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Diabetes Timeline From 1800 To Present

Treating Diabetes: 1921 To The Present Day

Treating Diabetes: 1921 To The Present Day

The lives of people with diabetes has changed considerably in 50 years. They now have specific tools and easier access to information than ever before. The healthcare professionals who treat them also know more about the complexity of the disease, and which treatments work best. Pending the next medical revolution, Diabetes Québec is demanding the implementation of a national strategy to fight diabetes – a strategy founded on education, prevention, support and treatment. The last 60 years have clearly demonstrated that people with diabetes who are well informed, properly supported and treated appropriately live longer lives in better health. The discovery of insulin and glycemic control Insulin, discovered in 1921 by the legendary Banting, Best and MacLeod collaboration, is nothing short of a miracle. Worldwide, it has saved thousands of patients from certain death. Before the discovery of insulin, diabetics were doomed. Even on a strict diet, they could last no more than three or four years. However, despite the many types of insulin and the first oral hypoglycemic agents that came to market around 1957 in Canada, glycemia control – the control of blood glucose (sugar) levels – still remains an imprecise science. In the 1950s, the method a person used to control his blood glucose levels was to drop a reagent tablet into a small test tube containing a few drops of urine mixed with water. The resulting colour – from dark blue to orange – indicated the amount of sugar in the urine. Even when they monitored their patients closely, doctors realized that blood glucose levels had to be much better controlled in order to delay the major complications significantly affecting their patients’ lives: blindness, kidney disease, gangrene, heart attack and stroke. A disc Continue reading >>

History Of Diabetes

History Of Diabetes

Frederick Banting (right) joined by Charles Best in office, 1924 Diabetes is one of the first diseases described[1] with an Egyptian manuscript from c. 1500 BCE mentioning “too great emptying of the urine.”[2] The first described cases are believed to be of type 1 diabetes.[2] Indian physicians around the same time identified the disease and classified it as madhumeha or honey urine noting that the urine would attract ants.[2] The term "diabetes" or "to pass through" was first used in 250 BC by the Greek Apollonius of Memphis.[2] Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian physicians Sushruta and Charaka in 400-500 CE with type 1 associated with youth and type 2 with obesity.[2] The term "mellitus" or "from honey" was added by Thomas Willis in the late 1600s to separate the condition from diabetes insipidus which is also associated with frequent urination.[2] Further history[edit] Plaque in Strasbourg commemorating the 1889 discovery by Minkowski and Von Mering The first complete clinical description of diabetes was given by the Ancient Greek physician Aretaeus of Cappadocia (fl. 1st century CE), who also noted the excessive amount of urine which passed through the kidneys.”[3] Diabetes mellitus appears to have been a death sentence in the ancient era. Hippocrates makes no mention of it, which may indicate that he felt the disease was incurable. Aretaeus did attempt to treat it but could not give a good prognosis; he commented that "life (with diabetes) is short, disgusting and painful."[4] The disease must have been rare during the time of the Roman empire with Galen commenting that he had only seen two cases during his career.[2] In medieval Persia, Avicenna (980–1037) provided a detailed account on diabet Continue reading >>

Diabetes Then & Now

Diabetes Then & Now

From the Ancients to Insulin... and Beyond Medical practitioners have known about diabetes for thousands of years and, over the ages, physicians did their best to treat the disease. The 20th century has seen one breakthrough after another. Diabetes BCE Back in 1500 BCE, the Egyptians recorded a disease of “excessive urination” in the Papyrus Ebers. At around the same time in India, Hindu doctors noticed that bugs were attracted to some patients’ urine. In the name of science, they tasted it — and found it sweet. Ahead of their time, they blamed it on too much food and wine. In the 2nd century, Greek physician Aretaeus of Cappadocia coined the term “diabetes,” meaning “to siphon” — a reference to these individuals' prodigious urine flow. The Middle Ages: sex, drugs and riding People with diabetes in the Western world were relatively lucky during these years: doctors prescribed wine, opiates and even aphrodisiacs. In China, the outlook was bleaker, since physicians there advised avoiding sex and booze. Avicenna, an 11th-century Persian physician and avid urine-taster himself, prescribed emetics and horseback riding to “employ moderate friction.” Galen of Rome pronounced diabetes a renal disease, and prescribed purgatives to ease kidney strain. 1600s-1700s: Great Britain’s urine brigade Londoner Thomas Willis first distinguished between the various forms of diabetes, a feat accomplished by — how else? — tasting urine. He believed the blood was to blame, not the kidneys. In 1750, Scotsman William Cullen added the term “mellitus” — Latin for “honey-sweet” — to diabetes. Englishman Matthew Dobson empirically proved that the urine of people with diabetes really did contain sugar. But even after Thomas Cawley pointed out the damaged pancr Continue reading >>

