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Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Definition

Diabetic Nerve Problems

Diabetic Nerve Problems

If you have diabetes, your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can damage the covering on your nerves or the blood vessels that bring oxygen to your nerves. Damaged nerves may stop sending messages, or may send messages slowly or at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. Symptoms may include Shooting pains, burning, or tingling Nausea, vomiting, constipation, or diarrhea Problems with sexual function Urinary problems Dizziness when you change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. Controlling your blood sugar can help prevent nerve problems, or keep them from getting worse. Treatment may include pain relief and other medicines. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy

Diabetic Neuropathy: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy

Author: Dianna Quan, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP more... Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), affecting as many as 50% of patients with type 1 and type 2 DM. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy involves the presence of symptoms or signs of peripheral nerve dysfunction in people with diabetes after other possible causes have been excluded. [ 1 ] In type 1 DM, distal polyneuropathy typically becomes symptomatic after many years of chronic prolonged hyperglycemia, whereas in type 2, it may be apparent after only a few years of known poor glycemic control or even at diagnosis. Symptoms include the following: Sensory Negative or positive, diffuse or focal; usually insidious in onset and showing a stocking-and-glove distribution in the distal extremities Motor Distal, proximal, or more focal weakness, sometimes occurring along with sensory neuropathy (sensorimotor neuropathy) Autonomic Neuropathy that may involve the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems and the sweat glands Physical examination should include the following assessments: Peripheral neuropathy testing Gross light touch and pinprick sensation; vibratory sense; deep tendon reflexes; strength testing and muscle atrophy; dorsal pedal and posterior tibial pulses; skin assessment; Tinel testing; cranial nerve testing Autonomic neuropathy testing Objective evaluation of cardiovagal, adrenergic, and sudomotor function in a specialized autonomic laboratory; may be preceded by bedside screening to assess supine and upright blood pressure and heart rate, with measurement of sinus arrhythmia ratio Two classification systems for diabetic neuropathy are the Thomas system and the symmetrical-versus-asymmetrical system. The Thomas system (modified Continue reading >>

Neuropathy

Neuropathy

A A A Neuropathy What Causes Neuropathy? What Are the Symptoms of Neuropathy? What is Neuropathy Treatment? Are There Home Remedies for Neuropathy? What Medications Are Used to Treat Neuropathy? What Are Neuropathy Medications? Neuropathy is a term that refers to general diseases or malfunctions of the nerves. Nerves at any location in the body can be damaged from injury or disease. Neuropathy is often classified according to the types or location of nerves that are affected. Neuropathy can also be classified according to the disease causing it. (For example, neuropathy from the effects of diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy.) Peripheral neuropathy: Peripheral neuropathy is when the nerve problem affects the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord. These nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system. Accordingly, peripheral neuropathy is neuropathy that affects the nerves of the extremities- the toes, feet, legs, fingers, hands, and arms. The term proximal neuropathy has been used to refer to nerve damage that specifically causes pain in the shoulders, thighs, hips, or buttocks. Cranial neuropathy: Cranial neuropathy occurs when any of the twelve cranial nerves (nerves that exit from the brain directly) are damaged. Two specific types of cranial neuropathy are optic neuropathy and auditory neuropathy. Optic neuropathy refers to damage or disease of the optic nerve that transmits visual signals from the retina of the eye to the brain. Auditory neuropathy involves the nerve that carries signals from the inner ear to the brain and is responsible for hearing. Autonomic neuropathy: Autonomic neuropathy is damage to the nerves of the involuntary nervous system. These nerves that control the heart and circulation (including blood pressure), digestion, bowel and bladd Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetic Neuropathy?

What Is Diabetic Neuropathy?

