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Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment

What Kind Of Diseases Result In Death Within 2 Weeks Of Diagnosis?

What Kind Of Diseases Result In Death Within 2 Weeks Of Diagnosis?

How to cure serious Diseases by a simple Meditation So now let's start the procedure. Before starting the meditation procedure, first check that you have very deep belief within yourself that you can go to any heights to cure your diseases and even if it will not be cured even then you have strongest belief that you will try every possible effort to cure it. Then, if you have that strong belief then start the procedure. Sit in a cross legged position with eyes closed. And try to do what I tell you here, if you cannot do it perfectly then at least keep your belief upon doing all this. Don't think anything, forget the world and everything in it, also forget that you have any illness and need to recover from it, forget that you are doing meditation for something. Then try to look into God's eyes, but forget any of the worldly Gods. Just look into the eyes of the God which comes to your mind naturally without any thinking. And then you will see slowly in 1-2 weeks your illness passes away. I hope this will do it and that too without any heavy and cumbersome medical procedure. Continue reading >>

What Are The Treatments Of Ketonuria?

What Are The Treatments Of Ketonuria?

If someone has ketonuria from starvation the treatment is giving them something to eat. If a person has ketonuria as a feature of diabetic ketoacidosis the treatment is a little bit of insulin and a lot of hydration. Complicated manipulation of electrolytes also plays a great part of the treatment. It all must be done correctly to bring the patient through. Feel free to treat simple ketonuria as needed. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a emergency medical treatment, and requires removal to a hospital as soon as humanly possible. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Continue reading >>

Master Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) Treatment With Picmonic For Physician Assistant

Master Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) Treatment With Picmonic For Physician Assistant

With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing. Dyed-bead Pancreas with Key-to-acidic-lemon and Treatments Picmonic Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency and complication of diabetes. Patients have increased insulin requirements, which leads to a shortage. As a response, the body begins burning excess fat (and fatty acids), causing ketone body buildup. DKA management can be broken into initial management, which involves fluid resuscitation and insulin drip, electrolyte correction with potassium and glucose, and monitoring venous pH levels and serum bicarbonate. Picmonic for Physician Assistant covers information that is relevant to your entire Physician Assistant education. Whether you’re studying for your classes or getting ready to conquer the PANCE, we’re here to help. "I was shocked at how much information and high yield details I was able to recall using Picmonic. I can picture a lot of the Picmonics now and remember the details months later!" - Katrina, New York College of Osteopathic Medicine of NYIT TRY IT FREE Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is defined by the biochemical triad of ketonaemia, hyperglycaemia and acidaemia (1). DKA may result from: absolute deficiency of circulating insulin e.g. - previously undiagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus patients who do not take insulin deliberately or inadvertently (especially the long acting component of a basal-bolus regimen) relative deficiency caused by increased levels of the counter regulatory hormones: catecholamines, glucagon, cortisol and growth hormone as a response to tress in conditions such as sepsis, trauma, or gastrointestinal illness with diarrhea and vomiting etc. despite taking the usual recommended dose of insulin (2) DKA is thought to be indicative, or even diagnostic, of type 1 diabetes, but increasingly there are cases of ketone-prone type 2 diabetes being recognised (3). patients with type 2 diabetes who have ketosis-prone diabetes represents 20 to 50 % of persons with DKA (these patients have impaired insulin secretion) It should be regarded a medical emergency; its rapid recognition and accurate treatment are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality. It should be noted that there are subtle differences in the management in children and in adults. Reference: (1) Savage MW et al. Joint British Diabetes Societies guideline for the management of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabet Med. 2011;28(5):508-15 (2) Wolfsdorf JI et al. Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state. Pediatr Diabetes. 2014;15 Suppl 20:154-79. (3) Joint British Diabetes Societies (JBDS) 2013. Inpatient Care Group. The management of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults. Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Children And Adolescents

