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Diabetic Pancreas

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

What are the symptoms of diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst and urination increased hunger fatigue blurred vision numbness or tingling in the feet or hands sores that do not heal unexplained weight loss Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble. What causes type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts. Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resista Continue reading >>

Pancreatitis And Diabetes

Pancreatitis And Diabetes

Tweet Pancreatitis is a condition in which the pancreas becomes inflamed, which can be very painful in the short term and could lead to complications including secondary diabetes. Alcohol and gall stones are the main risk factors for pancreatitis but some medications, including certain diabetes medications, may increase the risk of pancreatitis. Types of pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is when the pancreas becomes inflamed for up to a few days. Chronic pancreatitis is if inflammation of the pancreas persists over a long period of time, say years. Symptoms The main symptom of acute pancreatitis is a strong pain in the upper abdomen, where the pancreas is located. Other symptoms that may be present include: nausea vomiting or diarrhoea fever If you have chronic pancreatitis you may experience regular pain within the upper part of the abdomen and possibly some of the following symptoms, caused by difficulty in digesting food properly: Stomach cramps Bloating and wind Foul smelling stools Unexplained weight loss Jaundice Seek medical help if you experience sudden severe pain in your abdomen. Causes The NHS notes that pancreatitis may be caused by a digestive enzyme becoming prematurely activated within the pancreas, causing the pancreas to become inflamed. Having two or more alcoholic drinks a day Gallstones An automimmune response Hypertriglyceridemia – high levels of triglyceride blood fats in the blood Genetic mutation of MCP-1 gene The following medications may also raise the risk of pancreatitis: Oestrogens Corticosteroids Thiazide diuretics Certain diabetes medications – see below for more info Treatment Treatment for pancreatitis will need to be carried out in hospital. You may need to be given oxygen and intravenous fluids, and may be given strong painkillers, s Continue reading >>

Pancreatic Diabetes Mellitus

Pancreatic Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus caused by pancreatic exocrine disease is a unique clinical and metabolic form of diabetes. The diagnosis of pancreatic diabetes caused by chronic pancreatitis may be elusive because it is occasionally painless and often not accompanied by clinical malabsorption until after hyperglycemia occurs. Diabetic patients with pancreatic calcification or clinically demonstrable pancreatic exocrine dysfunction will manifest the unique aspects of pancreatic diabetes described herein. Like other forms of diabetes, the primary hormonal abnormality in pancreatic diabetes is decreased insulin secretion. Patients with this disorder are unique in that they have low glucagon levels that respond abnormally to several physiological stimuli, blunted epinephrine responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and malabsorption. In addition, they often have concomitant alcohol abuse with hepatic disease and poor nutrition. These characteristics result in increased levels of circulating gluconeogenic amino acids, decreased insulin requirements, a resistance to ketosis, low cholesterol levels, an increased risk of hypoglycemia while on insulin therapy, and the clinical impression of brittle diabetes. Retinopathy occurs at a rate equal to that of insulin-dependent diabetes but may be less severe in degree. Other complications of pancreatic diabetes have been less well studied but may be expected to be seen more frequently as these patients survive longer. The characteristics of pancreatic diabetes suggest that a conservative approach be taken in regard to intensive insulin therapy and tight blood glucose control. We developed a computer program for the simulation of plasma insulin and glucose dynamics after subcutaneous injection of insulin. The program incorporates a pharmacokinetic Continue reading >>

The Connection Between Pancreatitis And Diabetes

The Connection Between Pancreatitis And Diabetes

Share: As a diabetes educator and author, I have been asked many times about the connection between pancreatitis and diabetes. I thought I would share the answer with all of my readers. First we need to define pancreatitis. I will also tell you about the most common forms and tell you about the connection with diabetes. The Definition of Pancreatitis When a word ends with “itis”, it is a suffix used to let us know that there is inflammation. (1) So…. pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas. There are two common kinds of pancreatitis, acute and chronic. Acute pancreatitis- The definition of “acute” is a condition that comes on suddenly and is severe. (2) Acute pancreatitis is therefore an inflammation and swelling in the pancreas that comes on suddenly! (3) The Pancreas The pancreas is a unique organ that has many functions. People with diabetes usually are taught that the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas makes the hormone insulin. They are also taught that the pancreas makes other hormones like glucagon. The job that the pancreas has in making hormones and controlling blood glucose is referred to as pancreatic endocrine functions. Hormones are released by the pancreas and go directly into the blood stream. They travel through the body to get to the sites needed. The pancreas which is located behind the stomach and very near to the small intestine also has what we call exocrine functions. Enzymes are produced as needed to help with the digestion of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. These enzymes are not released into the blood but they travel through a series of ducts that end in the small intestines where they usually become active. (3, 4) In acute pancreatitis, there is a problem when these enzymes are prematurely activated insid Continue reading >>

