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Diabetic Markers

Frontiers | Molecular Markers Of Diabetic Retinopathy: Potential Screening Tool Of The Future? | Physiology

Frontiers | Molecular Markers Of Diabetic Retinopathy: Potential Screening Tool Of The Future? | Physiology

Front. Physiol., 01 June 2016 | Molecular Markers of Diabetic Retinopathy: Potential Screening Tool of the Future? 1Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia 2School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia 3Center of Health Outcomes Research and Therapeutic Safety (Cohorts), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Phayao, Phayao, Thailand Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is among the leading causes of new onset blindness in adults. Effective treatment may delay the onset and progression of this disease provided it is diagnosed early. At present retinopathy can only be diagnosed via formal examination of the eye by a trained specialist, which limits the population that can be effectively screened. An easily accessible, reliable screening biomarker of diabetic retinopathy would be of tremendous benefit in detecting the population in need of further assessment and treatment. This review highlights specific biomarkers that show promise as screening markers to detect early diabetic retinopathy or even to detect patients at increased risk of DR at the time of diagnosis of diabetes. The pathobiology of DR is complex and multifactorial giving rise to a wide array of potential biomarkers. This review provides an overview of these pathways and looks at older markers such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), inflammatory markers, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as other newer proteins with a role in the pathogenesis of DR including neuroprotective factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor (PEDF); SA100A12, pentraxin 3, brain natriuretic peptide, apelin 3, and chemerin as well as various metabolites such as lipoprot Continue reading >>

Diabetic Markers | Diabetic Connect

Diabetic Markers | Diabetic Connect

just wondering how many people here have a key chain, bracelet, necklace or anything else to show to medical professionals or first responders that they are diabetic? I do for sure. I have a cuff bracelet that I just love. It's so pretty that people make comments about it. I got it at laurenshop.com They have as huge selection to choose from! When I travel, definitely. I wear a bracelet. In Florida, I have written across my drivers license in red: Type 1 Diabetic. Not all states have that, but I think it is a great idea because it is the 1 thing you know the Police or Emergency care providers will look at. I do. I have a little pendant that I wear most of the time. Sometimes when I want to wear something else, I'll use a bracelet instead. I can make interchangeable bands for it. My goal is to get a My ID braceletIt's linked to a site where you can store all your medical information and what meds you take and there are 3 different way the the info can be accessed By the end of the year, maybe. I wear a bracelet or a necklace when swimming in the ocean. Hubby made me bracelets to apply ID. I have every color you can think of. He learned to make jewelry because he thought I would wear them since they look pretty I do wear them. Yes, i have a medical id bracelet. I slso hsve hbp, migraine headaches and an allergy to vicodin I had looked into USB memory devices to carry medical records but decided no. It seems that EMTs are cautioned not to use them as they may infect their systems with virus, Trojan horses, worms and other malware. Continue reading >>

Gene And Protein Markers Of Diabetic Nephropathy

Gene And Protein Markers Of Diabetic Nephropathy

Gene and protein markers of diabetic nephropathy CNRS FRE3009 SysDiag and Laboratoire International Associ No. 135, Montpellier Claude Granier, CNRS FRE3009, Cap Delta/Parc Euromdecine-1682 rue de la Valsire-CS 6100334184, Montpellier, Cedex 4, France. Tel: +33-467-166-619 ; E-mail: [email protected] Search for other works by this author on: Unit Cibles de Diagnostic et Thrapeutique dans la Pathologie Humaine and Laboratoire International Associ No. 135, Sfax Center of Biotechnology Search for other works by this author on: CNRS FRE3009 SysDiag and Laboratoire International Associ No. 135, Montpellier CNRS FRE3009 SysDiag and Laboratoire International Associ No. 135, Montpellier Unit Cibles de Diagnostic et Thrapeutique dans la Pathologie Humaine and Laboratoire International Associ No. 135, Sfax Center of Biotechnology Search for other works by this author on: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, Volume 23, Issue 3, 1 March 2008, Pages 792799, Claude Granier, Kaouthar Makni, Laurence Molina, Bndicte Jardin-Watelet, Hammadi Ayadi, Fayal Jarraya; Gene and protein markers of diabetic nephropathy, Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, Volume 23, Issue 3, 1 March 2008, Pages 792799, biomarkers , candidate genes , diabetic nephropathy , diagnostic Diabetic nephropathy (DN) develops in a large number of type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients after a variable latency period. DN absolute number is increasing because of greater longevity and the epidemic of diabetes [ 1 ]. Although this disease is progressively becoming a heavier burden for the health care system, it is as yet poorly understood in many aspects. The pathogenesis of DN is clearly multifactorial and several genes, proteins and environmental factors are likely to contribute to the onset of the Continue reading >>

C-peptide And Autoimmune Markers In Diabetes.

