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Diabetic Angiopathy

Angiopathy In Diabetes Mellitus

Angiopathy In Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetic angiopathy is a kind of complication, which is common among people that suffer from diabetes mellitus. In the course of the disease sides of blood vessels and capillary tubes in particular are decaying and the blood stasis is suffering very much. Diabetic angiopathy is divided into two types of the diseases: micro- and macro-angiopathy. In case of macro-angiopathy, the heart vessels and lower body limbs are affected. While in case with micro-angiopathy most damage is applied to eyes and kidneys. It is known that diabetes mellitus causes hormonal and metabolitic disorders, which are the triggers for development and appearance of diabetic angiopathy. However not all diabetics complain on the angiopathy appearance. This disease appearance depends not only on the hormonal phone of a particular patient, but also on the genetic features of that particular person. Scientists are not unanimous in defining the factors that promote development of diabetic angiopathy, but it is already known that patients of group I and group II are affected in different ways. It is known that people with higher arterial pressure, smokers, drunkards and those who work in harmful environment are prone to appearance of diabetic angiopathy most of all. Diabetic micro-angiopathy is developed through five stages. In the course of this disease, kidneys begin to lower all their activities, also hard arterial hypertension appears and proteinuria appears too (high molecular weight proteins are present in urine). It is highly difficult to distinguish this disease, and generally, to make sure the disease is in progress, it is necessary to conduct needle biopsy of kidneys. Hypertonic angiopathy belongs to micro-angiopathy. Signs of this disease are: varicose veins on the eye fundus, non-uniform arte Continue reading >>

Diabetic Angiopathy: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment | Competently About Health On Ilive

Diabetic Angiopathy: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment | Competently About Health On Ilive

The first signs of vascular disease are manifested in lowering the temperature of the lower extremities, a weak pulse or a complete absence of arterial pulse on the legs, the skin is dry, cyanotic in color, in places redness may occur, the hair on the affected part of the skin falls out, and ischemic swelling is noticeable. Diabetic angiopathy is a lesion of small vessels of the lower extremities in diabetes mellitus. The causes of the development of this disease lie in the metabolic disorders caused by changes in blood vessels in diabetes . The causes of diabetic angiopathy also depend on the following factors: Disruption of the exchange of mucoproteins and lipids, which affects the state of the vascular system. The degree and severity of the course of diabetes mellitus, the duration of the disease. In secondary diabetes, which is preceded by a pancreatic injury, partial amputation or pancreatitis, the incidence of diabetic angiopathy increases many-fold. Also, changes in blood vessels are recorded in laboratory studies based on the introduction of the contrusulant hormone or physical effects on the islets of the pancreas. Also, there is a high likelihood of a hereditary transmission of the disease, four possible options. In addition, the category of risk includes those people who, in addition to hereditary endocrine pathology, have metabolic disorders. The causes of diabetic angiopathy, as a rule, speak of a dangerous predisposition to this disease. Therefore, it is important to systematically undergo examinations to prevent the development of the disease and severe consequences. By the nature of the lesions of the vessels distinguish between microangiopathy (changes in capillaries) and macroangiopathy (damage to the arterial and venous system). Symptoms of diabetic Continue reading >>

Is The Advancement Of Diabetic Angiopathy Evaluated As Ankle-brachial Index Directly Associated With Current Glycaemic Control?

Is The Advancement Of Diabetic Angiopathy Evaluated As Ankle-brachial Index Directly Associated With Current Glycaemic Control?