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Children And Adolescents

Objectives After completing this article, readers should be able to: Describe the typical presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis in children. Discuss the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Explain the potential complications of diabetic ketoacidosis that can occur during treatment. Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) represents a profound insulin-deficient state characterized by hyperglycemia (>200 mg/dL [11.1 mmol/L]) and acidosis (serum pH <7.3, bicarbonate <15 mEq/L [15 mmol/L]), along with evidence of an accumulation of ketoacids in the blood (measurable serum or urine ketones, increased anion gap). Dehydration, electrolyte loss, and hyperosmolarity contribute to the presentation and potential complications. DKA is the most common cause of death in children who have type 1 diabetes. Therefore, the best treatment of DKA is prevention through early recognition and diagnosis of diabetes in a child who has polydipsia and polyuria and through careful attention to the treatment of children who have known diabetes, particularly during illnesses. Presentation Patients who have DKA generally present with nausea and vomiting. In individuals who have no previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, a preceding history of polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss usually can be elicited. With significant ketosis, patients may have a fruity breath. As the DKA becomes more severe, patients develop lethargy due to the acidosis and hyperosmolarity; in severe DKA, they may present with coma. Acidosis and ketosis cause an ileus that can lead to abdominal pain severe enough to raise concern for an acutely inflamed abdomen, and the elevation of the stress hormones epinephrine and cortisol in DKA can lead to an elevation in the white blood cell count, suggesting infection. Thus, leukocytosi Continue reading >>

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Print If your doctor suspects diabetic ketoacidosis, he or she will do a physical exam and various blood tests. In some cases, additional tests may be needed to help determine what triggered the diabetic ketoacidosis. Blood tests Blood tests used in the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis will measure: Blood sugar level. If there isn't enough insulin in your body to allow sugar to enter your cells, your blood sugar level will rise (hyperglycemia). As your body breaks down fat and protein for energy, your blood sugar level will continue to rise. Ketone level. When your body breaks down fat and protein for energy, acids known as ketones enter your bloodstream. Blood acidity. If you have excess ketones in your blood, your blood will become acidic (acidosis). This can alter the normal function of organs throughout your body. Additional tests Your doctor may order tests to identify underlying health problems that might have contributed to diabetic ketoacidosis and to check for complications. Tests might include: Blood electrolyte tests Urinalysis Chest X-ray A recording of the electrical activity of the heart (electrocardiogram) Treatment If you're diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis, you might be treated in the emergency room or admitted to the hospital. Treatment usually involves: Fluid replacement. You'll receive fluids — either by mouth or through a vein (intravenously) — until you're rehydrated. The fluids will replace those you've lost through excessive urination, as well as help dilute the excess sugar in your blood. Electrolyte replacement. Electrolytes are minerals in your blood that carry an electric charge, such as sodium, potassium and chloride. The absence of insulin can lower the level of several electrolytes in your blood. You'll receive electrolytes throu Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading 0.6 to 1.5mmol/L means you're at a slightly increased risk of DKA and should test again in a couple of hours 1.6 to 2.9mmol/L means you're at an increased risk of DKA and should contact your diabetes team or GP as soon as possible 3mmol/L or over means you have a very high risk of DKA and should get medical help immediately If you do a urine ketone test, a result of more than 2+ means there's a high chance you have DKA. When to get medical help Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department straight away if you think you have DKA, especially if you have a high level of ketones in Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

My dog is diabetic. He has been doing pretty well overall, but recently he became really ill. He stopped eating well, started drinking lots of water, and got really weak. His veterinarian said that he had a condition called “ketoacidosis,” and he had to spend several days in the hospital. I’m not sure I understand this disorder. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency that occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body to control blood sugar (glucose) levels. The body can’t use glucose properly without insulin, so blood glucose levels get very high, and the body creates ketone bodies as an emergency fuel source. When these are broken down, it creates byproducts that cause the body’s acid/base balance to shift, and the body becomes more acidic (acidosis), and it can’t maintain appropriate fluid balance. The electrolyte (mineral) balance becomes disrupted which can lead to abnormal heart rhythms and abnormal muscle function. If left untreated, diabetic ketoacidosis is fatal. How could this disorder have happened? If a diabetic dog undergoes a stress event of some kind, the body secretes stress hormones that interfere with appropriate insulin activity. Examples of stress events that can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis include infection, inflammation, and heart disease. What are the signs of diabetic ketoacidosis? The signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Excessive thirst/drinking Increased urination Lethargy Weakness Vomiting Increased respiratory rate Decreased appetite Weight loss (unplanned) with muscle wasting Dehydration Unkempt haircoat These same clinical signs can occur with other medical conditions, so it is important for your veterinarian to perform appropriate diagnostic tests to determine if diabetic ketoacidosis in truly the issue at hand Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