Islet Morphometry In The Diabetic Pancreas Of Man.

Islet Morphometry In The Diabetic Pancreas Of Man.

1. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1978 Jun;125(2):185-97. Islet morphometry in the diabetic pancreas of man. Saito K, Takahashi T, Yaginuma N, Iwama N. Quantitative changes of the pancreatic islets in diabetes mellitus were analyzed by a stereological method. 26 maturity-onset and 5 growth-onset diabetics, and 37nondiabetics including 9 hypertensives were selected from autopsy materials andthe pancreases were subjected to histometry. The total islet volume Vi was 0.974 cm3 in the control, whereas it was only 0.596 and 0.255 cm3 in the maturity-onsetand growth-onset diabetic groups, respectively. The hypertensive group gavealmost the same value as the control. There was an obvious negative correlationbetween Vi and the maximum blood sugar level during glucose tolerance test,whether the case was diabetic or not. Moreover, in the diabetic group Vidiminished with descending age of onset. These findings indicate the importanceof VI in the pathophysiology of diabetes and support the classical concept ofinsulin deficiency as the primary pathogenetic role. On the other hand, the totalislet number Ni decreased with increasing mean radius r, and the diabetic andcontrol cases shared a common regression of Ni on r. The diabetic pancreas wasnot characterized by Ni, r or by the distribution pattern of r. Continue reading >>

Fasting Diet 'regenerates Diabetic Organ'

Fasting Diet 'regenerates Diabetic Organ'

The pancreas can be triggered to regenerate itself through a type of fasting diet, say US researchers. Restoring the function of the organ - which helps control blood sugar levels - reversed symptoms of diabetes in animal experiments. The study, published in the journal Cell, says the diet reboots the body. Experts said the findings were "potentially very exciting" as they could become a new treatment for the disease. People are advised not to try this without medical advice. In the experiments, mice were put on a modified form of the "fasting-mimicking diet". It is like the human form of the diet when people spend five days on a low-calorie, low-protein, low-carbohydrate but high unsaturated-fat diet. It resembles a vegan diet with nuts and soups, but with around 800 to 1,100 calories a day. Then they have 25 days eating what they want - so overall it mimics periods of feast and famine. Previous research has suggested it can slow the pace of ageing. Diabetes therapy? But animal experiments showed the diet regenerated a special type of cell in the pancreas called a beta cell. These are the cells that detect sugar in the blood and release the hormone insulin if it gets too high. Dr Valter Longo, from the University of Southern California, said: "Our conclusion is that by pushing the mice into an extreme state and then bringing them back - by starving them and then feeding them again - the cells in the pancreas are triggered to use some kind of developmental reprogramming that rebuilds the part of the organ that's no longer functioning." There were benefits in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in the mouse experiments. Type 1 is caused by the immune system destroying beta cells and type 2 is largely caused by lifestyle and the body no longer responding to insulin. Further t Continue reading >>

