabetis, particulrly in resource – poor countries. Low and middle income countries account for approximately 75% of the global diabetes burden yet many are ill equipped to properly identify, treat and manage the complex and varied consequences of this disease. Currently, South East Asia and the Western Pacific account for more than half of adults with diabetes worldwide. China, India, Indonesia and Bangladesh alone represent 45% of the global burden. Yet the highest prevalence of diabetes is found in the Eastern Mediterranean, where close to 14% of the population is afflicted. Efforts to reduce the prevalence of diabetes or to more effectively manage its health consequences are further undermined by the fact that approximately 50% of people with diabetes are currently undiagnosed. This is even more pronounced in Africa, where two thirds of people with diabetes remain undiagnosed and the greatest increase in disease burden (103%) is anticipated by 2040. Diabetes increases the risk of a range of eye diseases, but the main cause of blindness associated with diabetes is diabetic retinopathy (DR). DR damages blood vessels inside the retina at the back of the eye. It commonly affects both eyes and can Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes resulting from damaged blood vessels of the retina that threatens the visual prognosis which affects approximately 40% of people with diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes is higher among First Nations; likewise, vision loss due to diabetic retinopathy is higher among Canada's Aboriginal population. The majority of those inflicted are asymptomatic in the early stages of the evolution of the disease. Rarely, the following symptoms may appear: A sudden loss of vision in one eye or both eyes; Floating or blind spots in the field of view. Well controlled diabetes can slow the progression of DR. There are different treatments that are very effective. The treatment of the DR depends on the stage of the disease and seeks to prevent or slow its progression. Preventing complications that threaten the visual prognosis is far preferable to the treatment of an established condition and that is why screening for DR is among the best practices in terms of the overall and optimal management of any person with diabetes. Through teleophthalmology, remote diabetic retinopathy screening clinics aim to increase access among First Nations to screening for this disease in addition to ophthalmological specialist care. This service is part of the prevention of diabetes in the non-Agreement communities in Quebec. In the context of the telehealth projects, the scanning of the fundus of the eye is performed remotely using information technologies to establish a connection between the patient and the specialist. First, the patient is evaluated and photographs of the patient's retina are taken using a non-mydriatic retinal camera by a specially trained technician from the community. The images are sent over the Internet, through a secure netwo Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy - Europe

Diabetic Retinopathy - Europe

Worldwide, diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness among working-aged adults. Global burden of diabetic retinopathy: 93 million people Proliferative diabetic retinopathy: 17 million Vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy: 28 million Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy is worldwide with only slight ethnic differences. 3%4.1% of Europeans are affected by diabetic retinopathy. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in those over age 60 is highest in France followed by Germany. See Table 1 and Table 2 for incidence and prevalence data. Table 1. Incidence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type II Diabetes Table 2. Prevalence of Different Diabetic Retinopathy Types Chart 1. Pathophysiology. See Image Library for figures. Examination findings consistent with pathophysiology (Chart 1) Table 3. International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity Scale Findings Observable Upon Dilated Ophthalmoscopy More than just microaneurysms but less severe NPDR Any of the following and no signs of proliferative retinopathy: More than 20 intraretinal hemorrhages in each of four quadrants Definite venous beading in 2 or more quadrants ( Figure 14 ) Prominent IRMA in 1 or more quadrants ( Figure 15 ) Vitreous/preretinal hemorrhage ( Figure 12 ) IRMA = intraretinal microvascular abnormalities; NPDR = nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy; PDR = proliferative diabetic retinopathy Source: American Academy of Ophthalmology Retina Panel. Preferred Practice Pattern Guidelines. Diabetic Retinopathy. San Francisco, CA: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2008 (4th printing 2012). Available at: www.aao.org/ppp . Chart 2. Treatment of diabetic macular edema. See Image Library for figures. Table 4. Management Recommendations for Patients With Diabetes CSME = clinically significa Continue reading >>