Is the advancement of diabetic angiopathy evaluated as ankle-brachial index directly associated with current glycaemic control? Diabetology Department, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland; Institute of Public Health, Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biaa Podlaska, Poland Diabetology Department, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland Department of Functional Research, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland Department of Hypertension and Diabetology, Medical University, Gdask, Poland Introduction and objective: Diabetic patients are at high risk for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) characterized by symptoms of intermittent claudication or critical limb ischemia. Measurement of ankle-brachial index (ABI) has emerged as the diagnostic tool of choice, because it is relatively simple, non-invasive and inexpensive. It is also an independent marker of increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the presented study was to assess the relationship between current glycemic control defined by glycated hemoglobin (HbA[sub]1c[/sub]) level, and quantitative changes in the arteries of the lower limbs in patients with type 2 diabetes.Materials and methods: 175 patients with type 2 diabetes hospitalized in the Diabetology Ward were studied. VENO Doppler and a sphygmomanometer were used to assess blood flow.Results: The average level of HbA[sub]1c[/sub] was assessed at 8.48%. Although the average level of ABI indicator was 1.20 (normal), only 45% of evaluated patients had their individual index within the normal range. Signs of ischemia were found in 17.7% of examined subjects. There was no conclusive correlation between ABI and HbA[sub]1c[/sub] levels.Conclusions: The current level of glycemic control evaluated as HbA[sub]1 Continue reading >>

Angiopathy - Wikipedia

Angiopathy - Wikipedia

Angiopathy is the generic term for a disease of the blood vessels ( arteries , veins , and capillaries ). [1] The best known and most prevalent angiopathy is diabetic angiopathy , a common complication of chronic diabetes . There are two types of angiopathy: macroangiopathy and microangiopathy . In macroangiopathy, atherosclerosis and a resultant blood clot forms on the large blood vessels, sticks to the vessel walls, and blocks the flow of blood . Macroangiopathy may cause other complications, such as ischemic heart disease , stroke and peripheral vascular disease which contributes to the diabetic foot ulcers and the risk of amputation. In microangiopathy, the walls of the smaller blood vessels become so thick and weak that they bleed , leak protein , and slow the flow of blood through the body. The decrease of blood flow through stenosis or clot formation impairs the flow of oxygen to cells and biological tissues (called ischemia ) and leads to cellular death ( necrosis and gangrene , which in turn may require amputation ). Thus, tissues which are very sensitive to oxygen levels, such as the retina , develop microangiopathy and may cause blindness (so-called proliferative diabetic retinopathy ). Damage to nerve cells may cause peripheral neuropathy , and to kidney cells, diabetic nephropathy ( Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome ). Continue reading >>

Redox Status Of 2gpi In Different Stages Of Diabetic Angiopathy

Redox Status Of 2gpi In Different Stages Of Diabetic Angiopathy

Redox Status of 2GPI in Different Stages of Diabetic Angiopathy 1Key Laboratory of Hormones and Development (Ministry of Health), Tianjin Key Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases, Tianjin Metabolic Diseases Hospital & Tianjin Institute of Endocrinology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China 2Tianjin Haibin Peoples Hospital, Tianjin, China Received 16 June 2016; Accepted 9 August 2016 Copyright 2016 Jun Ma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. We explored the redox status of beta 2 glycoprotein I (2GPI) in different stages of diabetic angiopathy. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) had a significantly lower proportion of reduced 2GPI as compared to healthy controls ( ). There was a trend that the mild coronal atherosclerosis heart disease (CAD) had higher proportion of reduced 2GPI than non-CAD and severe-CAD groups, however without significances ( ). The mild-A-stenosis group and mild-diabetic retinopathy (DR) groups had higher proportion of reduced 2GPI than their severely affected counterparts. The mild-slow nerve conduction velocity (NCVS) group had higher proportion of reduced 2GPI than normal nerve conduction velocity (NCVN group) and severe-NCVS groups. The proportion of reduced 2GPI was in positive correlation with 24 h urine microalbumin and total urine protein, and the proportion of reduced 2GPI was in negative correlation with serum and skin advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Taken together, our data implicate that the proportion of reduced 2GPI increased in the early stage of angiopathy and decreased with the aggravation of angiopathy. Cardiovascular disease (CVD), bl Continue reading >>

