Paleo And Alzheimer’s: All About “type 3 Diabetes”
You might have heard Alzheimer’s disease described as “Type 3 Diabetes,” implying that it’s another “disease of civilization,” a consequence of the modern diet and lifestyle more than anything else. The “Diabetes” label in particular makes it seem like Alzheimer’s is all about the carbs. But it’s actually more complicated than that (isn’t it always?). Alzheimer’s Disease probably does have something to do with dietary carbs, but it’s much more complicated than “insulin wrecks your brain.” And it also has connections to other parts of the modern diet, especially overload of Omega-6 fats. So here’s a look at Alzheimer’s from a Paleo perspective, focusing on the potential role of diet in long-term prevention and therapy. This post is not an explanation of how to “cure” Alzheimer’s Disease, or even what causes it, and if you meet anyone trying to tell you either of those things, they’re probably lying. It’s just a look at some possible connections between diet and Alzheimer’s What Is Alzheimer’s Disease? Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive, age-related brain disease that starts off by causing forgetfulness and confusion and progresses to more serious problems like mood, language, and behavioral issues. A few people get it earlier, but it’s primarily found in people in their 60s and up. Alzheimer’s isn’t just an extension of normal age-related forgetfulness, though. In Alzheimer’s Disease, neurons in the brain actually die – this doesn’t happen in normal aging, even though most people’s brains do shrink a little bit with age. In most cases of Alzheimer’s, nobody’s really sure what causes it – we can identify hallmark signs of the disease (amyloid-beta plaques and tangled proteins) and certain genes that m Continue reading >>
Type 3 Diabetes
Type 3 diabetes is a proposed term for Alzheimer's disease resulting in an insulin resistance in the brain. The categorization is not embraced by the medical community, though a limited number of published reviews have forwarded putative mechanisms linking Alzheimer's and insulin resistance. The term has been widely applied within alternative healthcare circles. Other instances of the term: Type 3c (Pancreatogenic) Diabetes is a form of diabetes that relates to the exocrine and digestive functions of the pancreas. See also Diabetes mellitus#Classification  Continue reading >>
Is Alzheimer’s Type 3 Diabetes?
You undoubtedly know about diabetes – a condition in which the body has difficulty with insulin and blood sugar levels. You have also heard about Alzheimer’s disease and its resulting tragic memory loss. What you may not have heard is a relatively new concept suggesting there may be a tie between the two diseases. In fact, some researchers are proposing that Alzheimer’s disease may be a new manifestation of diabetes – calling it "Type 3 Diabetes". This theory has been around since 2005 and was featured more recently in a cover story of New Scientist magazine, titled Food for Thought: What You Eat May Be Killing Your Brain. MyLifeStages talked with Berkeley Neurologist Joshua Kuluva, M.D., about this concept of Type 3 Diabetes. Insulin Resistance and the Brain Insulin resistance is a key factor in the disease of Type 2 Diabetes. In a normally functioning system, insulin is produced by the pancreas to help the body use glucose (sugar) in the blood. When you have a perfect balance of insulin and glucose, the body functions as it should. In Type 1 Diabetes – sometimes called Juvenile Diabetes because it is diagnosed in children or teens – the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin. People with Type 1 Diabetes must carefully watch their diets and use insulin to regulate their metabolism. Diet itself is not the cause of Type I Diabetes. In Type 2 Diabetes, insulin is produced by the pancreas, but is not properly used by the cells. It is thought that the body cells become overloaded with glucose in the blood and become “weary” of responding to insulin. They are then described as being “insulin resistant.” The emerging news seems to be that the brain may also be impacted by insulin resistance. In the brain, usable insulin is crucial for forming memories. I Continue reading >>
What Is Type 3 Diabetes?