C-peptide And Autoimmune Markers In Diabetes.

C-peptide and autoimmune markers in diabetes. Institution of Medicine, University Hospital of Lund, Lund, Sweden. [email protected] Autoimmune markers such as islet cell antibodies (ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) and islet antigen-2 antibodies (IA-2A) are found in high frequencies among type 1 patients and especially among younger patients. Presence of these autoantibodies confirms the destructive process of the beta cells associated with immune-mediated type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by peripheral insulin resistance and a relative deficiency in insulin production. However, when autoimmune markers are analysed these are found in about 10% of patients clinically classified as type 2 diabetes, indicating that the frequency of type 1 diabetes is underestimated. GADA is the most frequent marker both among patients clinically classified as type 1 and type 2. GADA is also highly predictive for insulin treatment in patients not classified as type 1 diabetes. C-peptide is the best marker of the endogenous insulin production. Sampling of C-peptide is preferably done in the non-fasting condition since these values differentiate better between autoimmune and non-autoimmune diabetes. The presence of autoimmune markers at diagnosis predicts a course of further deteriorating beta cell function, whereas absence of autoimmune markers predicts stable beta cell function for the first two years in adults. Presence of GADA and in particular in high levels are prognostic for a low beta cell function within the next few years after diagnosis. Positivity only for ICA indicates a more preserved beta cell function for the first three years compared to positivity for other autoimmune markers. Continue reading >>

New Way To Measure If People Are Pre-diabetic Discovered

New Way To Measure If People Are Pre-diabetic Discovered

A panel of markers have been discovered that helps identify if people are pre-diabetic by measuring the fatty acids in their blood. This discovery by University of Hawaii Cancer Center researchers may allow physicians to warn patients years before the onset of diabetes, therefore allowing them to change their lifestyle patterns and potentially avoiding the diagnosis of a chronic disease. Currently there are no clinical tests that predict the likelihood of developing diabetes, only exams that can tell, for example, if someone that is pre-diabetic has relatively high blood sugar or insulin levels, said Wei Jia , the director of the UH Cancer Centers metabolomics shared resources program. To know if you are likely to get diabetes in a few years is an important discovery. People can hopefully get tested for the disease during physical exams in the future. The unsaturated fatty acid markers recently identified in a study published online in the journal EBioMedicine can mark if someone is pre-diabetic long before conventional ways of measuring the disease. The levels of these fatty acids can change up to 10 years before the individuals are diagnosed with diabetes. The markers, through a blood sample test, may help predict the risk of developing pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome, which is a group of conditions including elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance and high glucose level. Explained Jia, It is conventionally assumed that if people are obese they are in risk of being pre-diabetic. However, sometimes people who are obese can still be healthy. If people know they are specifically pre-diabetic, they can have a more targeted way of treating it. Obesity is associated with the risk of developing type-2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular diseas Continue reading >>

Markers Of Diabetic Nephropathy - Sciencedirect

Markers Of Diabetic Nephropathy - Sciencedirect

Volume 12, Issue 1 , JanuaryFebruary 1998, Pages 43-60 Get rights and content It is well established that the detection of microalbuminuria in a patient with diabetes mellitus indicates the presence of glomerular involvement in early renal damage. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is also a tubular component to renal complications of diabetes, as shown by the detection of renal tubular proteins and enzymes in the urine. In fact, tubular involvement may precede glomerular involvement, as several of these tubular proteins and enzymes are detectable even before the appearance of microalbuminuria. This review looks at the studies reported so far on serum and urinary markers of diabetic nephropathy, both glomerular and tubular, and their roles in the early detection of renal damage. The advantages and disadvantages of some of these markers are also discussed. The markers reviewed include (1) glomerular transferrin, fibronectin, and other components of glomerular extracellular matrix, and (2) tubular low molecular weight proteins (2 microglobulin, retinol binding protein, 1 microglobulin, urine protein 1), other proteins such as TammHorsfall protein, 2 glycoprotein-1, urinary enzymes (N-acetyl--D-glucosaminidase, cholinesterase, glutamyltranspeptidase, alanine aminopeptidase), and tubular brush-border antigen. Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Metabolic Markers

