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Diabetic Hypoglycemia

Low Blood Glucose (hypoglycemia)

Low Blood Glucose (hypoglycemia)

What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, occurs when the level of glucose in your blood drops below normal. For many people with diabetes, that means a level of 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or less. Your numbers might be different, so check with your health care provider to find out what level is too low for you. What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia? Symptoms of hypoglycemia tend to come on quickly and can vary from person to person. You may have one or more mild-to-moderate symptoms listed in the table below. Sometimes people don’t feel any symptoms. Severe hypoglycemia is when your blood glucose level becomes so low that you’re unable to treat yourself and need help from another person. Severe hypoglycemia is dangerous and needs to be treated right away. This condition is more common in people with type 1 diabetes. Hypoglycemia Symptoms Mild-to-Moderate Severe Shaky or jittery Sweaty Hungry Headachy Blurred vision Sleepy or tired Dizzy or lightheaded Confused or disoriented Pale Uncoordinated Irritable or nervous Argumentative or combative Changed behavior or personality Trouble concentrating Weak Fast or irregular heart beat Unable to eat or drink Seizures or convulsions (jerky movements) Unconsciousness Some symptoms of hypoglycemia during sleep are crying out or having nightmares sweating enough to make your pajamas or sheets damp feeling tired, irritable, or confused after waking up What causes hypoglycemia in diabetes? Hypoglycemia can be a side effect of insulin or other types of diabetes medicines that help your body make more insulin. Two types of diabetes pills can cause hypoglycemia: sulfonylureas and meglitinides . Ask your health care team if your diabetes medicine can cause hypoglycemia. Although ot Continue reading >>

Non-diabetic Hypoglycemia

Non-diabetic Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia is the condition when your blood glucose (sugar) levels are too low. It happens to people with diabetes when they have a mismatch of medicine, food, and/or exercise. Non-diabetic hypoglycemia, a rare condition, is low blood glucose in people who do not have diabetes. There are two kinds of non-diabetic hypoglycemia: Reactive hypoglycemia, which happens within a few hours of eating a meal Fasting hypoglycemia, which may be related to a disease Glucose is the main source of energy for your body and brain. It comes from what we eat and drink. Insulin, a hormone, helps keep blood glucose at normal levels so your body can work properly. Insulin's job is to help glucose enter your cells where it's used for energy. If your glucose level is too low, you might not feel well. You can have symptoms of hypoglycemia, but unless your blood glucose level is actually low when you have symptoms, you don't have hypoglycemia. The two kinds of non-diabetic hypoglycemia have different causes. Researchers are still studying the causes of reactive hypoglycemia. They know, however, that it comes from having too much insulin in the blood, leading to low blood glucose levels. Some people have trouble speaking and also feel weak. Talk with your doctor if you have symptoms of hypoglycemia, even if you only have one episode. HOW IS NON-DIABETIC HYPOGLYCEMIA DIAGNOSED? Your doctor can diagnose non-diabetic hypoglycemia by reviewing your symptoms, doing a physical exam, looking at your risk for diabetes, and checking your blood glucose level. Your doctor will also see whether you feel better after you eat or drink to raise your glucose to a normal level. Checking your blood glucose to see if it is actually low (about 55 mg/dL or less) when you're having symptoms is an important part of Continue reading >>