Most of us are familiar with the two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 is primarily autoimmune; the autoantibodies (antibodies produced against your own cells) destroy most of the beta cells that produce insulin, so people with type 1 require insulin shots, although some people with type 1 have some insulin resistance and can be helped with type 2 drugs in addition to insulin. Type 2 is caused by insulin resistance (by definition), although some people with type 2 have small amounts of autoantibodies, and many people with type 2 take insulin shots, especially after many years with the disease. However, there are also other forms of diabetes, and some of these have been called type 1.5 or type 3, sometimes both. It’s confusing, because different authors use the terms differently. Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults, or LADA, is like type 1 in that it’s autoimmune and patients will eventually have to use insulin, but it’s like type 2 in that patients are usually diagnosed as adults and the disease progresses slowly, so many are originally told that they have type 2. Because it’s sort of between types 1 and 2, it’s often called type 1.5. But some use the term type 1.5 when people have autoimmune diabetes but also have a lot of insulin resistance because of obesity. This can also be called "double diabetes," because you have both type 1 and type 2. There’s a lot of debate surrounding the pros and cons of using artificial sweeteners especially when living with diabetes. Here are some highlights of recent research. The term type 3 diabetes has been used in many different ways. Some people call Alzheimer’s disease (AD) type 3 diabetes because there is some evidence that people with AD are not able to take up enough glucose into the brain. That is Continue reading >>
What Exactly Is Type 3 Diabetes?
According to Dr. Mark Hyman, a well-known physician/author who focuses on diabetes, heart disease and diet, “10% of 65 year olds, 25% of 75 year olds and 50% of 85 year olds will develop dementia or Alzheimer’s disease.” Along with diabetes and obesity, it is a global epidemic. Alzheimer’s is the top form of dementia and now the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Alzheimer’s is a brain disease that is progressive, often starts with forgetfulness and confusion, in which the brain’s nerve cells degenerate. It can then affect personalities, moods and language leading to behavior issues in the patient. It is not considered “natural aging.” There is gene involvement but only 5% of cases are directly related to genes. The main causes seem to involve oxidative stress as well as systemic inflammation. Some of it is aging but it also encompasses lifestyle which contributes to brain health. “The medical community has yet to identify a specific cause and there is no effective long term treatment.” Scientists have been referring to Alzheimer’s as type 3 diabetes since 2005 since “people with type 2 diabetes are twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s.” The connection seems to be insulin resistance which also relates to lifestyle. According to The Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology “currently there is rapid growth pointing toward insulin resistance as mediators of Alzheimer’s neuro-degeneration.” Experts at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health conclude that insulin resistance can be reduced by “limiting added sugars, refined carbohydrates and processed foods while eating balanced meals that focus on lean proteins, non-starchy above ground vegetables, pulses[beans], and remaining physically active.” These recommendatio Continue reading >>
Type 3 Diabetes Symptoms
Why is Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) sometimes called “Type 3 diabetes?” What are the symptoms, and how can it be prevented? Alzheimer’s is a progressive brain disease. People who have this condition gradually lose memory and mental focus. They may have emotional and behavioral changes that put a great load on their families. The course of Alzheimer’s disease varies dramatically. Some people become severely disabled and die from it. Others may experience only a mild slowing of brain function. What causes Type 3 diabetes? How might diabetes cause Alzheimer’s symptoms? Gary Small, MD, a professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA and author of The Alzheimer’s Prevention Program said that high blood sugars cause inflammation throughout the body and brain. Chronic inflammation has been linked with two brain changes typical of Alzheimer’s disease. In Alzheimer’s, clumps of protein called beta-amyloid plaques form between the brain cells and may block communication. Researchers have discovered that many people with Type 2 diabetes have beta-amyloid deposits in their pancreas like the ones found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s. Tau tangles are twisted-up proteins that form within nerve cells of people with Alzheimer’s, interfering with cell function. We don’t know what causes this nerve damage, but studies done at Brown University and the University of Pennsylvania indicate that insulin resistance, the core of Type 2 diabetes, is a big part of it. Insulin resistance may deprive brain cells of glucose they need to function, causing damage. On Verywell.com, health writer Esther Heerema, MSW, said, “The brains of those with Alzheimer’s disease who did not have diabetes showed many of the same abnormal Continue reading >>
Type 3 Diabetes: Cross Talk Between Differentially Regulated Proteins Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Alzheimer’s Disease
Type 3 Diabetes (T3D) is a neuroendocrine disorder that represents the progression of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). T3D contributes in the increase of the total load of Alzheimer’s patients worldwide. The protein network based strategies were used for the analysis of protein interactions and hypothesis was derived describing the possible routes of communications among proteins. The hypothesis provides the insight on the probable mechanism of the disease progression for T3D. The current study also suggests that insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) could be the major player which holds the capacity to shift T2DM to T3D by altering metabolic pathways like regulation of beta-cell development, negative regulation of PI3K/AKT pathways and amyloid beta degradation. Insulin signaling pathways are conserved in various types of cells and tissues. It regulates the energy metabolism, homeostasis and reproduction in living system. It reaches the brain via cerebral spinal fluid and transporters present at the blood brain barrier. It is proposed to enhance cognitive abilities via activation of insulin receptors in the hippocampal region of brain. It stimulates translocation of GLUT4 to hippocampal plasma membranes thereby enhancing the glucose uptake in the time dependent manner1. Glucose utilization during neuronal activity is similar in both peripheral tissue and hippocampal region1. Scientists have worked extensively to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the production and secretion of insulin in the brain and pancreas2. Their findings suggest that both beta cells and neurons respond to glucose and hormonal stimuli by depolarization of ATP sensitive potassium channels in similar fashion. Few studies report that insulin was stored in synapti Continue reading >>
- Just Read: Alzheimers Disease Is Type 3 DiabetesEvidence Reviewed
- BREAKING: Diabetes Drugs Linked to Alzheimers and Dementia
- Diagnostic accuracy of resting systolic toe pressure for diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease in people with and without diabetes: a cross-sectional retrospective case-control study
Sugar And Your Brain: Is Alzheimer’s Disease Actually Type 3 Diabetes?