Diabetic neuropathy refers to the damage that affects the nerves of the body in people who have diabetes. It is a progressive disease, and symptoms worsen over a number of years. People who do not control their blood sugar levels and those who have high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, or who are overweight are more susceptible. Neuropathy can affect any nerve in the body, but especially the nerves of the ganglia, the outside of the skull, the spinal cord, and those that impact the functioning of fundamental organs, such as the heart, bladder, intestines, and stomach. Problems can occur in the nerves that control the periphery, or outside, of the body, such as the feet and hands, those that control the automatic functions of the body, such as heart rate and digestion, or just one or a small group of nerves. Different nerves are affected in different ways. Around 60 percent to 70 percent of people with diabetes develop diabetic neuropathy, but symptoms may take 10 to 20 years to appear. The highest rates of neuropathy are found in patients who have been diagnosed with diabetes for 25 years or more. Types of diabetic neuropathy There are four main types of neuropathy, and they are: Peripheral neuropathy, which affects the feet and hands, is the most common form of diabetic neuropathy Autonomic neuropathy, affecting the nerves that control the involuntary functions of the body, like digestion Proximal neuropathy, which affects the legs Focal neuropathy, in which damage can occur in any nerve or any group of nerves. The symptoms of neuropathy depend on the nerves affected. A range of problems is associated with diabetic neuropathy. These include cardiovascular issues, intestinal problems such as constant diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, weakness, muscle pain, and para Continue reading >>

Nerve Damage (diabetic Neuropathies)

Nerve Damage (diabetic Neuropathies)

What are diabetic neuropathies? Diabetic neuropathies are a family of nerve disorders caused by diabetes. People with diabetes can, over time, develop nerve damage throughout the body. Some people with nerve damage have no symptoms. Others may have symptoms such as pain, tingling, or numbness—loss of feeling—in the hands, arms, feet, and legs. Nerve problems can occur in every organ system, including the digestive tract, heart, and sex organs. About 60 to 70 percent of people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy. People with diabetes can develop nerve problems at any time, but risk rises with age and longer duration of diabetes. The highest rates of neuropathy are among people who have had diabetes for at least 25 years. Diabetic neuropathies also appear to be more common in people who have problems controlling their blood glucose, also called blood sugar, as well as those with high levels of blood fat and blood pressure and those who are overweight. What causes diabetic neuropathies? The causes are probably different for different types of diabetic neuropathy. Researchers are studying how prolonged exposure to high blood glucose causes nerve damage. Nerve damage is likely due to a combination of factors: metabolic factors, such as high blood glucose, long duration of diabetes, abnormal blood fat levels, and possibly low levels of insulin neurovascular factors, leading to damage to the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients to nerves autoimmune factors that cause inflammation in nerves mechanical injury to nerves, such as carpal tunnel syndrome inherited traits that increase susceptibility to nerve disease lifestyle factors, such as smoking or alcohol use What are the symptoms of diabetic neuropathies? Symptoms depend on the type of neuropathy and which Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathies are nerve damaging disorders associated with diabetes mellitus. These conditions are thought to result from a diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (vasa nervorum) in addition to macrovascular conditions that can accumulate in diabetic neuropathy. Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve palsy[1]; mononeuropathy; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful polyneuropathy; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. Signs and symptoms[edit] Illustration depicting areas affected by diabetic neuropathy Diabetic neuropathy affects all peripheral nerves including sensory neurons, motor neurons, but rarely affects the autonomic nervous system. Therefore, diabetic neuropathy can affect all organs and systems, as all are innervated. There are several distinct syndromes based on the organ systems and members affected, but these are by no means exclusive. A patient can have sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy or any other combination. Signs and symptoms vary depending on the nerve(s) affected and may include symptoms other than those listed. Symptoms usually develop gradually over years. Symptoms may include the following: Trouble with balance Numbness and tingling of extremities Dysesthesia (abnormal sensation to a body part) Diarrhea Erectile dysfunction Urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control) Facial, mouth and eyelid drooping Vision changes Dizziness Muscle weakness Difficulty swallowing Speech impairment Fasciculation (muscle contractions) Anorgasmia Retrograde ejaculation (in males) Burning or electric pain Pathogenesis[edit] The following factors are thought to be involved in the development of dia Continue reading >>