Diabetic Hypoglycemia

Diabetic Hypoglycemia

Print Overview For people with diabetes, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) occurs when there's too much insulin and not enough sugar (glucose) in the blood. Hypoglycemia is defined as blood sugar below 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 3.9 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Several factors can cause hypoglycemia in people with diabetes, including taking too much insulin or other diabetes medications, skipping a meal, or exercising harder than usual. Pay attention to early warning signs, so you can treat low blood sugar promptly. Treatment involves short-term solutions — such as taking glucose tablets — to raise your blood sugar into a normal range. Untreated, diabetic hypoglycemia can lead to seizures and loss of consciousness — a medical emergency. Rarely, it can be deadly. Tell family and friends what symptoms to look for and what to do in case you're not able to treat the condition yourself. Symptoms Early warning signs and symptoms Early signs and symptoms of diabetic hypoglycemia include: Shakiness Dizziness Sweating Hunger Irritability or moodiness Anxiety or nervousness Headache Nighttime symptoms Diabetic hypoglycemia can also occur while you sleep. Signs and symptoms, which can awaken you, include: Damp sheets or bedclothes due to perspiration Nightmares Tiredness, irritability or confusion upon waking Severe symptoms If diabetic hypoglycemia goes untreated, signs and symptoms of severe hypoglycemia can occur. These include: Clumsiness or jerky movements Muscle weakness Difficulty speaking or slurred speech Blurry or double vision Drowsiness Confusion Convulsions or seizures Unconsciousness Death Take your symptoms seriously. Diabetic hypoglycemia can increase the risk of serious — even deadly — accidents. Identifying and correcting the factors contrib Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetic Hypoglycemia?

What Is Diabetic Hypoglycemia?

Hypoglycemia or low blood sugar is a condition where blood levels of glucose drop below a critical level. Glucose provides energy for various bodily functions and is therefore vital for survival. Glucose is one of the most important sources of energy derived from the foods that we ingest. One of the main sources of glucose is the carbohydrate food group. Rice, potatoes, bread, milk, cereal, sweets, fruits and vegetables are important sources of glucose and other sugars. Once ingested, glucose is absorbed from food into the blood which carries it into the cells of the body to provide energy for various cell functions. This uptake of glucose is regulated by a hormone called insulin which is produced in the beta cells of the pancreas in the abdomen. Insulin helps the liver and skeletal tissue take up glucose where it is stored in the form of glycogen. Fat cells also take up the glucose and store it as triglycerides. As blood glucose becomes lower, another hormone called glucagon is released by the pancreas to stop glucose levels becoming too low. Glucagon counteracts the effects of insulin by stimulating the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose which is then released into the blood. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreatic cells that release insulin have been destroyed through autoimmune attack and the body is unable to produce any insulin. Glucose therefore remains in the blood rather than being taken up and utilized by cells. In type 2 diabetes, the blood sugar levels are higher than usual because the amount of insulin produced is too low to enable cells to uptake adequate levels of glucose from the blood. Therefore, type 1 diabetes is caused by a "true" deficiency and type 2 diabetes by a relative deficiency of insulin. People with diabetes also have an impaired glu Continue reading >>

The Importance Of Hypoglycemia In Diabetic Patients

The Importance Of Hypoglycemia In Diabetic Patients

Abstract Hypoglycemia is one of the most important complications of diabetes treatment. The risk of severe hypoglycemia is higher in elderly patients, those having comorbidities such as vascular disease or renal failure, pregnant women and in children with type 1diabetes. Moreover, in type 2 diabetes, progressive insulin deficiency, longer duration of diabetes, and tight glycemic control increase the risk of hypoglycemia as much as type 1 diabetes.Episodes hypoglycemia may lead to impairment of counter-regulatory system, with the potential of development of hypoglycemia unawareness. So, hypoglycemia may increase the vascular events even death in addition to other possible detrimental effects. Glycemic control should be individualized based on patient characteristics with some degree of safety. Recognition of hypoglycemia risk factors, blood glucose monitoring, selection of appropriate regimens and educational programs for healthcare professionals and patients with diabetes are the major issues to maintain good glycemic control, minimize the risk of hypoglycemia, and prevent long- term complications. Introduction Diabetes is a chronic disease that requires continuous medical care and patient self-management education to prevent acute complications and reduce the risk of long-term complications [1]. The prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in most populations. According to the UN World Health Organization (WHO) more than 220 million people worldwide have diabetes, from which more than 70% live in low- and middle income countries. It is expected that the number of diabetic subjects grows to 366 million by 2030, a figure that is more than twice the number in 2000. Epidemiologic evidences suggest that unless effective preventive measures are implemented th Continue reading >>

Patient Education: Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar) In Diabetes Mellitus (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar) In Diabetes Mellitus (beyond The Basics)