Diabetic Angiopathy - Wikipedia

Diabetic Angiopathy - Wikipedia

Diabetic angiopathy is a form of angiopathy associated with diabetic complications [1] . While not exclusive, the two most common forms are Diabetic retinopathy and Diabetic nephropathy , whose pathophysiologies are largely identical. Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of adult kidney failure worldwide. It also the most common cause of amputation in the US, usually toes and feet, often as a result of gangrene , and almost always as a result of peripheral vascular disease. Retinal damage (from microangiopathy ) makes it the most common cause of blindness among non-elderly adults in the US. As insulin is required for glucose uptake, hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus does not result in a net increase in intracellular glucose in most cells. However, chronic dysregulated blood glucose in diabetes is toxic to cells of the vascular endothelium which passively assimilate glucose. That is, cells in which insulin is not required for intercellular transport of glucose, most-notably the pericytes of the microvasculature . In addition to direct glucose-induced damage by (e.g.) glycation , pericytes express enzymes which convert glucose into osmologically-active metabolites such as sorbitol leading to hypertonic cell lysis. Over time, pericyte death may result in reduced capillary integrity; subsequently, there is leaking of albumin and other proteins into fluid compartments. The glomeruli of the kidneys are especially sensitive see diabetic nephropathy where protein leakage caused by late-stage angiopathy results in diagnostic proteinuria and eventually renal failure . In diabetic retinopathy the end-result is often blindness due to irreversible retinal damage. Continue reading >>

Endothelial Dysfunction And Pathogenesis Of Diabetic Angiopathy

Endothelial Dysfunction And Pathogenesis Of Diabetic Angiopathy

Endothelial dysfunction and pathogenesis of diabetic angiopathy aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Free University Hospital, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands bInstitute for Cardiovascular Research, Free University Hospital, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands Corresponding author. Tel. +31 20 4440531; Fax +31 20 4440502. Search for other works by this author on: aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Free University Hospital, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands bInstitute for Cardiovascular Research, Free University Hospital, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands Search for other works by this author on: aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Free University Hospital, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands bInstitute for Cardiovascular Research, Free University Hospital, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands Search for other works by this author on: cGaubius Laboratory, TNO Prevention and Health, 2301 CE Leiden, Netherlands Search for other works by this author on: Cardiovascular Research, Volume 34, Issue 1, 1 April 1997, Pages 5568, Coen D.A Stehouwer, Jan Lambert, A.J.M Donker, Victor W.M van Hinsbergh; Endothelial dysfunction and pathogenesis of diabetic angiopathy, Cardiovascular Research, Volume 34, Issue 1, 1 April 1997, Pages 5568, Objective and Methods: To review, from the clinical perspective, the contribution of dysfunction of the vascular endothelium to the pathogenesis of diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy. Results: Available data indicate that endothelial dysfunction in diabetes complicated by micro- or macroalbuminuria (renal microangiopathy) is generalised. The close linkage between microalbuminuria and endothelial dysfunction is an attractive explanation for the fact that microalbumi Continue reading >>

