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Diabetes Mellitus - Principles Of Treatment In Dogs

Diabetes Mellitus - Principles Of Treatment In Dogs

This handout provides detailed information on the principles of treatment in diabetes mellitus. For more information about diabetes mellitus and its treatment, see the fact sheets "Diabetes Mellitus - General Information" and "Diabetes Mellitus - Insulin Treatment". What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is caused by the failure of the pancreas to regulate blood sugar. In dogs, diabetes mellitus is usually Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (also called Type 2 Diabetes). This type of diabetes usually results from the destruction of most or all of the beta-cells that produce insulin in the pancreas. As the name implies, dogs with this type of diabetes require insulin injections to stabilize blood sugar levels. Insulin regulates the level of glucose in the bloodstream and controls the delivery of glucose to the tissues of the body. The clinical signs seen in diabetes mellitus are related to the elevated concentrations of blood glucose, and the inability of the body to use glucose as an energy source. Some people with diabetes take insulin shots, and others take oral medication. Is this true for dogs? In humans, there are two types of diabetes mellitus. Both types are similar in that there is a failure to regulate blood sugar, but the basic mechanisms of the disease differ somewhat between the two. "Type I Diabetes Mellitus is the most common type of diabetes in dogs." Type I Diabetes Mellitus (sometimes also caused Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus), results from total or near-complete destruction of the beta-cells. This is the most common type of diabetes in dogs. As the name implies, dogs with this type of diabetes require insulin injections to stabilize blood sugar. Type II Diabetes Mellitus (sometimes called Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus), is differ Continue reading >>

The Big Pet Diabetes Survey: Perceived Frequency And Triggers For Euthanasia

The Big Pet Diabetes Survey: Perceived Frequency And Triggers For Euthanasia

The Big Pet Diabetes Survey: Perceived Frequency and Triggers for Euthanasia Stijn J.M. Niessen ,1,2,* Katarina Hazuchova ,1 Sonya L. Powney ,3 Javier Guitian ,4 Antonius P.M. Niessen ,5 Paul D. Pion ,6 James A. Shaw ,2 and David B. Church 1 1Diabetic Remission Clinic, Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, UK; [email protected] (K.H.); [email protected] (D.B.C.) 2Institute of Cellular Medicine, Medical School Newcastle, Framlington Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE2 4HH, Tyne and Wear, UK; [email protected] 1Diabetic Remission Clinic, Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, UK; [email protected] (K.H.); [email protected] (D.B.C.) 4Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health Group, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, UK; [email protected] 2Institute of Cellular Medicine, Medical School Newcastle, Framlington Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE2 4HH, Tyne and Wear, UK; [email protected] 1Diabetic Remission Clinic, Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, UK; [email protected] (K.H.); [email protected] (D.B.C.) 1Diabetic Remission Clinic, Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, UK; [email protected] (K.H.); [email protected] (D.B.C.) 2Institute of Cellular Medicine, Medical School Newcastle, Framlington Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE2 4HH, Tyne and Wear, UK; [email protected] 3E-Media Unit, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, UK; [email protected] 4Veterinary Continue reading >>