Everything You Should Know About Diabetic Neuropathy

Everything You Should Know About Diabetic Neuropathy

What is diabetic neuropathy? Diabetic neuropathy is a serious and common complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It’s a type of nerve damage caused by uncontrolled high blood sugar levels. You may not initially have any symptoms. The condition usually develops slowly, sometimes over the course of several decades. If you have diabetes and are experiencing numbness, tingling, pain, or weakness of your hands or feet, call your doctor. These are the early symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. In cases of severe or prolonged peripheral neuropathy, you may experience injuries or infections in your extremities. In some cases, these can lead to amputation. Damage to other nerves of the body can cause other symptoms. That’s why it’s important to regularly monitor your blood sugar levels and contact your doctor if have any symptoms of neuropathy. It’s common for symptoms of neuropathy to appear gradually. In many cases, the first type of nerve damage to occur involves the nerves of the feet. This can lead to symptoms such as the sensation of pins and needles in your feet. Symptoms vary depending on the nerves affected. Common signs and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy include: sensitivity to touch loss of sense of touch difficulty with coordination when walking numbness or pain in your extremities muscle weakness or wasting nausea and indigestion diarrhea or constipation dizziness upon standing excessive sweating vaginal dryness in women and erectile dysfunction in men Symptoms may vary depending on the type of neuropathy you’re experiencing. The term neuropathy is used to describe several types of nerve damage. In people with diabetes, there are four main types of neuropathy you may develop. Peripheral neuropathy The most common form of neuropathy is peripheral neuropa Continue reading >>

Peripheral Neuropathy And Diabetes

Peripheral Neuropathy And Diabetes

Peripheral neuropathy is nerve damage caused by chronically high blood sugar and diabetes. It leads to numbness, loss of sensation, and sometimes pain in your feet, legs, or hands. It is the most common complication of diabetes. About 60% to 70% of all people with diabetes will eventually develop peripheral neuropathy, although not all suffer pain. Yet this nerve damage is not inevitable. Studies have shown that people with diabetes can reduce their risk of developing nerve damage by keeping their blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. What causes peripheral neuropathy? Chronically high blood sugar levels damage nerves not only in your extremities but also in other parts of your body. These damaged nerves cannot effectively carry messages between the brain and other parts of the body. This means you may not feel heat, cold, or pain in your feet, legs, or hands. If you get a cut or sore on your foot, you may not know it, which is why it's so important to inspect your feet daily. If a shoe doesn't fit properly, you could even develop a foot ulcer and not know it. The consequences can be life-threatening. An infection that won't heal because of poor blood flow causes risk for developing ulcers and can lead to amputation, even death. This nerve damage shows itself differently in each person. Some people feel tingling, then later feel pain. Other people lose the feeling in fingers and toes; they have numbness. These changes happen slowly over a period of years, so you might not even notice it. Because the changes are subtle and happen as people get older, people tend to ignore the signs of nerve damage, thinking it's just part of getting older. But there are treatments that can help slow the progression of this condition and limit the damage. Talk to your doctors Continue reading >>

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

Pain is a part of the body’s magic. It is the way the body transmits a sign to the brain that something is wrong. —Norman Cousins Neuropathy is an abnormality anywhere in a nerve pathway that disrupts nerve signals, causing the brain to misinterpret feelings or sensations. Different types of neuropathy go by different names, depending on the number of nerves affected, their function, and where in the body they are located. Peripheral neuropathy is the name for nerve damage that causes malfunction of the peripheral nerves – the nerves that go to the arms, hands, legs, and feet. Damage to a single peripheral nerve is called mononeuropathy. If the damage is in two or more nerves, it is called multiple mononeuropathy. If damage occurs to many nerves simultaneously in the peripheral nervous system, it is called polyneuropathy. Diabetes is associated with several types of neuropathy, including chronic polyneuropathy. Chronic polyneuropathy occurs slowly, often over months or years, and usually begins in the feet and hands. Peripheral neuropathy There are over a hundred types of peripheral neuropathy, each of which has a characteristic set of symptoms and pattern of development. The type of nerve damaged determines what symptoms are experienced and what effect the damage has on physical functioning. Peripheral neuropathy can be inherited, or it can be acquired. Acquired peripheral neuropathy is usually caused by physical injury to the nerve, tumors, deficiencies in nutrition, alcoholism, or vascular (blood vessel) disease. Neuropathy can also be acquired from toxins produced, for example, by certain bacteria or by some types of cancer. In addition, metabolic disorders such as diabetes can contribute to the development of peripheral neuropathy. If you have damage to your Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathydiabetic Neuropathy Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Diabetic Neuropathydiabetic Neuropathy Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Diabetic neuropathy definition and facts Diabetes is thought to damage nerves as a result of prolonged elevated levels of blood glucose. Peripheral neuropathy most commonly causes: Autonomic neuropathy causes symptoms related to dysfunction of an organ system, such as: Diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy is usually done by a clinical exam. There is no cure for diabetic neuropathy, but treatments are available to manage the symptoms. Diabetic nerve pain may be controlled by medications such as tricyclic antidepressants, duloxetine (Cymbalta), or certain antiseizure medications. Keeping tight control of blood sugar levels is the best way to prevent diabetic neuropathy and other complications of diabetes. Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Improve Diabetes Nerve Pain What are the symptoms and signs of diabetic neuropathy? The symptoms and signs of diabetic neuropathy depend upon the type of neuropathy that is present. Signs and symptoms can also vary in severity among affected people. Signs and symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy include: Numbness or tingling of the feet and lower legs Pain or burning sensations Loss of sensation in the feet or lower legs Sometimes, but less commonly, these symptoms can occur in the hands or arms Signs and symptoms of diabetic proximal neuropathy include: Pain, usually on one side, in the hips, buttocks, or thighs Signs and symptoms of diabetic autonomic neuropathy depend upon the organ system that is involved and can include: Feeling full after eating a small amount Inability to empty the bladder completely Decrease in vaginal lubrication in women Rapid resting heartbeat Signs and symptoms of diabetic focal neuropathy also depend upon the location of the affected nerve. The symptoms can appear suddenly. It usually does not cause a long t Continue reading >>

Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral Neuropathy

Overview Peripheral neuropathy develops when nerves in the body's extremities – such as the hands, feet and arms – are damaged. The symptoms depend on which nerves are affected. In the UK, it's estimated that almost 1 in 10 people aged 55 or over are affected by some degree of peripheral neuropathy. The peripheral nervous system The peripheral nervous system is the network of nerves that lie outside the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). It includes different types of nerves with their own specific functions, including: sensory nerves – responsible for transmitting sensations, such as pain and touch motor nerves – responsible for controlling muscles autonomic nerves – responsible for regulating automatic functions of the body, such as blood pressure and bladder function Symptoms of peripheral neuropathy The main symptoms of peripheral neuropathy can include: numbness and tingling in the feet or hands burning, stabbing or shooting pain in affected areas loss of balance and co-ordination muscle weakness, especially in the feet These symptoms are usually constant, but may come and go. Read more about symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. When to see your GP It's important to see your GP if you experience the early symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, such as: pain, tingling or loss of sensation in the feet loss of balance or weakness a cut or ulcer on your foot that isn't getting better It's also recommended that people at highest risk of peripheral neuropathy, such as people with diabetes, have regular check-ups. Your GP will ask about your symptoms and may arrange some tests to help identify the underlying cause. You may be referred to hospital to see a neurologist (a specialist in conditions affecting the nervous system). Generally, the sooner peri Continue reading >>

Types Of Diabetic Neuropathy

Types Of Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy can be broken into several types. This is because we have different kinds of nerves in our bodies that serve different functions. Your symptoms and treatments depend on which type of diabetic neuropathy you have. There are four types of diabetic neuropathy: Peripheral diabetic neuropathy goes by various names: peripheral diabetic nerve pain and distal polyneuropathy. In this Patient Guide, we’ll refer to it as peripheral diabetic neuropathy, or simply peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is the most common form of neuropathy caused by diabetes. It affects nerves leading to your extremities—to your feet, legs, hands, and arms. The nerves going to your feet are the longest in your body: after they branch off the spinal cord in the lumbar region (low back), they have to go all the way down your legs and into the feet—quite a distance. Because the nerves leading to your feet are so long, it’s most often these nerves that are damaged; there’s more of them to be damaged. This nerve damage can lead to the foot problems often associated with diabetes, including foot deformities, infections, ulcers, and amputations. The article on diabetic neuropathy symptoms will help you learn more about the specific symptoms associated with peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Proximal neuropathy can also be called diabetic amyotrophy. That myo in the word means muscle, so this is a form of neuropathy that can cause muscle weakness. It specifically affects the muscles in the upper part of your leg(s), buttocks, and hips. Sometimes, proximal neuropathy can also involve nerve pain, especially pain that shoots from the low back and down the leg. The technical medical term for that is radiculopathy, although most people refer to it as sciatica. If there’s also s Continue reading >>