Diabetic Angiopathy | Springerlink

Diabetic Angiopathy | Springerlink

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a complex metabolic disturbance, recognized in ordinary clinical work mainly as hyperglycemia, as well as by the widespread abnormality of the structure and function of the blood vessels known as diabetic angiopathy. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Baggesen, L. H.: Fluorescence Angiography of the Iris in Diabetics and Non-diabetics. Acta Ophthalmological 47, 449 (1969). CrossRef Google Scholar Christensen, N. Juel: Increased Skin Capillary Resistance after Hypophysectomy in Longterm Diabetics. Lancet II, 1270 (1968). CrossRef Google Scholar A reversible vascular abnormality associated with diabetic ketosis. In the press. Google Scholar Christensen, N. Juel, and H. rskov: Vibratory perception during ischaemia in uraemic patients and in subjects with mild carbohydrate intolerance. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 32, 519 (1969). PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Christensen, N. and A. B. Terkildsen: Increased skin capillary resistance after hypophysectomy in longterm diabetics. Quantitative measurements. Diabetologia 6, 39 (1970). Google Scholar Fagerberg, S. E.: Diabetic neuropathy. A clinical and histological study on the significance of vascular affections. Acta med. scand. suppl. 345 (1959). Google Scholar Ferrier, T. M.: Radiologically demonstrable arterial calcafications in diabetes mellitus. Aust. Ann. Med. 13, 222 (1964). PubMed Google Scholar Gregersen, G.: A study of the peripheral nerves in diabetic subjects during ischaemia. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 31, 175 (1968a). PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Gregersen, G.: Variations in motor conduction velocity produced by acute changes of the metabolic state in diabetic patients. Diabetologia 4, 2 Continue reading >>

[pathophysiologic Aspects Of Diabetic Angiopathy].

[pathophysiologic Aspects Of Diabetic Angiopathy].

[Pathophysiologic aspects of diabetic angiopathy]. 1.Laboratoire de recherche en Biologie Vasculaire et Cellulaire, Paris. Find all citations in this journal (default).Or filter your current search Diabetes & Metabolism [01 Jun 1999, 25 Suppl 3:21-26] The high incidence of vascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus prompted us to study the pathophysiology of diabetic angiopathy. Hyperglycaemia is a common feature resulting in several metabolic and endocrine alterations and the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE). AGE bind to different molecules and to a receptor (RAGE). RAGE interaction with AGE enhances receptor expression and initiates a feedback loop whereby RAGE occupancy triggers increased RAGE expression. In a model of accelerated atherosclerosis associated with diabetes in genetically-manipulated mice, the blockade of cell surface RAGE by infusion in a soluble truncated form completely suppressed enhanced formation of vascular lesions. Improvement of atherosclerosis in these diabetic-atherosclerotic animals through the use of soluble RAGE occurred in the absence of changes in plasma lipids or glycaemia, which emphasises the contribution of a lipid- and glycemia-independent mechanism to atherogenesis. Continue reading >>

Oxidative Stress-responsive Transcription Factor Atf3 Potentially Mediates Diabetic Angiopathy

Oxidative Stress-responsive Transcription Factor Atf3 Potentially Mediates Diabetic Angiopathy

Oxidative Stress-Responsive Transcription Factor ATF3 Potentially Mediates Diabetic Angiopathy 2Diabetes Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan Previous results of our cDNA microarray analysis to look for genes whose expression level correlates well with in vitro tubulogenesis by NP31 endothelial cells revealed the transcription factor ATF3 known to be responsive to stress such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Anti-ATF3 small interfering RNA gave an inhibitory influence on tube formation by NP31 cells expressing an activated form of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1) kinase. When expression of ATF3 was regulated under the control of tetracycline system in NP31 cells, they acquired the tubulogenic ability upon ATF3 induction. While ATF3 failed to induce expressions of VEGF and VEGFR, it regulated those of CDK2, CDK4, p8, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, integrin 1, subunit and matrix metalloprotease MMP13. In H2O2-stimulated NP31 cells as well as endothelial cells of glomerulus and aorta of Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima-Fatty diabetic model rats, concomitantly enhanced expressions of ATF3, PAI-1, and p8 were observed. Given the proposed hypothesis of the close linkage between diabetic angiopathy and ROS, those data suggest that ROS-associated diabetic complication may involve ATF3-mediated pathological angiogenesis. Diabetic complications are characterized by microvascular diseases especially in the retina, glomerulus, and vasa nervorum. It involves apoptosis and remodeling of endothelial cells. Canonically, hyperglycemia is an essential cause of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress in this complication ( 4 ). Evidence to show the linkage between oxidative stress and behav Continue reading >>