Diabetes And Metabolic Markers

Effects of canagliflozin versus glimepiride on adipokines and in inflammatory biomarkers in type 2 diabetes (2018) Garvey WT, Van Gaal L, Leiter LA, Vijapurkar U, List J, Cuddihy R, Ren J, Davies M Metabolism Clinical and Experimenta The impact of micronutrient status on health: correlation network analysis to understand the role of micronutrients in metabolic-inflammatory processes regulating homeostasis and phenotypic flexibility. (2017) van den Broek TJ, Kremer BH, Marcondes Rezende M, Hoevenaars FP, Weber P, Hoeller U, van Ommen B, Wopereis S Genes Nutr Novel inflammatory markers for incident pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes: the Rotterdam Study (2017) Brahimaj A, Ligthart S, Ghanbari M, Ikram MA, Hofman A, Franco OH, Kavousi M, Dehghan A Eur. J. Epidemiol. Relation of antioxidant capacity of diet and markers of oxidative status with C-reactive protein and adipocytokines: a prospective study. (2017) Stringa N, Brahimaj A, Zaciragic A, Dehghan A, Ikram MA, Hofman A, Muka T, Kiefte-de Jong JC, Franco OH Metab. Genetic studies of plasma analytes identify novel potential biomarkers for several complex traits (2016) Deming Y, Xia J, Cai Y, Lord J, Del-Aguila JL, Fernandez MV, Carrell D, Black K, Budde J, Ma S, Saef B, Howells B, Bertelsen S, Bailey M, Ridge PG, Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), Holtzman D, Morris JC, Bales K, Pickering EH, Lee J, Heitsch L, Kauwe J, Goate A, Piccio L, Cruchaga C Scientific Reports Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator type methods for the identification of serum biomarkers of overweight and obesity: simulation and application. (2016) Vasquez MM, Hu C, Roe DJ, Chen Z, Halonen M, Guerra S BMC Med Res Methodol Growth Differentiation Factor 15 as a Novel Biomarker for Metformin (2016) Gerstein HC, Pare G, Hess S, Continue reading >>

Vegan Diet Rapidly Improves Type 2 Diabetes Markers In Adults

Vegan Diet Rapidly Improves Type 2 Diabetes Markers In Adults

Vegan Diet Rapidly Improves Type 2 Diabetes Markers in Adults In overweight adults with no history of diabetes, a low-fat, plant-based vegan diet can reduce visceral fat and significantly improve both pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin resistance, potentially decreasing the risk of type 2 diabetes, according to researchers. The 16-week randomized controlled trial in 73 adults showed that participants who ate a diet of vegetables, grains, legumes, and fruits significantly improved their overall metabolic condition, say Hana Kahleova, MD, PhD, of the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine in Washington, DC, and colleagues. "Our study suggests the potential of a low-fat plant-based diet in diabetes prevention, addressing both core pathophysiologic mechanisms insulin resistance and diminished beta-cell function at the same time," they write in their article, published online February 9 in Nutrients. In a statement by the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Kahleova said the study "has important implications for diabetes prevention." An estimated 30 million Americans have type 2 diabetes and it is projected that a third of the population will develop diabetes, she pointed out. "Fortunately, this study adds to the growing evidence that food really is medicine and that eating a healthful plant-based diet can go a long way in preventing diabetes." Previous studies have shown that the prevalence of diabetes is 46% to 74% lower in people who eat a plant-based diet compared with meat lovers in the general population, according to background information in the article. A vegan diet has also been shown to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes better than calorie-restricted, low-carbohydrate diets, the researchers note. Insulin resistance leading to im Continue reading >>

Diabetic Nephropathy: Traditional To Proteomic Markers - Sciencedirect

Diabetic Nephropathy: Traditional To Proteomic Markers - Sciencedirect

Diabetic nephropathy: Traditional to proteomic markers Author links open overlay panel Rafael N.Moresco Get rights and content Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major microvascular complications of diabetes and it is defined as a rise in the urinary albumin excretion (UAE) rate and abnormal renal function. Currently, changes in albuminuria are considered a hallmark of onset or progression of DN. However, some patients with diabetes have advanced renal pathological changes and progressive kidney function decline even if urinary albumin levels are in the normal range, indicating that albuminuria is not the perfect marker for the early detection of DN. The present article provides an overview of the literature reporting some relevant biomarkers that have been found to be associated with DN and that potentially may be used to predict the onset and/or monitor the progression of nephropathy. In particular, biomarkers of renal damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress may be useful tools for detection at an early stage or prediction of DN. Proteomic-based biomarker discovery represents a novel strategy to improve diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of DN; however, proteomics-based approaches are not yet available in most of the clinical chemistry laboratories. The use of a panel with a combination of biomarkers instead of urinary albumin alone seems to be an interesting approach for early detection of DN, including markers of glomerular damage (e.g., albumin), tubular damage (e.g., NAG and KIM-1), inflammation (e.g., TNF-) and oxidative stress (e.g., 8-OHdG) because these mechanisms contribute to the development and outcomes of this disease. An overview of the literature reporting some relevant biomarkers associated with DN Biomarkers of renal damage, inflammation, and Continue reading >>