Nerve Damage (diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy)

Nerve Damage (diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy)

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a long-term complication of diabetes. Exposure to high blood glucose levels over an extended period of time causes damage to the peripheral nerves – the nerves that go to the arms, hands, legs, and feet. Symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy Although diabetic peripheral neuropathy can occur in many places in the body, the most common symptoms are abnormal sensations in the toes and feet, including: Sharp, shooting pains Burning Tingling A feeling of being pricked with pins Throbbing Numbness (not able to properly feel pain, heat, or cold) Diabetic peripheral neuropathy increases the risk for foot ulcers and amputation. Due to nerve damage in their feet and toes, people with diabetes who have diabetic peripheral neuropathy often do not notice minor cuts, sores, or blisters in these areas. If left untreated, these small wounds can easily become infected, lead to gangrene, and may eventually require amputation of the affected area. Risk factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy Risk factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy include: High blood glucose (sugar) levels Elevated triglycerides Excess body weight Smoking High blood pressure Diagnosing diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the feet Your doctor or foot care specialist can test for diabetic peripheral neuropathy by lightly pressing a thin nylon rod (10-gram monofilament) to different areas of your foot (in particular, your big toe) or by using the 128-Hz tuning fork on the back of the big toe to determine if you can feel it. These are easy and pain-free tests. When to screen for diabetic peripheral neuropathy For type 1 diabetes Because diabetic peripheral neuropathy is uncommon within the first five years after onset of type 1 diabetes, annual screening for diabetic periphera Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

Symptoms Of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a condition caused by long-term high blood sugar levels, which causes nerve damage. Some people will not have any symptoms. But for others symptoms may be debilitating. Between 60 and 70 percent of people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Peripheral neuropathy, the most common form of diabetic neuropathy, affects the legs, feet, toes, hands, and arms. Many people do not know that they have diabetes. People unaware of their diabetes may not know what’s causing some of the unusual sensations they’re experiencing. Nerve damage is the result of high levels of blood glucose over long periods of time. It isn’t entirely clear why high glucose levels damage nerves. A number of factors may play a role in nerve fiber damage. One possible component is the intricate interplay between the blood vessels and nerves, according to the Mayo Clinic. Other factors include high blood pressure and cholesterol levels and nerve inflammation. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy usually first appears in the feet and legs, and may occur in the hands and arms later. A common symptom of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is numbness. Sometimes you may be unable to feel your feet while walking. Other times, your hands or feet will tingle or burn. Or it may feel like you’re wearing a sock or glove when you’re not. Sometimes you may experience sudden, sharp pains that feel like an electrical current. Other times, you may feel cramping, like when you’re grasping something like a piece of silverware. You also may sometimes unintentionally drop items you’re holding as a result of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Walking with a wobbly motion or even losing your balance can res Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

Print Overview Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur if you have diabetes. High blood sugar (glucose) can injure nerve fibers throughout your body, but diabetic neuropathy most often damages nerves in your legs and feet. Depending on the affected nerves, symptoms of diabetic neuropathy can range from pain and numbness in your extremities to problems with your digestive system, urinary tract, blood vessels and heart. For some people, these symptoms are mild; for others, diabetic neuropathy can be painful, disabling and even fatal. Diabetic neuropathy is a common serious complication of diabetes. Yet you can often prevent diabetic neuropathy or slow its progress with tight blood sugar control and a healthy lifestyle. Symptoms There are four main types of diabetic neuropathy. You may have just one type or symptoms of several types. Most develop gradually, and you may not notice problems until considerable damage has occurred. The signs and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy vary, depending on the type of neuropathy and which nerves are affected. Peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is the most common form of diabetic neuropathy. Your feet and legs are often affected first, followed by your hands and arms. Signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy are often worse at night, and may include: Numbness or reduced ability to feel pain or temperature changes A tingling or burning sensation Sharp pains or cramps Increased sensitivity to touch — for some people, even the weight of a bed sheet can be agonizing Muscle weakness Loss of reflexes, especially in the ankle Loss of balance and coordination Serious foot problems, such as ulcers, infections, deformities, and bone and joint pain Autonomic neuropathy The autonomic nervous system controls your hea Continue reading >>

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