You Asked: Do Sugar Substitutes Cause Type 2 Diabetes?
TIME Health For more, visit TIME Health. By now you’ve heard that sugary foods drive insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. The more of the sweet stuff you swallow—whether it’s table sugar or organic honey—the more insulin your pancreas has to produce and release into your bloodstream in order to control your blood’s glucose levels. At some point, an overworked pancreas can become incapable of producing enough insulin to manage sugar loads in the blood, resulting in type-2 diabetes But what happens if you replace sugar with artificial sweeteners? The American Diabetes Association says on its website that sugar substitutes are safe by FDA standards, and “may help curb your cravings for something sweet.” But other experts are dubious. “The short answer is we don’t know what happens when you replace sugar with artificial sweeteners,” says Dr. Robert Lustig, an endocrinologist and sugar researcher at the University of California, San Francisco. “We have data nibbling around the edges, but we don’t have enough to make a hard determination for any specific sweetener.” People who consume diet soda on a daily basis are 36% more likely to develop metabolic syndrome and 67% more likely to develop type-2 diabetes than people who don’t drink diet or regular soda, found a 2009 study. That may seem damning until you consider that overweight or obese people—the groups most at risk for type-2 diabetes—may be more likely to drink diet soda in an attempt to lose weight than their slimmer pals. Newer evidence, though still far from conclusive, is more telling. A 2014 study from Israel found that artificial sweeteners changed the microbiotic makeup of rodents’ guts in ways linked to metabolic disease. For another recent study, researchers at Washington Un Continue reading >>
Splenda (sucralose) Found To Have Diabetes-promoting Effects
Promoted for decades as a "safe" sugar alternative, presumably to prevent or reduce symptoms of diabetes, Splenda (sucralose) has been found to have diabetes-promoting effects in human subjects. The artificial sweetener sucralose, which is approximately 600 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar), and marketed under a variety of brand names, such as Splenda, Cukren, Nevella and SucraPlus, has recently been found to have diabetes-promoting effects in human test subjects, despite containing no calories and being classified as a 'nonutritive sweetener.' A new study published in the journal Diabetes Care, lead by researchers at the Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, set out to test the metabolic effects of sucralose in obese subjects who did not use nonnutritive sweeteners. Seventeen subjects underwent a 5-hour oral glucose tolerance test on two separate occasions preceded by consuming either sucralose (experimental condition) or water (control condition) 10 min before the glucose load in a randomized crossover design. The results were reported as follows: Compared with the control condition, sucralose ingestion caused 1) a greater incremental increase in peak plasma glucose concentrations (4.2 ± 0.2 vs. 4.8 ± 0.3 mmol/L; P = 0.03), 2) a 20 ± 8% greater incremental increase in insulin area under the curve (AUC) (P < 0.03), 3) a 22 ± 7% greater peak insulin secretion rate (P < 0.02), 4) a 7 ± 4% decrease in insulin clearance (P = 0.04), and 5) a 23 ± 20% decrease in SI (P = 0.01). In other words, a single dose of sucralose lead to a .6 mmol/L increase in plasma glucose concentrations, a 20% increase in insulin levels, a 22% greater peak insulin secretion rate, and a 7% decrease in insulin clearance, an indication Continue reading >>
Is Splenda Safe For Diabetes?
By Stacey Hugues | Reviewed by Richard N. Fogoros, MD Remember when those little yellow sweetener packets started showing up next to the pink and blue packets in your local restaurant? Well, since its commercial introduction in 1999, Splenda has risen in popularity to take over 62 percent of the U.S. market share for artificial sweeteners. But, should you be using Splenda? Is it safe for people with diabetes ? Read on to find out the answers to these questions and more. Splenda is made from the FDA-approved artificial sweetenersucralose. The FDA reviewed over 110 human and animal studies on sucralose prior to approving it safe for consumption. In its review, it included studies that looked for links to cancer and reproductive and nerological issues. None were found. An individual 1g packet of Splenda technically has 3.3 calories , however, this number is low enough to be considered "calorie-free" under FDA labeling laws. Interestingly, the low caloric content actually comes from bulking agents used in the production of Splenda, not sucralose . As with other artificial sweeteners, Splenda is intensely sweet. In fact, sucralose is 600 times sweeter than table sugar. In the U.S., Splenda is used as a sweetener in many pre-sweetened beverages and foods. It can be purchased as either individual packets or larger bulk packaged granuals, in both white and brown sugar baking forms. (If you're having tea across the pond in the UK, however, you could also find Splenda available in tablet form.) Many "sugar-free" and "reduced-calorie" foods use artificial sweeteners to add a sweet flavor without adding extra carbohydrates or grams of sugar. Splenda, in the form of sucralose, is one of the artificial sweeteners that is used. If you're wondering if a product contains Splenda, read Continue reading >>
5 Sugar Substitutes For Type 2 Diabetes
1 / 6 A Small Amount of Real Sugar Is Best, but Sugar Substitutes Can Help If you think that people with diabetes should always avoid sugar, think again — they can enjoy the sweet stuff, in moderation. "The best bet is to use a very minimal amount of real sugar as part of a balanced diabetic diet," says Keri Glassman, MS, RD, CDN, of Nutritious Life, a nutrition practice based in New York City. That being said, sugar substitutes offer sweetness while controlling carbohydrate intake and blood glucose. There are many sugar substitutes to choose from, but they’re not all calorie-free and they vary in terms of their impact on blood sugar. "The major difference between the sugar substitutes is whether they are nutritive or non-nutritive sweeteners," says Melissa Mullins, MS, RD, a certified diabetes educator with Johnston Memorial Hospital in Abingdon, Va. "Non-nutritive sweeteners provide no calories and no changes in blood glucose levels, which is perfect for people with diabetes.” Here are six sweet options to consider. Continue reading >>
The Dangers Of Sucralose: Why Is It Considered Diabetic Friendly?