10 Common Concerns From Owners Of Diabetic Dogs (sponsored By Intervet/schering-plough Animal Health)

10 Common Concerns From Owners Of Diabetic Dogs (sponsored By Intervet/schering-plough Animal Health)

"My dog has diabetes? What do I do?" For the last 24 years, I've heard dog owners ask these questions, often with great anxiety. As veterinarians, we're well trained in diagnosing and treating disease but not so in handling anxiousand at times overly concernedclients. In the case of a chronic disease such as canine diabetes, we have to do an excellent job of handling clients' concerns, or it may be the owners' misperceptions about canine diabetes rather than the diabetes itself that results in the loss of a patient. Anything we can do to decrease owners' anxieties about the diagnosis of diabetes will likely contribute more to the long-term management of their dogs' disease than any discussion of the disease itself. I've developed a trouble-shooting top 10 list to help us assure owners of newly diagnosed dogs that it's going to be OK. 10. "But according to Uncle Billy Bob's Diabetic Pet website...." The Internet should be like cable TV, but instead of parental controls, you should turn on veterinary controls. Not all websites are the best sources of information. Assemble a list of websites that you and your staff approve of and provide that to clients. A good website explains diabetes, discusses its clinical signs, explains how it's diagnosed and monitored, and reviews injection techniques. Many good websites originate from owners of diabetic dogs. See Helpful websites for my recommendations. 9. "I can't give my dog an injection! Isn't a pill easier?" In general, no, it's not easier. While some owners are great at giving oral medications, most aren't and struggle with compliance. Many owners, after attempting to give pills at home, ask to switch to injections. There's also no question that insulin is the preferred treatment for diabetes in conjunction with dietary manag Continue reading >>

'diabetes Dogs' Can Help Alert Owners To Blood Sugar Dangers

'diabetes Dogs' Can Help Alert Owners To Blood Sugar Dangers

Diabetes alert dogs spend a year or sometimes even more being trained. Getty Images Another nod to mans best friend comes from a recent study focused on the impact a well-trained service dog can have on the daily lives of people with type 1 diabetes. This is something many patients have known for a long time that even the best of todays diabetes technology cant quite compare to the safety and security provided by a diabetes alert dog. The from the University of Bristol in England reports that diabetes alert dogs alerted their owners to 83 percent of hypoglycemic episodes in more than 4,000 hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic events. Nicola Rooney, PhD, a teaching fellow in animal welfare and behavior at the Bristol Veterinary School and a study author, says that while the value of a medical detection dog is well-known, this is the first large-scale study focused on using service dogs for detecting hypoglycemia. Trained first as service dogs, diabetes alert dogs are then trained with a combined effort of the original training facility and their new owners to monitor an imbalance of glucose versus insulin on the breath and saliva. During training, dog owners put cotton balls in their mouths to collect their saliva when their blood sugars are low or high. Dogs then associate different blood sugar levels with certain alerts such as nudging their owner with their nose or putting their paw on their owners knee. He really does catch the low blood sugars before they happen, said Sarah Koenck about her service dog, Rio. Koenck, a Colorado native and registered dietitian at Virta Health, has lived with type 1 diabetes for several decades and wears a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). But Rio the golden retriever is simply better than her advanced technology. Hes always right, Koenck t Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs: Everything You Need To Know To Keep Them Healthy

Diabetes In Dogs: Everything You Need To Know To Keep Them Healthy

Emotional Support Animal Letters Blog Diabetes in Dogs: Everything You Need to Know to Keep Them Healthy Diabetes in Dogs: Everything You Need to Know to Keep Them Healthy The key to managing diabetes in dogs is early detection, proper care, and a better understanding of this illness and how it works. While no pet owner ever wants their pet to get sick, unfortunately, dogs and cats do get ill from time-to-time. One of the many illnesses that impact dogs today is diabetes. Much like diabetes in humans, the earlier you can catch this condition, the better, and while it may change lives it is possible for your canine companion to live comfortably with this disease, under proper management. With the Correct Monitoring and Management, Your Doggo Can Live a Long and Happy Life! If your dog gets diagnosed with diabetes, chances are you will have a number of questions swirling around in your head. The most important thing to understand first is exactly whatdiabetes is and what it means in dogs. Diabetes is actually a rather complex disease that is caused by either a lack of insulin (which is an important hormone) or the bodies inability to respond properly to insulin in the body. Type 1 Diabetes-Means a lack of insulin production. This is the most common form of diabetes in dogs and cats. Type II Diabetes-Means an inability to respond to the insulin production. Insulin production is also impaired in dogs with this condition. When insulin isnt doing its job in the body, a dogs blood sugar will level which results in hyperglycemia, and if left unattended, a number of other serious health complications, especially with the pancreas. Here is a List of the Symptoms of Diabetes in Dogs: Spotting diabetes in dogs early is essential for your doggos quality of life and overall well-bei Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Pets