4.1.1 All About Insulin

4.1.1 All About Insulin

1800 First tests conducted which detect sugar in urine 1848 Researchers first discovered the link between glycogen, diabetes, and metabolism. A scientists makes the discovery that glycogen is secreted from the liver, and believes its the same sugar present in urine. 1869 Langerhans discovers that there are specialized cells present in the pancreas that produce the insulin hormone - Islets of Langerhans 1911 1922 Insulin allowed to be mass produced in North America - Successful test on young teenager (14 years) who could control diabetes with insulin injections 1959 Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes recognized. This allows people to know whether insulin would help their diabetes. 1964 Strips are now used for testing blood glucose levels. A drop of blood is placed on the strip, and there would be a color change would be present depending on the concentration of blood glucose 1970 Blood glucose meter introduced (AMES), but for doctors used - expensive. Insulin pumps developed 1983 First biosynthetic human insulin introduced. Can now produce insulin in mass quantities. Blood glucose monitors "Reflolux" and "Accu-Chek" introduced. This allowed for easy self monitoring at home. 1986 Insulin pen delivery systems introduced allowing for easier blood glucose control 1990 Defeat Diabetes Foundation established - prevention tactics. FDA approved first recombinant DNA human insulin. External insulin pumps became more available. This allowed for easier control as the individual didn't have to inject themselves constantly with insulin. 2014 Millions of Americans have diabetes Millions still remain undiagnosed About 57 million are at risk for diabetes Diabetes is still an extremely prevalent issue in todays society, even though the technology has come a long way from when it was first treate Continue reading >>

The History Of Dna Timeline

The History Of Dna Timeline

1859 - Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species In 1859, Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species, changing the way many people viewed the world forever. In 1831, Darwin had joined a five year scientific expedition. During his time away was influenced by Lyell's suggestion that fossils found in rocks were evidence of animals that had lived millions of years ago. The breakthrough came when he noted that the Galapagos Islands each supported its own variety of finch, which were closely related but had slight differences that seemed to have adapted in response to their individual environments. On his return to England, Darwin proposed a theory of evolution occurring by the process of natural selection, which he then worked on over the following 20 years. The Origin of Species was the culmination of these efforts and argued that the living things best suited to their environment are more likely to survive, reproduce and pass on their characteristics to future generations. This led to a species gradually changing over time. Whilst his study contained some truth many areas such as the link between animal and human evolution are being shown to be untrue through new discoveries of ancient ancestors. The book was extremely controversial, as it challenged the dominant view of the period that many people literally took that God had created the world in seven days. It also suggested that people were animals and might have evolved from apes this part of his work has been shown to be inaccurate. To Ponder; One must simply consider the fact that through thousands of years of evolution animals have the highest respect for their body yet people do not respect their bodies. The cheetah will go hungry rather than push itself beyond the point it can recover. If people had evolve Continue reading >>

Timeline 1900-1950

Timeline 1900-1950

If the period from 1850-1900 can be regarded as the Mediaeval era of diabetes, the time from 1900-1950 may be regarded as its Renaissance, and pointed the way to better things. The first half of the 20th century was dominated by the discovery of insulin, which marked a step on the road from the use of crude tissue extracts to modern protein chemistry. Juvenile diabetes was no longer a lethal condition, but the children who survived on this treatment now showed signs of retinal, kidney and heart disease, and the battle against complications was set to be the challenge of the second half of the century. Biochemistry now came into its own, en route to becoming molecular biology, but the epidemiology of diabetes had yet to be invented, genetics was in its infancy, and DNA was still a mystery. History 1900 to 1950 1900 Schulze and Ssobelow independently block the pancreatic duct with paraffin, demonstrating atrophy of the exocrine pancreas but no diabetes (until the pancreatic remnant is removed). 1902 An extract containing secretin, the first gut hormone, identified by Bayliss and Starling. Introduction of the term “hormone” 1907 Lane and Bensley identify A and B cells in the pancreatic islets 1909 Meyer proposes the name “insuline” for the as yet unknown pancreatic hormone. Edward Sharpey-Schafer (1850-1935) proposes the same name (apparently independently) in 1916, and introduces the term pro-insuline. 1913 Frederick Allen publishes his experiments on subtotal pancreatectomy and introduces his "starvation regime". 1921 The discovery of insulin by Frederick Banting, Charles Best, Collip and John Macleod; Nobel prize awarded to Banting and MacLeod in 1923. 1923 Kimble and Murlin identify a crude pancreatic extract that raises blood glucose, and name it "glucagon" (t Continue reading >>