With all the negative media I’ve been reading lately in regards to sucralose, it started to make me think…can sucralose really be that bad for you? As a type 1 diabetic, let’s just say I had a lot of wow moments when deciding to research what was going into my body. If you think sucralose is safe, you may want to think again. Why they consider and promote this as safe for the diabetic community disturbs me on a lot of levels, let’s take a look why! When it comes to sucralose and diabetes, it seems like a perfect match. Sucralose is an artificial sweetener that is nearly 600 times sweeter than the ordinary (table) sugar. It contains zero calories and hence, is popular as a zero-calorie sweetener. It is widely used by diet and weight conscious people all over the world. Sucralose is sold under the brand name Splenda, which is commonly available in the market. It is also better than other artificial sweeteners as it can be used in baking. Most of the artificial sweeteners cannot be used in baking due to their instability. But, this is not the case with sucralose as it remains stable even when exposed to heat for a longer time. This additional property makes it a favored choice among other artificial sweeteners including aspartame. Also, due to its extra sweet property, it is used for making a variety of sweets and desserts like jams, jellies, candies, sweet fillings, fruits juices, etc. However, you should be aware of the negative side effects that sucralose can pose. Sucralose and Chlorine One possible side effect from Splenda unrelated to allergies is the possibility of chlorine poisoning. Sucralose is one of the few artificial sweeteners that claims to be made from sugar; chlorine atoms are added, that’s right Chlorine! Ingesting too much chlorine can lead to Continue reading >>
Sugar Substitutes: Sucralose
Last week we took a look at aspartame, a popular nonnutritive sweetener that’s been around for a long time and is found in a “little blue packet.” It’s interesting to hear and read about people’s reactions to and opinions about sweeteners. Some people won’t touch them with a 10-foot pole, while other people find them to be helpful to include in their diets. The good news, I suppose, is that there are many different types of sweeteners (caloric and non-caloric alike) to choose from. This week, we’ll look at another very popular sweetener called sucralose. What is sucralose? Not surprisingly, sucralose is a very different type of sweetener than aspartame. This sweetener, which is 600 times sweeter than regular sugar, is actually made from sugar. For you chemistry buffs, sucralose is made by replacing three hydrogen-oxygen groups on a sucrose molecule with three chlorine atoms. These chlorine atoms help to create a structure that is very stable. Sucralose was discovered in 1976 and was approved for general use in 1999. Sucralose is found in over 4500 foods and beverages. Unlike aspartame, which breaks down at high temperatures, sucralose is approved for cooking and baking. It’s heat stable and it’s sold in granular form, just like sugar. Many people prefer the taste of sucralose over other sweeteners, claiming that it tastes more like sugar and without an aftertaste. What are the concerns about consuming sucralose? Like aspartame, sucralose has undergone extensive safety testing. Studies conducted over a 20-year period have determined that sucralose is safe for the general population, including children, and pregnant and breast-feeding women. It’s a good choice for people who have diabetes as it does not impact blood sugar levels (although keep in mind Continue reading >>
Splenda® Brand Sweetener Is Suitable For People With Diabetes
SPLENDA® Brand Sweetener, or sucralose, is not sugar and the body does not recognize it as such. Unlike sugar, sucralose is not broken down for energy. It is not a source of carbohydrate or glucose, and clinical studies show that it has no effect on blood glucose levels, insulin secretion or blood levels, glycosylated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), or blood glucose control. People with diabetes can eat a variety of food products, according to the dietary program prescribed by their doctor or registered dietitian. These can include foods sweetened with sugar. However, meal plans for people with diabetes usually control total carbohydrate intake and, often, calorie intake. In a meal plan for people with diabetes, up to 4 packets of SPLENDA® No Calorie Sweetener or up to 8 teaspoons of SPLENDA® No Calorie Sweetener Granulated is considered a "free food." The American Dietetic Association and the American Diabetes Association consider a free food to be any food or beverage that contains less than 20 calories and 5 grams or less of carbohydrate per serving. When used in place of sugar, SPLENDA® Sweetener Products can also help people with diabetes reduce their intake of carbohydrates and calories. It's important to note that SPLENDA® Sugar Blend does contain sugar, so people with diabetes need to consider this when counting their carbohydrate intake. Calories and carbohydrates can be present as well in other ingredients in foods and beverages sweetened with any SPLENDA® Sweetener product. People with diabetes need to count these calories and carbohydrates when planning their meals. To help people manage intake, complete nutrition information for dozens of recipes made with SPLENDA® Sweetener Products are available at: www.splenda.com. Continue reading >>