A Fasting Diet Could Reverse Diabetes And Repair The Pancreas, Says New Research

A Fasting Diet Could Reverse Diabetes And Repair The Pancreas, Says New Research

Researchers have been able to reverse symptoms of diabetes and restore pancreas functions in mice by putting them on a version of the fasting-mimicking diet. The diet tricks the body into a fasting mode for a few days a month, even while carefully selected foods are still being eaten, and it could be enough to reboot the organ's key functions and restore insulin production, scientists say. Diabetes occurs when the pancreas cannot make insulin (type I) or is damaged by insulin resistance (type II), and the team from the University of Southern California says the diet reversed symptoms of both types of diabetes in mice. "By pushing the mice into an extreme state and then bringing them back... the cells in the pancreas are triggered to use some kind of developmental reprogramming," says the head of the research team, Valter Longo. In humans, the fasting-mimicking diet has been credited with helping people lose weight more effectively, and previous studies have also linked it to reducing risk factors for diseases like heart disease and cancer. The diet has also been credited with reducing the symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis, so it's earning quite a reputation amongst scientists. In each case starving the body seems to reset the production of healthy cells. In the latest study, mice were put into the artificial fasting mode for four days a week over a period of several months. Scientists found this was enough to regenerate beta cells in the pancreas, responsible for storing and releasing insulin. Damaged cells were replaced by working ones. The team also experimented on pancreatic cell cultures from human donors with type I diabetes. Here too, simulated fasting produced more insulin and more of the Ngn3 protein required for normal pancreatic function. In other words, the sign Continue reading >>

Fasting Diet May Help Regenerate A Diabetic Pancreas

Fasting Diet May Help Regenerate A Diabetic Pancreas

"The pancreas can be triggered to regenerate itself through a type of fasting diet, say US researchers," BBC News reports. Research in mice found a low-calorie diet may help in cases of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The pancreas is an organ that uses specialised cells known as beta cells to produce the hormone insulin, which the body uses to break down sugars in the blood (glucose). In type 1 diabetes the pancreas stops producing insulin. In type 2 diabetes either not enough insulin is produced or cells in the body fail to respond to insulin (insulin resistance). Mice were fed for four days on a low-calorie, low-protein and low-carbohydrate but high-fat diet, receiving half their normal daily calorie intake on day one, followed by three days of 10% of their normal calorie intake. Researchers repeated this fast on three occasions, with 10 days of refeeding in between. They then examined the pancreas. They found in mice modelled to have both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, insulin production was restored, insulin resistance was reduced, and beta cells could be regenerated. Early lab study involving human cell samples showed similar potential. These are promising results, but further studies are needed to validate these findings in humans. If you have either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, you shouldn't attempt a fasting diet without first seeking medical advice. A sudden change in your calorie intake could have unpredictable effects and lead to complications. Where did the story come from? The study was carried out by researchers from the University of Southern California and the Koch Institute at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the US, and the IFOM FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology in Italy. It was funded by grants from the US National Institutes of Health (NI Continue reading >>

The Diabetic Pancreas: A Pathologists View

The Diabetic Pancreas: A Pathologists View

The Diabetic Pancreas: A Pathologists View The morphology of the pancreas in human diabetes has long received much attention. In 1845, more than 40 years before Von Mering and Minkowski [105] demonstrated that pancreatectomy results in the advent of diabetes, autopsy findings had led Bouchardat to the concept that diabetes is a pancreatic disease [11]. From this time on, many studies have improved our knowledge of the normal and diabetic pancreas. The most decisive one was the discovery of the islets by Langerhans in 1869 [51], followed, 30 years later, by the recognition of their heterogeneous composition [16]. In the early 1920s islet abnormalities were detected in the pancreas of diabetic patients [12, 49, 67, 90]. In 1951, about 30 years after the discovery of insulin by Banting and Best [3], the development of a bioassay for this hormone permitted differentiation of different forms of diabetes [9]. Endocrine CellPancreatic PolypeptideEndocrine PancreasEndocrine TissueEndocrine Cell Type These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. The authors research referred to in this paper was supported by grant number 3.4560.81 of the FRSM, Brussels. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Adler G, Kern HF (1975) Regulation of exocrine pancreatic secretory process by insulin in vivo. Horm Metabol Res 7: 290296 CrossRef Google Scholar Alumets J, Hakanson R, Lundqvist G, Sundler F, Thorell J (1980) Ontogeny and ultrastructure of somatostatin and calcitonin cells in the thyroid gland of the rat. Cell Tissue Res 206: 193201 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Banting FG, Best CH (1922) The internal Continue reading >>