LOW BLOOD SUGAR OVERVIEW Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, occurs when levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood are too low. Hypoglycemia is common in people with diabetes who take insulin and some (but not all) oral diabetes medications. WHY DO I GET LOW BLOOD SUGAR? Low blood sugar happens when a person with diabetes does one or more of the following: Takes too much insulin (or an oral diabetes medication that causes your body to secrete insulin) Does not eat enough food Exercises vigorously without eating a snack or decreasing the dose of insulin beforehand Waits too long between meals Drinks excessive alcohol, although even moderate alcohol use can increase the risk of hypoglycemia in people with type 1 diabetes LOW BLOOD SUGAR SYMPTOMS The symptoms of low blood sugar vary from person to person, and can change over time. During the early stages low blood sugar, you may: Sweat Tremble Feel hungry Feel anxious If untreated, your symptoms can become more severe, and can include: Difficulty walking Weakness Difficulty seeing clearly Bizarre behavior or personality changes Confusion Unconsciousness or seizure When possible, you should confirm that you have low blood sugar by measuring your blood sugar level (see "Patient education: Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)"). Low blood sugar is generally defined as a blood sugar of 60 mg/dL (3.3 mmol/L) or less. Some people with diabetes develop symptoms of low blood sugar at slightly higher levels. If your blood sugar levels are high for long periods of time, you may have symptoms and feel poorly when your blood sugar is closer to 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L). Getting your blood sugar under better control can help to lower the blood sugar level when you begin to feel symptoms. Hypoglyc Continue reading >>

Non-diabetic Hypoglycemia: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

Non-diabetic Hypoglycemia: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

Passing out, loss of consciousness, seizures To diagnose non-diabetic hypoglycemia, your doctor will do a physical exam and ask questions about any medicines you take. Hell want to know all about your health and any history of diseases or stomach surgery. Hell check your blood glucose level, especially when you are having symptoms. Hell also check to see if you feel better when your glucose goes back to a normal level. If your doctor suspects hypoglycemia, you may have to fast until you start to have symptoms. Hell test your blood glucose level at different times throughout the fast. To check for reactive hypoglycemia, you may have to take a test called a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT). For this, you take a special drink that raises your blood glucose. The doctor will check your blood glucose levels over the next few hours. Right away, you should reverse the low blood sugar by eating or drinking 15 to 20 grams of carbohydrates. You can take juice, hard candy, or glucose tablets. This will usually help your symptoms go away. Check your blood sugar again in 15 minutes and treat every 15 minutes if levels are still low. Call 911 if you dont feel well or if you cant get your blood sugar back up. For severe symptoms -- passing out, seizures , or confusion -- call 911 right away. If you have serious attacks, ask your doctor if you should keep a home glucagon kit. This hormone made in your pancreas causes your liver to release sugar. The kid contains a little bottle (the doctor will call it a vial) and a syringe to inject yourself with it. People youre with -- loved ones or caregivers -- should know how to give you the injection. For a long-term solution, how you treat hypoglycemia depends on what's causing it. If a medicine triggers your low blood sugar, you may need to ch Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia

Blood sugar too low to fuel the body’s activities. The normal range for blood sugar is about 60 mg/dl (milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood) to 120 mg/dl, depending on when a person last ate. If a person has not eaten for many hours, blood sugar can occasionally fall below 60 mg/dl or even below 50 mg/dl without indicating a serious abnormality or disease. Individuals who take insulin, which includes all people with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes and some people with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, are prone to hypoglycemia. People with Type 2 diabetes who take sulfonylureas are also vulnerable to episodes of low blood sugar. Hypoglycemia can occur when a person takes too much medicine, skips or delays a meal, eats too little food for the amount of insulin he injected, exercises too strenuously, or drinks too much alcohol. Common symptoms of hypoglycemia include weakness, drowsiness, confusion, hunger, dizziness, paleness, headache, irritability, trembling, sweating, rapid heartbeat, and a cold, clammy feeling. In severe cases, hypoglycemia can cause a person to lose consciousness or even lapse into a coma. Most people with diabetes can recognize these symptoms and treat them by quickly eating or drinking something with sugar, such as candy, juice, or a regular (not diet) soft drink, or by taking special glucose tablets or gel, available over the counter in pharmacies. However, some people with long-standing diabetes develop a condition known as hypoglycemia unawareness or hypoglycemia without warning, in which they no longer develop the usual symptoms that herald the onset of hypoglycemia. This condition can be reversed by maintaining higher blood sugar levels for a short period of time (about two weeks) and scrupulously avoiding low blood sugar Continue reading >>