Diabetes In Pets

Diabetes is more common in older pets, but it can also occur in younger or pregnant pets. The disease is more manageable if it is detected early and managed with the help of your veterinarian. The good news is that with proper monitoring, treatment, and diet and exercise, diabetic pets can lead long and happy lives. Diabetes mellitus, or diabetes, is a condition that occurs when the body can not use glucose (a type of sugar) normally. Glucose is the main source of energy for the body’s cells. The levels of glucose in the blood are primarily controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is made by the pancreas. As food passes through the intestines during digestion, sugars are one of the nutrients absorbed from the food. The sugars are transported into the cells that line the intestines and are converted into simple sugars (including) glucose. The simple sugars are then absorbed into the bloodstream for circulation and delivery to the whole body’s tissues and cells. Insulin is required for the transfer of glucose from the bloodstream to the cells. If there is not enough insulin or the body is unable to use the insulin, glucose accumulates in high levels in the blood – a condition called hyperglycemia. When the blood glucose reaches a certain level, the glucose overflows into the urine (this is called glucosuria) and draws large volumes of water with it. This is why diabetic pets often drink more water and urinate more frequently and in larger amounts. In diabetics, regardless of the source of the sugar or the amount of sugar in the blood, there is not enough glucose transported into the body’s cells. As a result, there is not enough energy for the cells to function normally, and, the tissues become starved for energy. This state of metabolic “starvation” caus Continue reading >>

Owners' Solution To Save Diabetic Dog Turns Into Business Venture

Owners' Solution To Save Diabetic Dog Turns Into Business Venture

Owners' solution to save diabetic dog turns into business venture A dog owners' invention that gave their diabetic pet the chance to live is being launched worldwide. Owners' solution to save diabetic dog turns into business venture A dog owners' invention that gave their diabetic pet the chance to live is being launched worldwide. Check out this story on argusleader.com: A link has been sent to your friend's email address. A link has been posted to your Facebook feed. To find out more about Facebook commenting please read the Conversation Guidelines and FAQs This conversation is moderated according to USA TODAY's community rules . Please read the rules before joining the discussion. Owners' solution to save diabetic dog turns into business venture By Lisa Peterson, for the Sioux Falls Business Journal Published 11:00 p.m. CT Aug. 5, 2014 | Updated 11:05 p.m. CT Aug. 5, 2014 Kameron and Nancy Carlson are managing partners for Vintek Nutrition. The company sell products designed specifically for diabetic dogs such as supplements and treats. (Photo: Jay Pickthorn / Argus Leader)Buy Photo A dog owners' invention that gave their diabetic pet the chance to live is being launched worldwide. Sioux Falls residents Kameron and Nancy Carlson, both financial planners, developed an edible treat to help their beloved Italian greyhound Vinny who had canine diabetes. The couple began noticing changes in their dog when he was about 9 years old. Vinny was eating voraciously and drinking more water. Despite his increased appetite, he was losing weight. After testing, they learned their dog had diabetes mellitus. They gave Vinny insulin shots twice a day and controlled his diet, but with each passing month his health declined. "We were told he was a 'brittle' diabetic and was not respond Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatment

Diabetes In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatment

Diabetes is a chronic disease that can affect dogs and cats and other animals (including apes, pigs, and horses) as well as humans. Although diabetes cant be cured, it can be managed very successfully. Diabetes mellitus , or sugar diabetes, is the type of diabetes seen most often in dogs. It is a metabolism disorder. Metabolism refers to how the body converts food to energy. To understand what diabetes is, it helps to understand some of this process. The conversion of food nutrients into energy to power the bodys cells involves an ongoing interplay of two things: Glucose: essential fuel for the bodys cells. When food is digested, the body breaks down some of the nutrients into glucose, a type of sugar that is a vital source of energy for certain body cells and organs. The glucose is absorbed from the intestines into the blood, which then transports the glucose throughout the body. Insulin: in charge of fuel delivery. Meanwhile, an important organ next to the stomach called the pancreas releases the hormone insulin into the body. Insulin acts as a gatekeeper that tells cells to grab glucose and other nutrients out of the bloodstream and use them as fuel. With diabetes, the glucose-insulin connection isnt working as it should. Diabetes occurs in dogs in two forms: Insulin-deficiency diabetesThis is when the dogs body isnt producing enough insulin. This happens when the pancreas is damaged or otherwise not functioning properly. Dogs with this type of diabetes need daily shots to replace the missing insulin. This is the most common type of diabetes in dogs. Insulin-resistance diabetesThis is when the pancreas is producing some insulin, but the dogs body isnt utilizing the insulin as it should. The cells arent responding to the insulins message, so glucose isnt being pulled Continue reading >>

Dadofamerica | Faqs

Dadofamerica | Faqs

Diabetic Alert Dogs are trained to alert diabetic owners in advance of low (hypoglycemia) or high (hyperglycemia) blood sugar events before they become dangerous. That waytheir handlerscan take steps to return their blood sugar to normalsuch as using glucosesweets or taking insulin. A Diabetic Alert Dog is specifically trained to react to the chemical change produced by blood sugar highs and lows. Diabetic Alert Dogs can provide emotional security and a sense of balance for individuals and for those who have loved ones with diabetes. They can help you lead a more confidentand independent lifestyle. Our bodies are a unique makeup of organic chemicals - all of which have very specific smells. Low and high blood sugar levels, or hypoglycemia/ hyperglycemia, release chemicals in the body that have a distinct odorthat is undetectable by humans. Our training process positively motivates these dogs to alert when these odors are detected. How does the process work for aquiring a Diabetic Alert Dog? The first step in aquiring a Diabetic Alert Service Dog, is to fill out our freeonline application, located on the top right hand corner of our homepage.Within 48 hours ofsubmitting your application, a representativewill contact you. When you areready to move forward with our program, we will E-mailyouour Diabetic Alert Dog purchase agreement toreview. Once you return the purchase agreement along with yourdeposit,the dog matchprocess begins! We will start with providing you with aspecific dog match based on your requests,lifestyle, and personality. Wewill show you photosand biographiesof dogs that meet our strict evaluations that are a good match for your lifestyle.Once youhave selected your perfect match, we willprovide you with an estimatedtimeframe for delivery and home lessons. Continue reading >>

Canine Diabetes Mellitus: Overview

Canine Diabetes Mellitus: Overview

Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in middle-aged and older dogs and is a complex disorder of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism. This disorder, which is the result of a relative or absolute insulin deficiency or of peripheral cell insensitivity to insulin, is characterized by high blood glucose concentrations such that the renal threshold is exceeded. As a result, glucose is excreted in the urine. The osmotic action of glucose leads to polyuria and, through loss of fluid, to polydipsia. In addition, metabolism is impaired so that the general condition of the animal deteriorates, ultimately leading to death. Insulin is synthesized and released from beta cells in the pancreatic islets. Insulin assists with cellular uptake of glucose from the bloodstream, thus exerting a hypoglycemic effect. Within cells, insulin promotes anabolism (such as synthesis of glycogen, fatty acids, and proteins) and counters catabolic events (reduces gluconeogenesis and inhibits fat and glycogen breakdown). Whereas insulin lowers blood glucose, there are opposing hormones (glucagon, cortisol, progesterone, adrenaline, thyroid hormone, and growth hormone) that act to increase blood glucose. It is important to consider these counter-regulatory hormones, because changes in their blood concentrations will interfere with insulin actions. Changes in these hormones can occur in natural physiological conditions, in disease states, or as a consequence of drug administration. In the absence of sufficient insulin, diabetic dogs will switch from glucose to fat metabolism for cellular energy. While this is initially beneficial, fat metabolism in unrecognized or untreated diabetics typically progresses to ketoacidosis and ultimately to death. Diabetes mellitus is not related to diabetes i Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs

Diabetes In Dogs

Illustration of a dog's pancreas. Cell-islet in the illustration refers to a pancreatic cell in the Islets of Langerhans, which contain insulin-producing beta cells and other endocrine related cells. Permanent damage to these beta cells results in Type 1, or insulin-dependent diabetes, for which exogenous insulin replacement therapy is the only answer. Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the beta cells of the endocrine pancreas either stop producing insulin or can no longer produce it in enough quantity for the body's needs. The condition is commonly divided into two types, depending on the origin of the condition: Type 1 diabetes, sometimes called "juvenile diabetes", is caused by destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas. The condition is also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes, meaning exogenous insulin injections must replace the insulin the pancreas is no longer capable of producing for the body's needs. Dogs can have insulin-dependent, or Type 1, diabetes; research finds no Type 2 diabetes in dogs.[1][2][3] Because of this, there is no possibility the permanently damaged pancreatic beta cells could re-activate to engender a remission as may be possible with some feline diabetes cases, where the primary type of diabetes is Type 2.[2][4][5] There is another less common form of diabetes, diabetes insipidus, which is a condition of insufficient antidiuretic hormone or resistance to it.[6][7] This most common form of diabetes affects approximately 0.34% of dogs.[8] The condition is treatable and need not shorten the animal's life span or interfere with quality of life.[9] If left untreated, the condition can lead to cataracts, increasing weakness in the legs (neuropathy), malnutrition, ketoacidosis, dehydration, and death.[10] Diabetes mainly affects mid Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs: All You Need To Know | Walkin' Pets

Diabetes In Dogs: All You Need To Know | Walkin' Pets

Do you have a diabetic dog? Do you want to learn more about how to test blood sugar in dogs? Diabetes in dogs is becoming one of the common medical conditions around the world. It is important to know the basics about the condition for pet owners to provide the best possible care for a diabetic dog. Learn more about canine diabetes: symptoms, treatment options, and how to test blood sugar. Diabetes commonly affects humans, dogs, and cats globally. It is a serious medical condition that could be life-threatening if the dog doesnt receive the proper medical attention. However, a balance of medical and home care can provide a diabetic dog with a happy and long life. Diabetes is a rather sensitive medical condition. Without proper medical care, it can increase a dogs vulnerability to other disease and infections, such as skin, bladder, and kidney infections. Sometimes diabetic dogs also suffer from fat accumulation inside the liver, which may lead to an enlarged liver. Proper and timely treatment is very important for diabetic dogs. When deprived of it, a diabetic dog might also develop neurological problems like showing an abnormal gait. Developing diabetic ketoacidosis is also common, where acids, ketones, and by-products of fat accumulate in the blood. A diabetic dog may start using the fat as an immediate source of energy that might cause ketone buildup, as they often have insufficient glucose for energy. It is essential to diagnose diabetes in your dog as early as possible to provide care for them accordingly. Since many pet owners only take their dog to a veterinarian once or twice a year, it is important to know some common symptoms of diabetes in dogs. A knowledgeable pet owner can recognize symptoms of the condition and then get the appropriate veterinary care and Continue reading >>

Canine Diabetes

Canine Diabetes

Introduction Dogs get many diseases or conditions that are the same or similar to diseases caught or developed by their owners. Some of these maladies are genetic; others are acquired through infections or parasites or as a result of other abnormalities, diseases, injuries, or old age. Heart conditions can be inherited in dogs as they are in people. Dogs can also be victims of cancer, tick-borne diseases, autoimmune conditions, arthritis, liver or kidney disease, thyroid disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and even diabetes. There are two canine diseases known as diabetes: diabetes mellitus, similar to the human disease, and diabetes insipidus. Both are endocrine diseases – that is, they result from defects in the body system that produces hormones. Diabetes insipidus is caused by a lack of vasopressin, the antidiuretic hormone that controls water resorption by the kidneys. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a deficiency of insulin, the hormone that plays a critical role in sugar metabolism, and is the most common of the two types. Canine diabetes mellitus can be further divided into two categories: a congenital type that is similar to juvenile-onset (Type I) diabetes in humans; and an acquired type that is similar to adult-onset (Type II) diabetes in humans. Most canine diabetes mellitus is insulin-dependent Type II, also known as IDDM. Insulin is the key Animals eat food that the body changes to energy for growth, maintenance, and daily activity. Digestive enzymes convert food nutrients to chemicals that can be used by the organs to carry on body functions and leave some energy for running, playing, working, and looking for tomorrow’s dinner. The bloodstream then carries these chemicals to the cells for fuel. Glucose, a simple sugar, is the body’s main fuel an Continue reading >>