Diabetic Angiopathy: Prevention And Care Of Diabetic Foot Ulcers - Includes Patient Information Sheet At The Medical Dictionary

Diabetic Angiopathy: Prevention And Care Of Diabetic Foot Ulcers - Includes Patient Information Sheet At The Medical Dictionary

There are two types of angiopathy: macroangiopathy and microangiopathy. In macroangiopathy, fat and blood clots build up in the large blood vessels, stick to the vessel walls, and block the flow of blood. In microangiopathy, the walls of the smaller blood vessels become so thick and weak that they bleed, leak protein, and slow the flow of blood through the body. The decrease of blood flow through stenosis or clot formation impair the flow of oxygen to cells and biological tissues (called ischemia) and lead to their death (necrosis and gangrene, which in turn may require amputation). Thus, tissues which are very sensitive to oxygen levels, such as the retina, develop microangiopathy and may cause blindness (so-called proliferative diabetic retinopathy). Damage to nerve cells may cause peripheral neuropathy, and to kidney cells, diabetic nephropathy (Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome). Macroangiopathy, on the other hand, may cause other complications, such as ischemic heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease which contributes to the diabetic foot ulcers and the risk of amputation. Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of adult kidney failure worldwide. It also the most common cause of amputation in the US, usually toes and feet, often as a result of gangrene, and almost always as a result of peripheral vascular disease. Retinal damage (from microangiopathy) makes it the most common cause of blindness among non-elderly adults in the US. "Diabetic dermopathy" is a manifestation of diabetic angiopathy. It is often found on the shin. Treatment Protocol for Diabetic Foot Ulcers 1. Control local and systemic sequelae of infection, including hyperglycemia. 2. Promptly drain all closed-space infections and debride all necrotic material from bleeding margins. 3. Promo Continue reading >>

Diabetic Peripheral Angiopathy: Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, Prevention, Diagnosis

Diabetic Peripheral Angiopathy: Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, Prevention, Diagnosis

Diabetic Peripheral Angiopathy: Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, Prevention, Diagnosis The arteries, veins and capillaries are the blood vessels of our body. The disease of these blood vessels is called Angiopathy. It is caused due to different factors and one of them is diabetes. Diabetes peripheral angiopathy is a serious complication of diabetes. When angiopathy occurs as a result of complication of unregulated diabetes, it is termed as Diabetic peripheral angiopathy. It is the most prevalent form of angiopathy. It involves formation of blood clots in blood vessels. Diabetic peripheral angiopathy is of two types: Macroangiopathy and microangiopathy. In macroangiopathy, blood clots are formed in large blood vessels such as the arteries and veins. This causes blockage to the flow of blood. It results in heart attack and stroke. Diabetic peripheral angiopathy affects lower limbs which cause diabetic foot ulcers and has a risk of amputation. In microangiopathy, blood clots are formed in small blood vessels i.e., the capillaries. The clots make them thick and weak. This obstructs the smooth blood flow throughout the body which impairs supply of nutrients and oxygen. The retina of our eye does not get enough oxygen supply which often develops microangiopathy and causes blindness. This is also known as diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic peripheral angiopathy can also cause damage to the nerve cells and is called peripheral neuropathy. Further, it can also cause renal damage which results in diabetic nephropathy. Symptoms of Diabetic Peripheral Angiopathy Diabetic peripheral angiopathy mainly affects the lower limbs. Due to the poor blood supply, the limbs do not get sufficient oxygen and nutrients as a result, they get damaged. This results in leg pain, cramps and muscle pain. In Continue reading >>