Video: How Diabetes Affects Your Blood Sugar

Video: How Diabetes Affects Your Blood Sugar

Your body uses glucose for energy. Glucose metabolism requires insulin, a hormone produced by your pancreas. Here's how normal glucose metabolism works, and what happens when you have diabetes — a disease where your body either can't produce enough insulin or it can't use insulin properly. The food you eat consists of three basic nutrients: carbohydrates, protein and fat. During digestion, chemicals in your stomach break down carbohydrates into glucose, which is absorbed into your bloodstream. Your pancreas responds to the glucose by releasing insulin. Insulin is responsible for allowing glucose into your body's cells. When the glucose enters your cells, the amount of glucose in your bloodstream falls. If you have type 1 diabetes, your pancreas doesn't secrete insulin — which causes a buildup of glucose in your bloodstream. Without insulin, the glucose can't get into your cells. If you have type 2 diabetes, your pancreas secretes less insulin than your body requires because your body is resistant to its effect. With both types of diabetes, glucose cannot be used for energy, and it builds up in your bloodstream — causing potentially serious health complications. Continue reading >>

The Connection Between Diabetes And Your Pancreas

The Connection Between Diabetes And Your Pancreas

A direct connection exists between the pancreas and diabetes. The pancreas is an organ deep in your abdomen behind your stomach. It’s an important part of your digestive system. The pancreas produces enzymes and hormones that help you digest food. One of those hormones, insulin, is necessary to regulate glucose. Glucose refers to sugars in your body. Every cell in your body needs glucose for energy. Think of insulin as a lock to the cell. Insulin must open the cell to allow it to use glucose for energy. If your pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin or doesn’t make good use of it, glucose builds up in your bloodstream, leaving your cells starved for energy. When glucose builds up in your bloodstream, this is known as hyperglycemia. The symptoms of hyperglycemia include thirst, nausea, and shortness of breath. Low glucose, known as hypoglycemia, also causes many symptoms, including shakiness, dizziness, and loss of consciousness. Hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia can quickly become life-threatening. Each type of diabetes involves the pancreas not functioning properly. The way in which the pancreas doesn’t function properly differs depending on the type. No matter what type of diabetes you have, it requires ongoing monitoring of blood glucose levels so you can take the appropriate action. Type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes the immune system erroneously attacks the beta cells that produce insulin in your pancreas. It causes permanent damage, leaving your pancreas unable to produce insulin. Exactly what triggers the immune system to do that isn’t clear. Genetic and environmental factors may play a role. You’re more likely to develop type 1 diabetes if you have a family history of the disease. About 5 percent of people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. People who ha Continue reading >>

Fat Loss From Pancreas 'can Reverse' Effects Of Type-2 Diabetes

Fat Loss From Pancreas 'can Reverse' Effects Of Type-2 Diabetes

Type-2 diabetes affects nearly 3 million people in Britain ( ) Fat loss from pancreas 'can reverse' effects of type-2 diabetes 'If this special pool of fat is removed then the pancreas can become able to make insulin normally, and sugar control returns to normal' Less than half a teaspoon of fat is all that it takes to turn someone into a type-2 diabetic according to a study that could overturn conventional wisdom on a disease affecting nearly 3 million people in Britain. Researchers have found it is not so much the overall body fat that is important in determining the onset of type-2 diabetes but the small amount of fat deposited in the pancreas, the endocrine organ responsible for insulin production. Read moreHow being diagnosed with diabetes changed my life A clinical trial on 18 patients with type-2 diabetes has found that the loss of just one gram of fat from the pancreas can reverse the disease to the point where patients were once more are able to control levels of sugar in the bloodstream using their own insulin. Diabetes comes in two forms. The type-2 version affects about 90 per cent of the diabetic population and this is the disease associated with diet and obesity in adults. It occurs as a result of the failure of the bodys insulin hormone to control blood-sugar levels by the pancreas not producing enough insulin, and the body becoming resistant to its own hormone. If fat in the pancreas really is the key factor that triggers type-2 diabetes, it offers a potential target for reversing the disease through drugs. However, at present the only way of lowering fat levels in the pancreas is to go on a strict diet that lowers fat elsewhere in the body a weight-loss procedure that is notoriously difficult to maintain. Another problem is how we define pancreatic fat Continue reading >>