It starves your brain, tangles and twists vital cells, and for decades it has been misrepresented as an untreatable, genetically determined disease. Alzheimer's disease is the 6th leading cause of death in North America1. The truth, however, is that this devastating illness shares a strong link with another sickness that wreaks havoc on millions of individuals in North America — Diabetes. We all know that individuals affected by Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes have a notable resistance to insulin. Type 1 is caused by the body's inability to produce insulin, and Type 2 is caused by the deterioration of the body's insulin receptors and associated with the consumption of too much refined carbohydrate like processed grains and sugar. But when studies began to appear in 2005 that revealed a shocking correlation between insulin and brain cell deterioration, major breaks were made around Alzheimer's prevention[i]. Health practitioners became curious about a critical question — could Alzheimer's disease simply be Type 3 Diabetes? Alzheimer's disease has long been perceived as mysterious and inevitable. 5.3 million individuals suffer every year from the disease that appears to be untreatable[ii]. But, if this illness is associated with insulin resistance, this simply isn't the case. We already know that diabetics are at least twice as likely to experience dementia[iii]. The cells of your brain can become insulin-resistant just like other cells in the body. What was once considered a mysterious accumulation of beta amyloid plaques characteristic in the Alzheimer brain is now associated with the same lack of insulin that negatively affects cognition[iv]. Where there is knowledge about underlying causes there is the opportunity for prevention. Research that surfaced around problems Continue reading >>
Facts On Type 3 Diabetes
Diabetes type 1 and type 2 derive from the decline of insulin produced within the pancreas to the point where there is no insulin produced. Yet, in recent years, scientists have found that insulin is also produced within the brain. This has led to the recognition of diabetes type 3 in 2005. Diabetes type 3 is when the brain stops or reduces the acceptance of the brain's secreted insulin within the brain's cell receptors. Diabetes 3 Linked to Alzheimer's The brain requires insulin to be secreted in order to ensure that the brain's cells survive. Diabetes 3 means that the brain is no longer secreting enough insulin and therefore, the brain's cells will deteriorate. As the brain cells stop working, the brain's receptors also decline in function. Some individuals believe that Alzheimer's is actually diabetes type 3. Yet, evidence suggests that Alzheimer's sufferers have a particular protein within the brain that actually removes insulin receptors from the brain's cells making the cells stop accepting the necessary insulin to enable the cells survival and also preventing the brain's memory from working properly. Diabetes 1 and 2: Not Included Scientists believe that diabetes mellitus 1 and 2 or diabetes 1 and 2 do not correspond with diabetes type 3. Diabetes type 3 is more complex because of its relevance to the working brain and originates within the central nervous system. (See Resources.) Alzheimer's Treatment With Diabetes 3 Now that Alzheimer's is being recognized as a potential type of diabetes, researchers are enthusiastic that producing "turn around" treatments and that possibly curing Alzheimer's (Diabetic type 3) sufferers can now become a reality. (See Resources.) Diabetes Type 3-Plaque Protein plaques are found within diabetic sufferers of types 1 and 2 but thes Continue reading >>
Type 3 Diabetes Attacks Your Brain?