Diabetic Hypoglycemia

Diabetic Hypoglycemia

Diabetic hypoglycemia is a low blood glucose level occurring in a person with diabetes mellitus. It is one of the most common types of hypoglycemia seen in emergency departments and hospitals. According to the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP), and based on a sample examined between 2004 and 2005, an estimated 55,819 cases (8.0% of total admissions) involved insulin, and severe hypoglycemia is likely the single most common event.[1] In general, hypoglycemia occurs when a treatment to lower the elevated blood glucose of diabetes inaccurately matches the body's physiological need, and therefore causes the glucose to fall to a below-normal level. Definition[edit] A commonly used "number" to define the lower limit of normal glucose is 70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/l), though in someone with diabetes, hypoglycemic symptoms can sometimes occur at higher glucose levels, or may fail to occur at lower. Some textbooks for nursing and pre-hospital care use the range 80 mg/dl to 120 mg/dl (4.4 mmol/l to 6.7 mmol/l). This variability is further compounded by the imprecision of glucose meter measurements at low levels, or the ability of glucose levels to change rapidly. Signs and symptoms[edit] Diabetic hypoglycemia can be mild, recognized easily by the patient, and reversed with a small amount of carbohydrates eaten or drunk, or it may be severe enough to cause unconsciousness requiring intravenous dextrose or an injection of glucagon. Severe hypoglycemic unconsciousness is one form of diabetic coma. A common medical definition of severe hypoglycemia is "hypoglycemia severe enough that the person needs assistance in dealing with it". A co-morbidity is the issue of hypoglycemia unawareness. Recent research using machine learning methods have proved to Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia means low blood sugar. Symptoms include: As the term implies, low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, occurs when your brain and body are not getting enough sugar. For most people whose blood sugar is kept in the near normal range, less than 70 mg/dl can be considered low, or hypoglycemic. When you have type 2 diabetes and are treated with insulin releasing pills (sulfonylureas, meglitinides, or nateglinide) or insulin, you are at risk for low blood sugars or hypoglycemia. It is very unlikely for individuals with type 2 diabetes who are only treated with lifestyle changes or blood sugar normalizing medications to have a low blood sugar. Acute Complication: Hypoglycemia Recognizing low blood sugar is important. Why? So that you can take steps to prevent a medical emergency. First symptoms of low blood sugar: Shaking, sweating, rapid heartbeat Change in vision Hunger Headache Sudden moodiness Severe symptoms of low blood sugar requiring immediate medical attention: Behavior changes Lack of coordination Inattention and confusion Seizures Loss of consciousness What causes low blood sugars? Monitoring your blood sugar often Staying alert for the first symptoms Keeping some sugar or sweet handy (and eating it as necessary) Despite all the safety planning, you still may get a low blood sugar when you are treated with insulin releasing pills (sulfonylureas, meglitinides, or nateglinide) or insulin. So always wear your medical alert identification. And if you are taking insulin, have family members or friends trained to use a Glucagon Emergency kit. What causes hypoglycemic unawareness? Sometimes people treated with insulin releasing pills or insulin lose the ability to detect a low blood sugar – a condition known as hypoglycemic unawareness. Your brain has a trigger po Continue reading >>