Community Pharmacy Centered Rural Mobile Diabeticretinopathy Screening Service

Community Pharmacy Centered Rural Mobile Diabeticretinopathy Screening Service

Research Article Special Issue: Diabetic Retinopathy Community Pharmacy Centered Rural Mobile DiabeticRetinopathy Screening Service Francisco J. Jimenez-Ramirez1*, Jose Josue Hernandez1, Raul Perez2, Wilmarie Lorenzo-Gonzalez1, YiselisPerez-Caban1, Karen N. Soto-Toledo1, Tania J. Saavedra-Diaz1 and Suzette M. Velez-Rivera1 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Puerto Rico School of Pharmacy, San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA *Corresponding author: Francisco J. Jimnez-Ramrez, Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Puerto Rico School of Pharmacy, San Juan,Puerto Rico, USA, Tel: (787) 758-2525 x 5115; E-mail: Received: March 06, 2015; Accepted: April 29, 2015; Published: May 11, 2015 Citation: Jimenez-Ramirez FJ, Hernandez JJ, Perez R, Lorenzo-Gonzalez W, Perez-Caban Y, et al. (2015) Community Pharmacy Centered Rural Mobile Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Service. J Endocrinol Diab 2(2): 8. DOI: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is considered as one of the leadingglobal causes of blindness. Long-term poor glucose control leads tovascular incompetency, tissue swelling, new vessels formation, andif untreated, to irreversible severe visual loss. The purpose of thisstudy was to demonstrate that interventions at the pharmacy levelin remote, underserved, and isolated communities contribute to theearly diagnosis and treatment of DR and its related complications.Educational programs and telemedicine retinal screening may expandthe pharmacist role to provide health education to encourage self-careand complications screening. A descriptive study was performed at six community pharmaciesin Puerto Rico. An educational session preceded an interview and adigital image of the retina Continue reading >>

Facts About Diabetic Eye Disease

Facts About Diabetic Eye Disease

Points to Remember Diabetic eye disease comprises a group of eye conditions that affect people with diabetes. These conditions include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema (DME), cataract, and glaucoma. All forms of diabetic eye disease have the potential to cause severe vision loss and blindness. Diabetic retinopathy involves changes to retinal blood vessels that can cause them to bleed or leak fluid, distorting vision. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of vision loss among people with diabetes and a leading cause of blindness among working-age adults. DME is a consequence of diabetic retinopathy that causes swelling in the area of the retina called the macula. Controlling diabetes—by taking medications as prescribed, staying physically active, and maintaining a healthy diet—can prevent or delay vision loss. Because diabetic retinopathy often goes unnoticed until vision loss occurs, people with diabetes should get a comprehensive dilated eye exam at least once a year. Early detection, timely treatment, and appropriate follow-up care of diabetic eye disease can protect against vision loss. Diabetic retinopathy can be treated with several therapies, used alone or in combination. NEI supports research to develop new therapies for diabetic retinopathy, and to compare the effectiveness of existing therapies for different patient groups. What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease can affect many parts of the eye, including the retina, macula, lens and the optic nerve. Diabetic eye disease is a group of eye conditions that can affect people with diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy affects blood vessels in the light-sensitive tissue called the retina that lines the back of the eye. It is the most common cause of vision loss among people with diabetes Continue reading >>