A Preventable Crisis People who have had diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, will tell you it’s worse than any flu they’ve ever had, describing an overwhelming feeling of lethargy, unquenchable thirst, and unrelenting vomiting. “It’s sort of like having molasses for blood,” says George. “Everything moves so slow, the mouth can feel so dry, and there is a cloud over your head. Just before diagnosis, when I was in high school, I would get out of a class and go to the bathroom to pee for about 10–12 minutes. Then I would head to the water fountain and begin drinking water for minutes at a time, usually until well after the next class had begun.” George, generally an upbeat person, said that while he has experienced varying degrees of DKA in his 40 years or so of having diabetes, “…at its worst, there is one reprieve from its ill feeling: Unfortunately, that is a coma.” But DKA can be more than a feeling of extreme discomfort, and it can result in more than a coma. “It has the potential to kill,” says Richard Hellman, MD, past president of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. “DKA is a medical emergency. It’s the biggest medical emergency related to diabetes. It’s also the most likely time for a child with diabetes to die.” DKA occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body, resulting in high blood glucose; the person is dehydrated; and too many ketones are present in the bloodstream, making it acidic. The initial insulin deficit is most often caused by the onset of diabetes, by an illness or infection, or by not taking insulin when it is needed. Ketones are your brain’s “second-best fuel,” Hellman says, with glucose being number one. If you don’t have enough glucose in your cells to supply energy to your brain, yo Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis With Subcutaneous Insulin Aspart

Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis With Subcutaneous Insulin Aspart

Abstract OBJECTIVE—In this prospective, randomized, open trial, we compared the efficacy and safety of aspart insulin given subcutaneously at different time intervals to a standard low-dose intravenous (IV) infusion protocol of regular insulin in patients with uncomplicated diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A total of 45 consecutive patients admitted with DKA were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous (SC) aspart insulin every hour (SC-1h, n = 15) or every 2 h (SC-2h, n = 15) or to receive IV infusion of regular insulin (n = 15). Response to medical therapy was evaluated by assessing the duration of treatment until resolution of hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis. Additional end points included total length of hospitalization, amount of insulin administration until resolution of hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis, and number of hypoglycemic events. RESULTS—Admission biochemical parameters in patients treated with SC-1h (glucose: 44 ± 21 mmol/l [means ± SD], bicarbonate: 7.1 ± 3 mmol/l, pH: 7.14 ± 0.09) were similar to those treated with SC-2h (glucose: 42 ± 21 mmol/l, bicarbonate: 7.6 ± 4 mmol/l, pH: 7.15 ± 0.12) and IV regular insulin (glucose: 40 ± 13 mmol/l, bicarbonate 7.1 ± 4 mmol/l, pH: 7.11 ± 0.17). There were no statistical differences in the mean duration of treatment until correction of hyperglycemia (6.9 ± 4, 6.1 ± 4, and 7.1 ± 5 h) or until resolution of ketoacidosis (10 ± 3, 10.7 ± 3, and 11 ± 3 h) among patients treated with SC-1h and SC-2h or with IV insulin, respectively (NS). There was no mortality and no differences in the length of hospital stay, total amount of insulin administration until resolution of hyperglycemia or ketoacidosis, or the number of hypoglycemic events among treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS—Ou Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Insulin-resistant Diabetic Ketoacidosis With Insulin-like Growth Factor I In An Adolescent With Insulin-dependent Diabetes

Treatment Of Insulin-resistant Diabetic Ketoacidosis With Insulin-like Growth Factor I In An Adolescent With Insulin-dependent Diabetes

INSULIN plays a central part in the regulation of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. Severe insulin resistance, in which treatment with large doses of insulin does not result in adequate metabolic control, is uncommon. Such resistance occurs in the presence of circulating insulin or insulin-receptor antibodies,1 , 2 insulin-receptor abnormalities,3 and episodically in patients with previously typical insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).4 The therapeutic options in patients with severe insulin resistance have been limited, since insulin has been the only available hormone with insulin-like metabolic effects. Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which shares considerable sequence homology as well as biologic properties with insulin,5 has recently become available and has been used in treating patients with Mendenhall's syndrome.6 We describe the use of IGF-I in the treatment of a 16-year-old girl with IDDM complicated by severe episodic insulin resistance. Administration of massive doses of insulin (more than 1000 U per hour) during these episodes failed to achieve glycemic control or reverse ketoacidosis. Treatment with IGF-I rapidly reversed the hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis, and subsequent weekly intravenous infusions of IGF-I markedly improved the degree of insulin sensitivity. The patient was a 16-year-old girl who had had IDDM since the age of 3. She was treated with twice-daily injections of regular and bovine or porcine isophane insulin suspension until the age of seven, at which time she began to receive human insulin. Her glycemic control subsequently improved. At the age of 13, she began to have increasingly frequent (two to three times monthly) episodes of severe hyperglycemia, usually without ketoacidosis. Her serum glucose Continue reading >>