Most of us have heard about type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but Type 3 diabetes barely puts a blip on the radar. Although discovered in 2005, this new condition is just beginning to pop up on the headlines of today’s science and medical news journals. Lay people still have a lot to learn. When it comes to type 3 diabetes, Wikipedia doesn’t even have the answers. The relatively new discovery of the disease leaves people concerned about their health searching for answers. Read on for a quick primer on diabetes mellitus 3 and how it may be affecting your health or the health of your loved ones. Type 3 Diabetes: What is it? During a study conducted at the Rhode Island Hospital and Brown Medical School, researchers made a groundbreaking discovery: the hormone insulin was not just produced by the pancreas as previously thought. After careful study of their subjects, the researchers discovered that the brain was also responsible to producing small amounts of insulin. This discovery led to several more important revelations. One of those revelations was the discovery of insulin’s effect on the brain. One of those effects on the brain is the development of diabetes mellitus 3. Type 3 diabetes is a condition where the brain does not produce enough insulin. In the absence of insulin, the brain is affected much the way the body is in type 1 or type 2 diabetes. In fact, diabetes mellitus 3 only occurs in people who have either type 1 or type 2 diabetes already. Type 3 Diabetes: Alzheimer’s in Disguise Diabetes mellitus 3 is also known as brain diabetes. This is because the brain requires insulin to form new memories. Receptors on the brain’s synapses help facilitate the communication that creates new memories. The insulin produced by the brain wards off amyloid beta-derived dif Continue reading >>
‘type 3’ Diabetes: A Brain Insulin-resistant State Linked To Alzheimer’s Disease
Over the years, identifying novel sub-type variants of diabetes has always provided a measure of academic interest as well as an engaging area for debate and discussion. Having established the relatively clear-cut classification of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, it was perhaps inevitable that a further category of type 3 diabetes would in due course emerge. Indeed, a number of putative candidates has been put forward, including ‘Double Diabetes’ (a combination of type 1 diabetes and insulin resistance), MODY3 and more recently type 3c (pancreatogenic) diabetes. But the most intriguing remains the proposal by Suzanne de la Monte and colleagues1 that the term type 3 diabetes could be appropriately applied to an association between a state of brain insulin resistance and dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. Diabetes itself transcends into every aspect of clinical medicine, with familiar consequences to a legion of other specialist disorders. For good reason, a major focus of diabetes in recent years has been directed towards its long-term adverse cardiovascular effects, with clinical trials of new therapeutic interventions designed to evaluate potential benefits, or otherwise, in respect of reducing the substantial risk to the heart, the circulation and to overall mortality. In the same context, the effects of diabetes on the brain should now be considered with comparable concern. Although it may still seem difficult to justify the precise terminology of ‘type 3’ diabetes, given that hyperglycaemia itself is not an absolute prerequisite, the concept, nonetheless, of a brain insulin-resistant state, associated with increased risk of developing dementia, has not been unduly challenged. Certainly, it has engendered a stimulating two-way perspective on underlying pa Continue reading >>
What Is "type 3 Diabetes"?
Since 2005, Alzheimer's disease has been labeled as "Type 3 Diabetes" in the medical field. This new definition is due to the discovery of lower insulin levels, the main symptom of diabetes, in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. But how accurate is this new name? And what implications does it have for our perspective on Alzheimer's disease? Research For a long time now, people have believed that developing Alzheimer's disease is merely a matter of chance. Recent research, however, shows that this may not be the case. In 2005, the Brown Medical Research team discovered that there were low levels of insulin in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This resistance to insulin and insulin-like growth factors proved to be an important element in the development of Alzheimer's disease. In addition, a different study showed that a daily insulin spray helped to improve memory for patients with Alzheimer's-linked memory problems. However, the casual relationship between Alzheimer's disease and insulin levels has yet to be proven, and the fact remains that Alzheimer's disease can develop without the presence of hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Lifestyle and Alzheimer's Disease Despite the lack of a definitive link between insulin levels and Alzheimer's disease, there is still a great amount of evidence showing a close connection between lifestyle choices and Alzheimer's. People with diabetes are two to three times more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease. Fitness and a good diet are also linked to decreased occurrences of Alzheimer's and other dementia-related ailments. Although at this time the evidence for Alzheimer's disease as a third type of diabetes remains inconclusive, it is important for people to continue to factor in their lifestyle choices when looking t Continue reading >>
Is The Claim That Alzheimers Is Type 3 Diabetes Still Speculative? Is It Safe To Assume That Cutting Down On Sugar Helps Prevent Memory Loss/ad?