Who | Nepal Tackles Diabetic Retinopathy

Who | Nepal Tackles Diabetic Retinopathy

Chronic diseases are on the rise. There are now an estimated 422 million adults with diabetes globally. Among its serious complications, people living with diabetes can suffer vision loss. Often by the time a person notices a problem with his or her vision, the damage is irreversible. Diabetic retinopathy, which contributes to 2.6% of blindness in the world, can be a challenging disease for many countries to manage, because doing so involves two different parts of the health system, that which cares for patients with diabetes and that which cares for patients with vision loss. A lack of coordination can lead to people missing out on essential services, enduring long waits or traveling far from home to receive care. To help countries better ensure timely diagnosis and access to treatment for diabetic retinopathy, WHO developed the Tool for Assessment of Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy or TADDS in 2015. Among the first countries to make use of this new tool was Nepal, where the Ministry of Health had been concerned by the increase in diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, and wanted to use TADDS to make sure it was taking the appropriate actions in response. Mr Sailesh Kumar Mishra, National Programme Coordinator of the Apex Body for Eye Health in the Ministry of Health said At the time Nepal had taken a step forward by listing noncommunicable diseases as a priority health concern, but it was lacking the specific health policies, plans and programmes to address diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in particular. TADDS has helped move us in the right direction. The assessment was made possible through the direct assistance provided by the WHO Country Office in Nepal to the Ministry of Health; the Office supported the field work, monitored the progresses and provided effective Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is a condition that occurs in people who have diabetes. It causes progressive damage to the retina, the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye. Diabetic retinopathy is a serious sight-threatening complication of diabetes. Diabetes interferes with the body's ability to use and store sugar (glucose). The disease is characterized by too much sugar in the blood, which can cause damage throughout the body, including the eyes. Over time, diabetes damages the blood vessels in the retina. Diabetic retinopathy occurs when these tiny blood vessels leak blood and other fluids. This causes the retinal tissue to swell, resulting in cloudy or blurred vision. The condition usually affects both eyes. The longer a person has diabetes, the more likely they will develop diabetic retinopathy. If left untreated, diabetic retinopathy can cause blindness. Symptoms of diabetic retinopathy include: Seeing spots or floaters Blurred vision Having a dark or empty spot in the center of your vision Difficulty seeing well at night When people with diabetes experience long periods of high blood sugar, fluid can accumulate in the lens inside the eye that controls focusing. This changes the curvature of the lens, leading to blurred vision. However, once blood sugar levels are controlled, blurred distance vision will improve. Patients with diabetes who can better control their blood sugar levels will slow the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Often the early stages of diabetic retinopathy have no visual symptoms. That is why the American Optometric Association recommends that everyone with diabetes have a comprehensive dilated eye examination once a year. Early detection and treatment can limit the potential for significant vision loss from diabetic retinopathy. T Continue reading >>

Diabetic Eye Disease

Diabetic Eye Disease

More than 1 million Australians have diabetes, a condition which carries an increased risk of developing eye complications. Diabetic eye disease includes complications such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular oedema, cataracts and glaucoma . Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults. People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are at risk. Its possible to be unaware that you have severe diabetic eye disease and suddenly go blind. Fortunately most cases of blindness can be prevented with regular eye examinations and proper care. The persistently high blood sugar levels that occur with diabetes can damage the retinas small blood vessels (capillaries), which deliver oxygen and nutrients. Diabetic retinopathy affects around 15% of people with diabetes and there are three main types: Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is the early stage in which capillary damage results in blood and fluid leaking into the retina, causing it to swell. Depending on the number of vessels affected, there is usually minimal or no effect on vision. Diabetic macular oedema occurs if swelling extends to the macula, which is the part of the retina responsible for central vision. Diabetic macular oedema (swelling) is the usual cause of vision loss related to diabetes and the level of impairment can be significant. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is the advanced stage of the disease. In an attempt to supply the retina with more oxygenated blood, abnormal blood vessels start to grow but these are fragile and bleed easily. This can lead to the formation of scar tissue. If these new vessels bleed, the person may see floaters or even lose all vision. This requires emergency treatment. A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye. Left untreated, cataracts can eventually l Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes. It affects the tiny blood vessels of the retina. Retinal blood vessels can break down, leak or become blocked— affecting and impairing vision over time. In some people with diabetic retinopathy, serious damage to the eye can occur when abnormal new blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina. Diabetic retinopathy can affect almost anyone with diabetes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that 18.8 million Americans have diagnosed diabetes, while an additional 7.0 million have diabetes that has not been diagnosed. In general, the longer someone has diabetes, the greater the risk of developing diabetic retinopathy. Eventually, almost everyone with juvenile-onset diabetes will develop some signs of diabetic retinopathy. Those who acquire diabetes later in life are also at risk of diabetic retinopathy, although they are somewhat less likely to develop advanced diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes also increases the risk of other eye diseases such as cataract and glaucoma. Because of its dangers to good vision, people with diabetes are urged to seek annual dilated eye exams. Research suggests that the risk of diabetic retinopathy can be reduced through careful control of blood sugar. People with diabetes are also encouraged to control their blood pressure. Laser treatment, called photocoagulation, has been shown to reduce the risk of sight loss in advanced cases of diabetic retinopathy. Focal photocoagulation can be used to destroy leaking blood vessels. Scatter photocoagulation, where a large number of spots are destroyed by the laser, is used to control the growth of abnormal blood vessels. In some cases vitrectomy, a surgical procedure to remove clouded fluid and gel from inside the Continue reading >>

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