Diabetic Ketoacidosis--pathogenesis, Prevention And Therapy.
Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis is the principal cause of hospital admissions for diabetic patients under 20 years of age, and accounts for at least 4000 deaths per annum in the United States. Current mortality rates differ widely throughout the United States, ranging from 0-19 per cent, with an average of 10 per cent. The principal reason for this wide range in the percentage of mortality are the differing criteria for diagnosis and attributing deaths to diabetic ketoacidosis. There are many reported precipitating causes of diabetic ketoacidosis which may be reduced to four common pathways: insulin deficiency, stress hormone excess, dehydration and fasting. Infection is the most common precipitating cause in most reported series of diabetic ketoacidosis, but stress in any form can lead to metabolic decompensation. Omission of insulin is an unusual cause of ketoacidosis, and in approximately one-quarter of patients no cause can be identified. Each of the four common pathways through which these precipitating causes induce diabetic ketoacidosis results in a rise in ketone body and glucose production and/or concentration. Prevention of diabetic ketoacidosis has been underemphasized in Continue reading >>