The History Of Diabetes

The History Of Diabetes

People have been battling diabetes for centuries. The fascinating history of the disease takes many twists and turns. Great strides in reducing the symptoms of diabetes have been made through research and communication. 1552 B.C. – First Recorded Symptoms In 1552 B.C. the first diabetes symptoms were noted by Hesa-Ra, an Egyptian physician who described a disease that involved urination and emaciation. In 150 A.D., a Greek physician named Areteus described diabetes as a melting down of limbs and flesh into the urine. By 400-500 AD, Indian physicians Sushruta and Charaka differentiated Type 1 diabetes from Type 2 diabetes, relating one to youth and the other to weight. We now know they are not age related. 1700’s – Diabetes Mellitus Centuries later water tasters were used to taste the urine of people suspected of having diabetes. If the urine was sweet, people had disease. In the 1700s, the name diabetes mellitus was coined by Britain John Rolle. Mellitus means honey and diabetes means siphon. Diabetes mellitus was related to sugary urine while diabetes insipidus referred to frequent urination. 1800’s – More Advanced Testing By the 1800s, doctors developed chemical tests to find out if a person had sugary urine. Physicians started to recognize the need to manage this disease. Doctors prescribed dietary changes and exercise such as horseback riding. In the 1700s and 1800s, patients were told to eat large amounts of sugar or just consume animal meat. By the early 1900s, fad diets evolved after war-related rationing such as the starvation diet and potato therapy. 1916 – The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus In 1916, a Boston scientist named Elliot Joslin, created the textbook entitled The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus. Treatments included regular exercise and a fa Continue reading >>

Past, Present, And Future

Past, Present, And Future

What We Will Cover Early history of diabetes Discovery of insulin When insulin was found to not be the full answer High glucose as the culprit Lack of change in the A1c since the DCCT Why the dumb insulin pump has not helped What smart pumps offer The promise of intelligent devices The Super Bolus How simple and intelligent timers can help Screen shots from an intelligent device In 1500 BC Diabetes First Described In Writing Hindu healers wrote that flies and ants were attracted to urine of people with a mysterious disease that caused intense thirst, enormous urine output, and wasting away of the body 250 BC The Word Diabetes First Used Apollonius of Memphis coined the name "diabetes†meaning "to go through" or siphon. He understood that the disease drained more fluid than a person could consume. Gradually the Latin word for honey, "mellitus," was added to diabetes because it made the urine sweet. Diabetes is a wonderful affection, not very frequent among men, being a melting down of the flesh and limbs into urine…The flow is incessant, as if from the opening of aqueducts…it takes a long period to form, but the patient is short-lived…for the melting is rapid, the death speedy. Moreover, life is disgusting and painful; thirst unquenchable; excessive drinking…and one cannot stop them either from drinking or making water... they are affected with nausea, restlessness, and a burning thirst; and at no distant term they expire. 150 BC Aretaeus the Cappadocian Early Diabetes Treatments In 1000, Greek physicians recommended horseback riding to reduce excess urination In the 1800s, bleeding, blistering, and doping were common In 1915, Sir William Osler recommended opium Overfeeding was commonly used to compensate for loss of fluids and weight In the e Continue reading >>