Pancreas And Diabetes

Pancreas And Diabetes

The pancreas is the organ that is responsible for producing insulin The pancreas is an organ located behind the lower part of the stomach, in front of the spine and plays an important part in diabetes. The pancreas is the organ which produces insulin, one the main hormones that helps to regulate blood glucose levels . The pancreas plays a part in two different organ systems, the endocrine system and the exocrine system. The endocrine system includes all the organs which produce hormones, chemicals which are delivered via the blood to help regulate our mood, growth, metabolism and reproduction. Two of the hormones produced by the pancreas are insulin and glucagon . The exocrine system is made up of a number of glands which release substances such as sweat (to the skin), saliva (in the mouth) or, in the case of the pancreas, digestive enzymes . The pancreas is responsible for producing insulin. The cells which produce insulin are beta cells. These cells are distributed in a cluster of cells in the pancreas called the Islets of Langerhans, named after the anatomist who discovered them . Insulin is a hormone that helps to regulate blood sugar levels by assisting the transport of glucose from the blood into neighbouring cells. In type 1 diabetes , the beta cells that produce insulin are attacked by the bodys immune system. As more beta cells get killed off, the pancreas struggles to produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels down and the symptoms of diabetes begin to appear. Research has shown that whilst many beta cells are killed off, the body can continue to produce very small amounts of insulin even after decades have passed. News from 2012: Insulin production may last for over 30 years in type 1 diabetes In type 2 diabetes, the body builds up resistance to insul Continue reading >>

Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms: Diabetes Could Be A Warning Sign For Deadly Disease

Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms: Diabetes Could Be A Warning Sign For Deadly Disease

Pancreatic cancer is hard to diagnose in its early stages as the tumour doesn't usually cause any symptoms. The disease affects around 8,800 people every year in the UK. Diabetic have an increased risk of pancreatic cancer - however now experts have suggested cancer can cause some cases of diabetes. Experts have revealed the onset of diabetes, or existing diabetes getting much worse could be a sign of hidden pancreatic cancer. Medical records and the type of diabetic medicines they are prescribed could be a tool in identifying those at risk, scientists from the International Prevention Research Institute in Lyon said. An analysis of nearly a million patients with type 2 diabetes in Italy and Belgium with pancreatic cancer found half were diagnosed within one year of being found to have type 2 diabetes and being given their first prescription to control it. Experts said they had a 3.5 times greater risk of being diagnosed with the disease in the first three months after their first prescription for incretins, hormones which stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin to lower blood sugar levels. Injecting insulin was associated with a seven-fold increased risk of being diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Professor Philippe Autier said: "Although it has been known for some time that there is an association between type 2 diabetes and pancreatic cancer, the relationship between the two conditions is complex. "Incretin therapies reduce diabetic hyperglycemia through stimulating the release of insulin by the pancreas. "These drugs are typically prescribed when the oral anti-diabetic drugs can no longer control blood glucose levels. "Because of their stimulating effects on the pancreas, it has long been thought that the incretin therapies could promote the occurrence of panc Continue reading >>

Pancreas: Functions And Possible Problems

Pancreas: Functions And Possible Problems

The pancreas is a gland organ. It is located in the abdomen. It is part of the digestive system and produces insulin and other important enzymes and hormones that help break down foods. The pancreas has an endocrine function because it releases juices directly into the bloodstream, and it has an exocrine function because it releases juices into ducts. Enzymes, or digestive juices, are secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine. There, it continues breaking down food that has left the stomach. The pancreas also produces the hormone insulin and secretes it into the bloodstream, where it regulates the body's glucose or sugar level. Problems with insulin control can lead to diabetes. Here are some key points about the pancreas. More detail is in the main article. The pancreas is a gland organ with a key role in digestion and glucose control. A healthful diet can contribute to maintaining a healthy pancreas. Features of the pancreas The pancreas is an organ 6 to 8 inches long. It extends horizontally across the abdomen. The largest part lays on the right side of the abdomen where the stomach attaches to the first part of the small intestine, the duodenum. At this point, the partially digested food passes from the stomach into the small intestine, and it mixes with the secretions from the pancreas. The narrow part of the pancreas extends to the left side of the abdomen next to the spleen. A duct runs the length of the pancreas, and it is joined by several small branches from the glandular tissue. The end of this duct is connected to a similar duct that comes from the liver, which delivers bile to the duodenum. Around 95 percent of the pancreas is exocrine tissue. It produces pancreatic enzymes to aid digestion. A healthy pancreas makes about 2.2 pints (1 liter) of thes Continue reading >>

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