Metabolic Markers For Type 2 Diabetes : Scibx: Science-business Exchange

Metabolic Markers For Type 2 Diabetes : Scibx: Science-business Exchange

Kotz, J. SciBX 4(16); doi :10.1038/scibx.2011.444 A Massachusetts team has identified amino acid 1 and triacylglyceride 2 signatures that can predict increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The researchers now plan to look at whether the signatures can distinguish which prediabetic patients will benefit from lifestyle changes or therapeutic intervention. The key unknown is whether a cutoff value for the signatures can be identified that will prospectively predict an individual's risk or response to treatment. We know that the current tools for diagnosing diabetesglucose and HbA1care not particularly good at predicting diabetes, said Steven Watkins, CSO of Tethys Bioscience Inc. This is because changes in the blood levels of these markers tend to occur late in the disease process. Tethys markets PreDx DRS, an assay that predicts an individual's risk of developing diabetes. The test is conducted in a CLIA-certified laboratory and incorporates seven circulating biomarkers including glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). In a search for other early markers of type 2 diabetes, a team led by researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard conducted two studies. One looked at levels of metabolites, and the other looked at levels of lipids in the blood of 378 participants in the Framingham Offspring Study. For a person off the street, what would be a cutoff level that constitutes a danger sign? At the time of an examination conducted from 19911995, none of the participants had diabetes but all were judged to be at high risk for the disease. Out of this cohort, only half went on to develop diabetes over the next 12 years. The Massachusetts team set out to identify the markers that could help better predict who would go on to develop Continue reading >>

Markers Of Oxidative Stress During Diabetes Mellitus

Markers Of Oxidative Stress During Diabetes Mellitus

Markers of Oxidative Stress during Diabetes Mellitus 1Department of Biochemistry & Biochemical Engineering, Sam Higginbotom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad 211007, India 2Department of Biochemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, India Received 7 September 2013; Accepted 7 November 2013 Copyright 2013 Brahm Kumar Tiwari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is rising all over the world. Uncontrolled state of hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion/action leads to a variety of complications including peripheral vascular diseases, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, morbidity, and/or mortality. Large body of evidence suggests major role of reactive oxygen species/oxidative stress in development and progression of diabetic complications. In the present paper, we have discussed the recent researches on the biomarkers of oxidative stress during type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion and insulin action or both. The chronic hyperglycemia is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of normal functioning of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels [ 1 , 2 ]. Diabetes-specific microvascular disease is a leading cause of blindness, renal failure, and nerve damage [ 3 ]. The prevalence of diabetes is rising all over the world due to population growth, aging, urbanisation, and the increase of obesity due to physical inactivity. Unlike the West, wher Continue reading >>

Diabetic Markers

Diabetic Markers

just wondering how many people here have a key chain, bracelet, necklace or anything else to show to medical professionals or first responders that they are diabetic? I won't wear "jewelry" so the emergency info on my phone contains all my medical info. Moderator T2 dx'd 2009, low carb diet, Metformin, Januvia. I wear a bracelet. Don't believe in putting info on a phone. can be lost or stolen I actually have all the info in my phone, but it really dose little good as the phone is secured. I have been thinking about wearing something but I am just not sure what. D.D. Family T1 since 1985, MM Pump 2013, CGM 2015 At this point I hope the Insulin Pump and tubing gives someone a clue. I carry an ID in my wallet, but never used a bracelet or such, though I probably should. If you have an iPhone you can turn on medical ID which shows the information you choose to include on the emergency screen - no need to unlock the phone D.D. Family type 2 since January 27th, 2016 I don't but I am also on no meds. Exercise and diet controlled. As of right now any medical emergency is unlikely to be diabetes related. D.D. Family diabetic since 1997, on insulin 2000 Have a card in my passport for the border guards. Not sure this is of any use since I usually don't take the pump traveling. When I asked the Czech border guard not to X-ray my insulin he said proudly my machine is German. Then he stopped and thought and said Volkswagen and did not x-ray the insulin. Last edited by AnnC; 3/18/17 at 04:51 PM. Reason: Moderated I have entries under ICE in my cell phone book. In the past before cell phones and before I was Diabetic I had thought about having ID labels made and sewing them into my bras (I have only a few bras compared to my other clothing) with name and contact info as I would be out Continue reading >>