History Of Medicine Timeline

History Of Medicine Timeline

History of Medicine Timeline The dates, people and medical history and advances Blood transfusions, Bacteria, Blood cells and inoculations The First vaccines Sir Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin The first cardiac pacemaker and transplants (function(){var aa="function"==typeof Object.create?Object.create:function(a){var b=function(){};b.prototype=a;return new b},m;if("function"==typeof Object.setPrototypeOf)m=Object.setPrototypeOf;else{var n;a:{var ba={a:!0},ca={};try{ca.__proto__=ba;n=ca.a;break a}catch(a){}n=!1}m=n?function(a,b){a.__proto__=b;if(a.__proto__!==b)throw new TypeError(a+" is not extensible");return a}:null} var da=m,p=this,ea=function(a){var b=typeof a;if("object"==b)if(a){if(a instanceof Array)return"array";if(a instanceof Object)return b;var c=Object.prototype.toString.call(a);if("[object Window]"==c)return"object";if("[object Array]"==c||"number"==typeof a.length&&"undefined"!=typeof a.splice&&"undefined"!=typeof a.propertyIsEnumerable&&!a.propertyIsEnumerable("splice"))return"array";if("[object Function]"==c||"undefined"!=typeof a.call&&"undefined"!=typeof a.propertyIsEnumerable&&!a.propertyIsEnumerable("call"))return"function"}else return"null"; else if("function"==b&&"undefined"==typeof a.call)return"object";return b},ha=function(a,b){var c=Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments,1);return function(){var b=c.slice();b.push.apply(b,arguments);return a.apply(this,b)}},ia=Date.now||function(){return+new Date};var ja=Array.prototype.forEach?function(a,b){Array.prototype.forEach.call(a,b,void 0)}:function(a,b){for(var c=a.length,d="string"==typeof a?a.split(""):a,e=0;eContinue reading >>

The History Of Diabetes

The History Of Diabetes

Scientists and physicians have been documenting the condition now known as diabetes for thousands of years. From the origins of its discovery to the dramatic breakthroughs in its treatment, many brilliant minds have played a part in the fascinating history of diabetes. Diabetes: Its Beginnings The first known mention of diabetes symptoms was in 1552 B.C., when Hesy-Ra, an Egyptian physician, documented frequent urination as a symptom of a mysterious disease that also caused emaciation. Also around this time, ancient healers noted that ants seemed to be attracted to the urine of people who had this disease. In 150 AD, the Greek physician Arateus described what we now call diabetes as "the melting down of flesh and limbs into urine." From then on, physicians began to gain a better understanding about diabetes. Centuries later, people known as "water tasters" diagnosed diabetes by tasting the urine of people suspected to have it. If urine tasted sweet, diabetes was diagnosed. To acknowledge this feature, in 1675 the word "mellitus," meaning honey, was added to the name "diabetes," meaning siphon. It wasn't until the 1800s that scientists developed chemical tests to detect the presence of sugar in the urine. Diabetes: Early Treatments As physicians learned more about diabetes, they began to understand how it could be managed. The first diabetes treatment involved prescribed exercise, often horseback riding, which was thought to relieve excessive urination. In the 1700s and 1800s, physicians began to realize that dietary changes could help manage diabetes, and they advised their patients to do things like eat only the fat and meat of animals or consume large amounts of sugar. During the Franco-Prussian War of the early 1870s, the French physician Apollinaire Bouchardat noted Continue reading >>

Activity 4.1.1 All About Insulin

Activity 4.1.1 All About Insulin

Transcript of Activity 4.1.1 All About Insulin Activity 4.1.1 All About Insulin By: Jalysa Tipton 1848 This was the first linking glycogen to diabetes and metabolism. A doctor had discovered that glycogen is secreted by the liver and the doctor believed that it is the same sugar that is in the urine of diabetics. 1869 A medical student named Langerhans discovered that there are cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. 1889 It was discovered that animals that get their pancreas removed get diabetes. At that time a life expectancy for a 10 year old with diabetes would be 1 year, and a 1911 The benedicts solution is invented and is a more efficient way to test for sugar in urine. 1800's Researchers had developed the first chemical tests to detect sugar in our urine. 1921 A romanian scientist published a paper telling how he isolated pancreatic insulin. This lead to testing on animals. Doctors gave the first shot of insulin to dogs that didn't have a pancreas and it controlled their diabetes. 1922 A 14 year old boy named Leonard Thompson was injected with insulin extracts, which soon was considered as a successful test in controlling the diabetes. 1940's During this time a uniform syringe is invented which lead to more sustainable manageable of diabetes. Helen Free invented the "dip and read" urine test. This test allowed instant monitoring of blood glucose levels. 1959 The 2 main types of diabetes was recognized: Type 1 (insulin dependent) and Type 2 (non insulin dependent). This would let someone know if the use of insulin would help their diabetes or if they had to control it with diet and exercise. 1964 At this time the first test strips for blood glucose levels were used. It would work by placing a drop of blood onto the strip, then washing it off. After it got wash Continue reading >>

Timeline Of Christian Science, Medical Advances & Historical Events (1920-present)

Timeline Of Christian Science, Medical Advances & Historical Events (1920-present)