Being a lawyer we evaluate evidence versus what we call the “burden of proof.” There are three standards: A preponderance of the evidence - 51% or more likely than not Clear and convincing evidence - based upon a reasonable person Beyond a reasonable doubt - almost no one would doubt the premise “Speculative” is to me somewhere on the low end of the scale. it would be in the range of 20 to 30% likely. There are links between Alzheimer’s and diabetes. However, the exact mechanism is still being determined. So is calling Alzehimers type 3 diabetes speculative? I think there are enough links to get past the “speculative” stage. Does it rise to the level of “proof?” Scientists like to have evidence of a direct causal mechanism and that’s undetermined at this point. Cutting sugar will help if you worry about Alzeheimer’s. First, it will help with glucose levels in your blood. The link there would be what are known as glycation end products which accounts for most of the damaging effects of high blood sugar levels. It will also help with insulin creation in the body and insulin resistance. Both of those issues are implicated as possible causes of Alzheimer’s. Retired neurologist David Perlmutter goes further. He believes that a low carb, high fat diet has neurological benefits for things like Alzheimer’s. He believes that the inflammatory effect of things like sugar and wheat gluten contribute to Alzheimer’s. Continue reading >>
Type 3 Diabetes: Metabolic Causes Of Alzheimer's Disease
As the population of the industrialized world ages, illnesses associated with aging consume a larger portion of our healthcare budgets and impose increasing burdens on the quality of life of patients and their caregivers. Estimates suggest that in the U.S., Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects 12 percent of people over age 65 and nearly 50 percent of those over 85, with predictions for this to include 16 million people by 2050.1 National healthcare costs associated with AD are expected to surpass one trillion dollars by mid-century.1 Considering the fact that AD has no known cure and current therapies are largely ineffective, identifying the triggering mechanisms and exacerbating factors behind AD is of paramount importance, as prevention and early detection would serve to decrease—or at the very least delay—the physical, emotional and financial hardships this illness creates. Prevention is also critical because AD symptoms often do not appear until loss of functional neurons is so widespread that irreversible damage has already occurred. Significant epidemiological and clinical evidence has emerged that suggests AD belongs among the “diseases of civilization,” primarily caused by modern Western diets and lifestyles at odds with human physiology. High intakes of refined carbohydrates and omega-6-rich polyunsaturated oils, low antioxidant intake, lack of physical activity, and misguided avoidance of cholesterol and saturated fats combine to create a perfect storm for glycation and oxidative stress in the brain, ultimately resulting in severe cognitive decline that renders nearly impossible the tasks involved in everyday living. Our evolutionarily discordant dietary environment has been linked to conditions as diverse as heart disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis Continue reading >>
What Is Type 3 Diabetes?
At first blush, it may be hard to imagine a connection between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of dementia. But it’s real—and it’s so strong that some experts are now referring to it as type 3 diabetes or brain diabetes. By any name, it’s the progression from type 2 diabetes to Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia marked by memory deficits and a dramatic decline in cognitive function. While all people with diabetes have a 60 percent increased risk of developing any type of dementia, including Alzheimer’s, recent research suggests that women with type 2 diabetes have a 19 percent greater risk of a certain type, known as vascular dementia (which is caused by problems with blood supply to the brain) than men do. Overall, older adults with type 2 diabetes suffer from greater declines in working memory and executive functioning (a set of mental processes that involve planning, organization, controlling attention, and flexible thinking) than their peers do. Granted, not everyone who has type 2 diabetes will develop Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, or any other form of dementia, and there are many people who have Alzheimer’s or another form of dementia who don’t have diabetes, notes Gary Small, M.D., a professor of psychiatry at the UCLA Semel Institute and author of The Alzheimer’s Prevention Program. But the reality is, “these risk factors tend to add up: If you have diabetes, that doubles the risk of developing Alzheimer’s. If you have a first-degree relative—a parent or sibling, for example—with Alzheimer’s, that doubles your risk.” And if you have poorly controlled blood pressure, abdominal (a.k.a., central) obesity, or sleep apnea, your risk of developing dementia is increased even more. Surprisin Continue reading >>