Genetic Markers

Genetic Markers

The lifetime risk of type 1 diabetes for a member of the general population is often quoted as 0.4%. This increases to >1% if the mother has diabetes and intriguingly to >3% if the father also has type 1 diabetes. The sibling risk is 6% (15 times greater than in a member of the general population). Second degree relatives are also at increased risk, although this is less easy to quantify. Before rational therapies to delay or prevent the onset of type 1 diabetes can be offered in a clinical setting, accurate identification of those at risk is essential. Autoimmunity is initiated in infancy, and primary prevention trials require those at high genetic risk to be identified at birth or before islet autoantibodies are detectable. This relies on calculation of genetic risk. Calculating genetic risk for a complex disease is challenging. Over the last three decades, the study of type 1 diabetes has led the field in the identification of genes underlying complex multifactorial diseases. Unlike single gene disorders, which are inherited in distinct predictable Mendelian patterns, in multifactorial diseases such as type 1 diabetes, identification of the combination of underlying causative genes is still a work in progress. It has been estimated that about half of the genetic risk of type 1 diabetes can be accounted for by human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-mediated susceptibility and while recent genome-wide association studies have resulted in an explosion of information regarding genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes, HLA remains the most important genetic determinant. HLA-mediated risk 90–95% of the young children with type 1 diabetes carry either or both of the susceptibility haplotypes, DRB103-DQA10501-DQB1*0201/DRB10401-DQA10301-DQB1*0302, whereas the protective DR2-DQB1*0 Continue reading >>

Markers That May Predict Diabetes In Still-healthy People Identified

Markers That May Predict Diabetes In Still-healthy People Identified

In the first large scale, multiethnic study of its kind, researchers have confirmed the role played by three particular molecules known as cytokines as a cause of Type 2 diabetes, and further, have identified these molecules as early biological markers that may be used to more accurately predict future incidences of diabetes among apparently healthy individuals. In the first large scale, multiethnic study of its kind, researchers at UCLA have confirmed the role played by three particular molecules known as cytokines as a cause of Type 2 diabetes, and further, have identified these molecules as early biological markers that may be used to more accurately predict future incidences of diabetes among apparently healthy individuals. Reporting in the August 15 issue of the journal Archives of Internal Medicine, Simin Liu, professor of epidemiology and medicine with a joint appointment in the School of Public Health and the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, and colleagues have identified three inflammatory cytokines (cytokines are messenger molecules) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-); interleukin-6 (IL-6); and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) that may be one of the causes of type 2 diabetes which afflicts roughly seven percent of the U.S. population. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes; about 90 to 95 percent of people who have diabetes have type 2. People with this condition produce insulin, but either their bodies don't make enough of it, or can't effectively use it. Low-grade chronic inflammation of the body, which is reflected by elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines in the blood stream, may promote insulin resistance in the liver, muscles, and the vascular endothelium cells, the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior su Continue reading >>

3 Diabetes Tests You Must Have

3 Diabetes Tests You Must Have

Mike Ellis was fly fishing when he first noticed a change in his vision. Ellis, an avid angler, had so much trouble focusing he struggled for 20 minutes before he was finally able to get a fly on his hook, something he'd done countless times over many years of fly fishing. Then, after casting his line, he was unable to see his lure on the water. "I thought I'd scorched my eyeballs from being out in the sun too much," says Ellis, 63, a retired mechanical engineer in Denver. An eye exam the following month revealed an equally unsettling reality: Ellis had type 2 diabetes, the most common type of the disease. Years of going undiagnosed had taken a toll on his eyesight. He had diabetic retinopathy. The blood vessels in the back of his eye were damaged, a problem that often comes with the condition. "Diabetes damages every blood vessel in your body, including the ones in your eyes," says Robert Rizza, MD, professor of medicine at the Mayo Clinic. "Similar damage can also occur in your heart, your head, and your kidneys. But if you take care of yourself -- if you control your blood sugar, blood cholesterol, and blood pressure -- the chances of bad things happening to you are very low." Certainly, that's the case with Ellis. With the help of three basic tests, he has his diabetes in check. These tests can help you, too. A simple blood test, the A1c (your doctor may call it "glycosylated hemoglobin") is done on a sample of blood taken from a finger-stick or from a small vial of it drawn from your arm. Not to be confused with the daily at-home monitoring that allows some people with diabetes to measure their blood sugars in the moment, the A1c test paints a picture of your average blood sugar level for the past 3 months. If you can keep your hemoglobin A1c in the range of about Continue reading >>

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