The following timeline is designed to put Christian Science after Mary Baker Eddy’s passing in context with medical advances and historical events of the day. Bolded events are of importance to the Christian Science movement, and the context in which they occur should be taken into account. This is by no means an exhaustive timeline, merely a starting place for further exploration. Timeline of Christian Science, Medical Advances, and Historical Events (1920 – present): 1920s 1920: Nineteenth Amendment was ratified, giving women the right to vote. 1921: Frederick Banting and Charles Best discover insulin – important for the treatment of diabetes. 1930s 1936: American Medical Association’s Council on Foods becomes Council on Foods & Nutrition; council offers AMA Seal of Acceptance to food manufacturers who pass advertising and content tests and who conform with Food and Drug Act; council encourages enriching milk with vitamin D to prevent rickets, and salt with iodine to prevent goiter. In 1938, it publishes The Normal Diet, containing the first authoritative dietary recommendations for Americans. 1938: In April of this year, a six-member committee of editors and former editors of Christian Science periodicals was assembled “to discover just what Mrs. Eddy believed concerning herself with respect to Scriptural prophecy.” The committee was given access to Mrs. Eddy’s private correspondence, and published writings. (1940s 1943: The Christian Science Board of Directors published a statement that Mrs. Eddy regarded herself as having fulfilled Bible prophecy in the July issue of the Christian Science Journal. 1948: The Destiny of The Mother Church, by Bliss Knapp is written. Controversy begins as Board of Directors sends letter pointing out its false views. Inste Continue reading >>

Timeline

Timeline

The ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece and India were the first to provide a description of diabetes. In Egypt, the physician, Hesy-ra, first documented an illness resulting in frequent urination. Around the same time Indian physicians identified a disease where the urine from the patient attracted ants. The Greek Physician Aretaeus (80-138 CE) named the condition Diabetes Mellitus because urine from the patient tasted sweet. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP) are the two primary incretin hormones. These hormones are secreted from the intestine in response to food intake, and stimulate secretion of insulin from the pancreatic beta-cells. GLP-1 exerts its effects by binding to the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), leading to an increase in the level of intracellular cAMP in pancreatic beta cells, which ultimately promotes insulin secretion. The gene for glucose transporter, GLUT4, was cloned and mapped. Glucose transporters deliver glucose molecules across cell membranes. There are over 10 different glucose transporters, the most important ones being GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT3, and GLUT4. The GLUT4 transporters are insulin sensitive, while GLUT1 and GLUT3 transporters maintain a basal rate of glucose uptake. The GLUT2 transporters have low affinity for glucose and play important roles in glucose dependent insulin release. The PDB currently has the structures of GLUT1 and GLUT3 transporters (PDB entries 4pyp and 4zwc, respectively). Symlin (pramlintide), a 37-amino acid polypeptide, was designed as a functional analogue of amylin. Amylin is co-secreted with insulin and is deficient in diabetic patients. Pramlintide helps to control blood glucose by modulating the rate of gastric emptying. The PDB currently does not have any structur Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic coma is a reversible form of coma found in people with diabetes mellitus. It is a medical emergency.[1] Three different types of diabetic coma are identified: Severe low blood sugar in a diabetic person Diabetic ketoacidosis (usually type 1) advanced enough to result in unconsciousness from a combination of a severely increased blood sugar level, dehydration and shock, and exhaustion Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma (usually type 2) in which an extremely high blood sugar level and dehydration alone are sufficient to cause unconsciousness. In most medical contexts, the term diabetic coma refers to the diagnostical dilemma posed when a physician is confronted with an unconscious patient about whom nothing is known except that they have diabetes. An example might be a physician working in an emergency department who receives an unconscious patient wearing a medical identification tag saying DIABETIC. Paramedics may be called to rescue an unconscious person by friends who identify them as diabetic. Brief descriptions of the three major conditions are followed by a discussion of the diagnostic process used to distinguish among them, as well as a few other conditions which must be considered. An estimated 2 to 15 percent of diabetics will suffer from at least one episode of diabetic coma in their lifetimes as a result of severe hypoglycemia. Types[edit] Severe hypoglycemia[edit] People with type 1 diabetes mellitus who must take insulin in full replacement doses are most vulnerable to episodes of hypoglycemia. It is usually mild enough to reverse by eating or drinking carbohydrates, but blood glucose occasionally can fall fast enough and low enough to produce unconsciousness before hypoglycemia can be recognized and reversed. Hypoglycemia can be severe enough to cause un Continue reading >>

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