Diabetic Angiopathy Of The Lower Extremities: Treatment And Symptoms

Diabetic Angiopathy Of The Lower Extremities: Treatment And Symptoms

All this is done using a special diet. It is composed of purely individual way for each patient. It is limited to easily digestible carbohydrates and animal fats. Diet alone will not be effective, it must be supplemented with potassium supplements, anabolic hormones, andhypoglycemic agents, of which the most preferred is gliclazide. Also needs to continue therapy with insulin or other analogues. In addition, if carried out comprehensive treatment, we cannot dispense with any of angioprotectors, for example, parmidina, dobezilata or something similar. It is important to maintain a constant level of cholesterol in the blood, because angiospasticskie changes in the blood usually occur at a high level of lipoproteins. If their level is too high, then the destructive processes in the lower extremities and other parts of the body will happen much faster than we would like. Blood also needs to be thin, because its low viscosity in small capillaries it will get much easier, and therefore the problems will be much less pronounced. If you have started to receive the changes of ulcerative-necrotic type, conservative treatment may be less effective necrotic isolated areas can begin to be mummified or even reject. Because in this case, drugs are introduced, usually intra-arterial. If the patient has diabetic disease is in this stage that started to develop limb ischemia, is a special procedure that bears the name of "gravitational plasmapheresis". It helps to minimize ischemic pain, make the wound healing, and rejection of necrotic parts more fast - and it will help the person more likely to cope with the problem and begin to feel much more comfortable. Can also be surgical treatment, such as lumbar sympathectomy affecting the walls of the arteries. More expensive, but quite effect Continue reading >>

Diabetic Angiopathy And Angiogenic Defects

Diabetic Angiopathy And Angiogenic Defects

Diabetic angiopathy and angiogenic defects 1Division of Diabetology & Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa, 920-0293, Japan 2Division of Diabetology & Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou, Sichuan Province, 646000, Peoples Republic of China 1Division of Diabetology & Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa, 920-0293, Japan 2Division of Diabetology & Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou, Sichuan Province, 646000, Peoples Republic of China Received 2012 May 6; Accepted 2012 Jul 12. Copyright 2012 Xu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Diabetes is one of the most serious health problems in the world. A major complication of diabetes is blood vessel disease, termed angiopathy, which is characterized by abnormal angiogenesis. In this review, we focus on angiogenesis abnormalities in diabetic complications and discuss its benefits and drawbacks as a therapeutic target for diabetic vascular complications. Additionally, we discuss glucose metabolism defects that are associated with abnormal angiogenesis in atypical diabetic complications such as cancer. Keywords: Diabetes, Complication, Angiogenesis, VEGF The epidemic of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes has prompted the need for strategies to prevent and treat diabetic complications [ 1 ]. In diabetes, diverse sets of organs are damaged. Such organ damage is certainly fundamentally associated with glucose metabolism defects. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Angiopathy

Diabetic Angiopathy

Angiopathy refers to any disease associated with the blood vessels or the lymph vessels. When angiopathy is caused by diabetes, it is called diabetic angiopathy. Similar to most complications brought about by diabetes, diabetic angiopathy is primarily due to hyperglycemia or the high levels of blood sugar known to us as glucose. This disease can occur in any part of the body where the effect of high glucose level resulted to clogged up due to build up of plaque in the inner walls of the vessels. There are two types of this disease, macroangiopathy or microangiopathy. Constant check-up and monitoring of people especially those that are suffering from diabetes should be done. Problems in the vascular vessels of the heart,eyes, limbs, kidneys and brain should be avoided. There is no concrete symptoms of this disease. Although, being a complication of diabetes, it follows the same pattern of symptoms as that of diabetes mellitus. Frequent urination or large amount of liquids, being always thirsty, stress and fatigue and other symptoms like pain in the head, eyes or other parts of the body. This is a disease which occurs as a complication of Diabetes mellitus and caused by high levels of blood sugar in our system thus resulting to the damage or eventual death of our lymph vessels or blood vessels. We have a growing number of testimonials from patients who want to spread the word about Phytobiophysics . I feel blessed to have been introduced to these amazing formulas. I have been seeing Val Finlayson for many years and with her knowledge and with the use of the phytos have overcome ME.I had my first baby boy three and a half ye Continue reading >>

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