8 Things You Need To Know About Aahas Diabetes Management Guidelines For Dogs And Cats

8 Things You Need To Know About Aahas Diabetes Management Guidelines For Dogs And Cats

8 things you need to know about AAHAs Diabetes Management Guidelines for Dogs and Cats Theres no question: Managing diabetes in pets requires a high level of commitment. For starters, theyll need daily injections of insulin at regular times of day to help regulate glucose (or blood sugar) levels in their body. But its better than the alternative: When diabetes is left untreated, poisonous compounds called ketones can make a diabetic pet very sick and may even cause death. While controlling diabetes is a challenge, its not an insurmountable one. By working closely with your veterinary team, you can help your pet thrive. To help make this collaboration as successful as possible, AAHA created the Diabetes Management Guidelines for Dogs and Cats. Here are the top things you need to know about these guidelines: Control is the goal. Diabetes affects pets in a similar way that it affects humans: The body cannot convert glucose into energy due to issues producing or regulating the hormone insulin. Your veterinary team will develop a management plan to keep your pets glucose levels in a safe range without getting too low (hypoglycemic). Your team will tailor a care plan based on the severity of the disease. When detected at the earliest stage, lifestyle changes such as diet can help stabilize your pets diabetes. Risk factors for diabetes include obesity, diseases (like the hormonal disorder acromegaly in cats and Cushings disease in dogs), and medications like steroids. Advanced cases might require treatment for complications, such as cataracts in dogs and weakened hind legs due to nerve damage in cats. Homework is required! Caring for your pet at home is an important part of diabetes management. You will be administering insulin once or twice a day, monitoring blood glucose le Continue reading >>

Managing Diabetes In Dogs

Managing Diabetes In Dogs

Dogs can have diabetes just like humans - both Type 1 and Type 2. Diabetic dogs are increasingly common, but the disease is entirely manageable unless left untreated. MY DOG HAS DIABETES: OVERVIEW 1. If your dog shows symptoms of diabetes (described below), seek veterinary care at once. 2. Work with your vet to determine the right type of insulin and the right dose for your individual dog. 3. Take your dog for frequent veterinary checkups. 4. Learn how to give insulin injections and reward your dog for accepting them. 5. Consistently feed your diabetic dog the same type of food at the same time of day. 6. Report any unusual symptoms or reactions to your vet. For years public health officials have reported a diabetes epidemic among America’s children and adults. At the same time, the rate of canine diabetes in America has more than tripled since 1970, so that today it affects about 1 in every 160 dogs. But while many human cases are caused and can be treated by diet, for dogs, diabetes is a lifelong condition that requires careful blood sugar monitoring and daily insulin injections. The medical term for the illness is diabetes mellitus (mellitus is a Latin term that means “honey sweet,” reflecting the elevated sugar levels the condition produces in urine and blood). Diabetes occurs when the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin to metabolize food for energy, or when the body’s cells fail to utilize insulin properly. The pancreas’s inability to produce insulin is known in humans as type 1 (formerly called juvenile or insulin-dependent) diabetes. This is analogous to the type that affects virtually all dogs. Dogs can also develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Type 2 (formerly adult onset) diabetes, which is the result of insulin resistance often l Continue reading >>

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