Nondiabetic Hypoglycemia

Nondiabetic Hypoglycemia

What is non-diabetic hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia is the condition when your blood glucose (sugar) levels are too low. It happens to people with diabetes when they have a mismatch of medicine, food, and/or exercise. Non-diabetic hypoglycemia, a rare condition, is low blood glucose in people who do not have diabetes. There are two kinds of non-diabetic hypoglycemia: Reactive hypoglycemia, which happens within a few hours of eating a meal Fasting hypoglycemia, which may be related to a disease Glucose is the main source of energy for your body and brain. It comes from what we eat and drink. Insulin, a hormone, helps keep blood glucose at normal levels so your body can work properly. Insulin’s job is to help glucose enter your cells where it’s used for energy. If your glucose level is too low, you might not feel well. What causes non-diabetic hypoglycemia? The two kinds of non-diabetic hypoglycemia have different causes. Researchers are still studying the causes of reactive hypoglycemia. They know, however, that it comes from having too much insulin in the blood, leading to low blood glucose levels. Types of nondiabetic hypoglycemia Reactive hypoglycemia Having pre-diabetes or being at risk for diabetes, which can lead to trouble making the right amount of insulin Stomach surgery, which can make food pass too quickly into your small intestine Rare enzyme deficiencies that make it hard for your body to break down food Fasting hypoglycemia Medicines, such as salicylates (such as aspirin), sulfa drugs (an antibiotic), pentamidine (to treat a serious kind of pneumonia), quinine (to treat malaria) Alcohol, especially with binge drinking Serious illnesses, such as those affecting the liver, heart, or kidneys Low levels of certain hormones, such as cortisol, growth hormone, glu Continue reading >>

Diabetic Hypoglycemia: How To Beat That Low!

Diabetic Hypoglycemia: How To Beat That Low!

Hypoglycemia Definition: When Blood Sugar Drops Below 4mmol/L When blood sugar levels drop below 4mmol/L or 70mg/dL in a diabetic, the condition is called diabetic hypoglycemia. Diabetes medications (including insulin) interfere with the body’s natural blood sugar control mechanism to bring down high blood sugar. However, if you skip a meal or exercise too much, or if your medication is too high, you could end up with low blood sugar instead. Sadly, this is surprisingly common in diabetics, especially those on insulin. It can lead to seizures and loss of consciousness, and can even be deadly, if untreated. Hypoglycemia Symptoms: Effects of Low Blood Sugar Other Symptoms of Hypoglycemia Symptoms (Low Blood Sugar) General malaise Staring blankly, with pupils dilated Feeling unsteady Pins and needles in the hands and feet Feeling tremors or shakiness Slurred speech Convulsions or fits Loss of consiciousness / coma Diabetic Hypoglycemia Causes The most common cause of hypoglycemia in diabetics is their diabetes medication. To doctors, this is a known fact. Hence, they always advise you to take the medication as it is prescribed, that is, at regular intervals, before/after food, etc. The common groups of diabetic drugs that could cause diabetic hypoglycemia include – Biguanides(Metformin) Other contributors to low blood sugar symptoms in a diabetic include – Too much exercise Skipping meals while on medication Consuming alcohol on an empty stomach Hypoglyceimia: How To Control It All diabetics should carry candy with them. Pop some immediately when you feel the low-sugar symptoms, and then see your doctor. Glucose tablets can also do the trick. Other things that may work are regular soft drinks (non-diet) and fruit juice. If blood sugar levels don’t rise above 4mmol/ Continue reading >>

Can You Have Hypoglycemia Without Having Diabetes?

Can You Have Hypoglycemia Without Having Diabetes?