Developments In The Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults: Implications For Anaesthetists

Developments In The Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults: Implications For Anaesthetists

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency and bedside capillary ketone testing allows timely diagnosis and identification of successful treatment. 0.9% saline with premixed potassium chloride should be the main resuscitation fluid on the general wards and in theatre; this is because it complies with National Patient Safety Agency recommendations on the administration of potassium chloride. Weight-based fixed rate i.v. insulin infusion (FRIII) is now recommended rather than a variable rate i.v. insulin infusion (VRIII). The blood glucose must be kept above 14 mmol litre−1 with the FRIII. Precipitating factor(s) needs to be identified and treated. Surgery and also critical care may be indicated to manage the patient presenting with DKA. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency. The diagnostic triad is: DKA can occur in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and, although preventable, it remains a frequent and life-threatening complication. Errors in the management of DKA are not uncommon and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The majority of mortality and morbidity in DKA are attributable to delays in presentation and initiation of treatment. Rapid recognition and treatment of DKA is critical. Ketonaemia ≥3.0 mmol litre−1 or significant ketonuria (more than 2+ on urine sticks) Blood glucose >11.0 mmol litre−1 or known diabetes mellitus Bicarbonate <15.0 mmol litre−1, venous pH <7.3, or both. To overcome these concerns and to highlight current management strategies, the Joint British Diabetes Societies (JBDS) published guidelines in 2010. This was updated in consultation with the Intensive Care Society in September 2013.1 This article will review the pathophysiology of DKA and highlight the modern management of DKA that Continue reading >>

Can Diabetes Kill You?

Can Diabetes Kill You?

Here’s what you need to know about the life-threatening diabetes complication called diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis is one of the most serious complications of diabetes. Symptoms can take you by surprise, coming on in just 24 hours or less. Without diabetic ketoacidosis treatment, you will fall into a coma and die. “Every minute that the person is not treated is [another] minute closer to death,” says Joel Zonszein, MD, professor of medicine at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when your body doesn’t produce enough insulin. (Diabetic ketoacidosis most often affects people with type 1 diabetes, but there is also type 2 diabetes ketoacidosis.) Without insulin, sugar can’t be stored in your cells to be used as energy and builds up in your blood instead. Your body has to go to a back-up energy system: fat. In the process of breaking down fat for energy, your body releases fatty acids and acids called ketones. Ketones are an alternative form of energy for the body, and just having them in your blood isn’t necessarily harmful. That’s called ketosis, and it can happen when you go on a low-carb diet or even after fasting overnight. “When I put people on a restricted diet, I can get an estimate of how vigorously they’re pursuing it by the presence of ketones in the urine,” says Gerald Bernstein, MD, an endocrinologist and coordinator of the Friedman Diabetes Program at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. RELATED: The Ketogenic Diet Might Be the Next Big Weight Loss Trend, But Should You Try It? But too many ketones are a problem. “In individuals with diabetes who have no or low insulin production, there is an overproduction of ketones, and the kidneys can’t get rid of them fast enough,” sa Continue reading >>

If A Patient With Diabetic Ketoacidosis Eats 2 Spoonful Sugar, Will He Die?

If A Patient With Diabetic Ketoacidosis Eats 2 Spoonful Sugar, Will He Die?

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency, and people in DKA are in a very dangerous situations. They are in no condition to eat two spoonfuls of anything. The blood glucose is very high, and the initial treatment uses small amounts of insulin, and enough saline to really dilute the the blood glucose. In the typical furor of DKA care, it is hard to imagine an five additional grams of glucose doing anything. It would require just a little bit more saline to take care of that amount. Glucose would never be given in the early stages of DKA care. Near the end of the treatment, when the glucose has already come down to about only double the normal level, glucose actually is given to patients in DKA. Continue reading >>

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