Hypoglycemia is a condition that occurs when the sugar levels in your blood are too low. Many people think of hypoglycemia as something that only occurs in people with diabetes. However, it can also occur in people who don’t have diabetes. Hypoglycemia is different from hyperglycemia, which occurs when you have too much sugar in your bloodstream. Hypoglycemia can happen in people with diabetes if the body produces too much insulin. Insulin is a hormone that breaks down sugar so that you can use it for energy. You can also get hypoglycemia if you have diabetes and you take too much insulin. If you don’t have diabetes, hypoglycemia can happen if your body can’t stabilize your blood sugar levels. It can also happen after meals if your body produces too much insulin. Hypoglycemia in people who don’t have diabetes is less common than hypoglycemia that occurs in people who have diabetes or related conditions. Here's what you need to know about hypoglycemia that occurs without diabetes. Everyone reacts differently to fluctuations in their blood glucose levels. Some symptoms of hypoglycemia may include: You may have hypoglycemia without having any symptoms. This is known as hypoglycemia unawareness. Hypoglycemia is either reactive or non-reactive. Each type has different causes: Reactive hypoglycemia Reactive hypoglycemia occurs within a few hours after a meal. An overproduction of insulin causes reactive hypoglycemia. Having reactive hypoglycemia may mean that you’re at risk for developing diabetes. Non-reactive hypoglycemia Non-reactive hypoglycemia isn't necessarily related to meals and may be due to an underlying disease. Causes of non-reactive, or fasting, hypoglycemia can include: some medications, like those used in adults and children with kidney failure any d Continue reading >>

All About Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar)

All About Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar)

Hypoglycemia refers to an abnormally low level of sugar, or glucose, in the blood. Hypoglycemia is not a disease in itself, it is a sign of a health problem. The brain uses a lot of energy and needs glucose to function. Because the brain cannot store or manufacture glucose, it needs a continuous supply. Signs of low blood sugar include hunger, trembling, heart racing, nausea, and sweating. Hypoglycemia is commonly linked with diabetes, but many other conditions can also cause low blood sugar. This article will discuss the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoglycemia, and the difference between hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. We will also look at how to prevent it. Here are some key points about hypoglycemia. More detail is in the main article. Hypoglycemia is not a disease but a symptom of another condition. Early symptoms include hunger, sweating, and trembling. A common cause is diabetes. Alcohol abuse and kidney disorders can also lower blood sugar levels. What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia is a condition where there is not enough glucose, or sugar, in the blood. Levels of blood sugar are below 4 mmol/L (72mg/dL). Adults and children with mild hypoglycemia may experience the following early symptoms: hunger tremor or trembling sweating irritability a pale face heart palpitations accelerated heart rate tingling lips dizziness weakness Severe hypoglycemia is sometimes called diabetic shock. It may involve: concentration problems confusion irrational and disorderly behavior, similar to intoxication inability to eat or drink Complications If a person does not take action when symptoms of hypoclycemia appear, it can lead to: A person who regularly experiences hypoglycemia may become unaware that it is happening. They will not notice the warning signs, and this can lea Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia In Diabetes

Hypoglycemia In Diabetes

Iatrogenic hypoglycemia causes recurrent morbidity in most people with type 1 diabetes and many with type 2 diabetes, and it is sometimes fatal. The barrier of hypoglycemia generally precludes maintenance of euglycemia over a lifetime of diabetes and thus precludes full realization of euglycemia’s long-term benefits. While the clinical presentation is often characteristic, particularly for the experienced individual with diabetes, the neurogenic and neuroglycopenic symptoms of hypoglycemia are nonspecific and relatively insensitive; therefore, many episodes are not recognized. Hypoglycemia can result from exogenous or endogenous insulin excess alone. However, iatrogenic hypoglycemia is typically the result of the interplay of absolute or relative insulin excess and compromised glucose counterregulation in type 1 and advanced type 2 diabetes. Decrements in insulin, increments in glucagon, and, absent the latter, increments in epinephrine stand high in the hierarchy of redundant glucose counterregulatory factors that normally prevent or rapidly correct hypoglycemia. In insulin-deficient diabetes (exogenous) insulin levels do not decrease as glucose levels fall, and the combination of deficient glucagon and epinephrine responses causes defective glucose counterregulation. Reduced sympathoadrenal responses cause hypoglycemia unawareness. The concept of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure in diabetes posits that recent antecedent hypoglycemia causes both defective glucose counterregulation and hypoglycemia unawareness. By shifting glycemic thresholds for the sympathoadrenal (including epinephrine) and the resulting neurogenic responses to lower plasma glucose concentrations, antecedent hypoglycemia leads to a vicious cycle of recurrent hypoglycemia and further impair Continue reading >>

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