Sucralose Affects Glycemic And Hormonal Responses To An Oral Glucose Load
Abstract OBJECTIVE Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), such as sucralose, have been reported to have metabolic effects in animal models. However, the relevance of these findings to human subjects is not clear. We evaluated the acute effects of sucralose ingestion on the metabolic response to an oral glucose load in obese subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seventeen obese subjects (BMI 42.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2) who did not use NNS and were insulin sensitive (based on a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score ≤2.6) underwent a 5-h modified oral glucose tolerance test on two separate occasions preceded by consuming either sucralose (experimental condition) or water (control condition) 10 min before the glucose load in a randomized crossover design. Indices of β-cell function, insulin sensitivity (SI), and insulin clearance rates were estimated by using minimal models of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide kinetics. RESULTS Compared with the control condition, sucralose ingestion caused 1) a greater incremental increase in peak plasma glucose concentrations (4.2 ± 0.2 vs. 4.8 ± 0.3 mmol/L; P = 0.03), 2) a 20 ± 8% greater incremental increase in insulin area under the curve (AUC) (P < 0.03), 3) a 22 ± 7% greater peak insulin secretion rate (P < 0.02), 4) a 7 ± 4% decrease in insulin clearance (P = 0.04), and 5) a 23 ± 20% decrease in SI (P = 0.01). There were no significant differences between conditions in active glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon incremental AUC, or indices of the sensitivity of the β-cell response to glucose. CONCLUSIONS These data demonstrate that sucralose affects the glycemic and insulin responses to an oral glucose load in obese people who do not normally consume NNS. Most people, like other m Continue reading >>
Artificial Sweeteners And Diabetes
Is it possible to eat sweets when you have diabetes? The answer is "yes." But when you’re trying to satisfy your sweet tooth, it can be hard to know what to reach for at the grocery store (sugar-free this or low-calorie that). So, use this primer to help you choose wisely. The Sweet Facts When you’re comparing sweeteners, keep these things in mind: Sugars are naturally occurring carbohydrates. These include brown sugar, cane sugar, confectioners’ sugar, fructose, honey, and molasses. They have calories and raise your blood glucose levels (the level of sugar in your blood). Reduced-calorie sweeteners are sugar alcohols. You might know these by names like isomalt, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and xylitol. You'll often find them in sugar-free candy and gum. They have about half the calories of sugars and can raise your blood sugar levels, although not as much as other carbohydrates. Artificial sweeteners are considered "free foods." They were designed in a lab, have no calories, and do not raise your blood sugar levels. Types of Artificial Sweeteners Artificial low-calorie sweeteners include: Saccharin (Sweet'N Low, Sugar Twin). You can use it in both hot and cold foods. Avoid this sweetener if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Aspartame (NutraSweet, Equal). You can use it in both cold and warm foods. It may lose some sweetness at high temperatures. People who have a condition called phenylketonuria should avoid this sweetener. Acesulfame potassium or ace-K (Sweet One, Swiss Sweet, Sunett). You can use it in both cold and hot foods, including in baking and cooking. Sucralose (Splenda). You can use it in hot and cold foods, including in baking and cooking. Processed foods often contain it. Advantame can be used in baked goods, soft drinks and other non-alcoholic bev Continue reading >>
The Dangers Of Sucralose, Why Is It Considered Diabetic Friendly?
With all the negative media I’ve been reading lately in regards to sucralose, it started to make me think…can sucralose really be that bad for you? As a type 1 diabetic, lets just say I had a lot of WOW moments when deciding to research what was going into my body. If you think sucralose is safe, you may want to think again. Why they consider and promote this as safe for the diabetic community disturbs me on a lot of levels, lets take a look why! When it comes to sucralose and diabetes, it seems like a perfect match. Sucralose is an artificial sweetener that is nearly 600 times sweeter than the ordinary (table) sugar. It contains zero calories and hence, is popular as a zero-calorie sweetener. It is widely used by diet and weight conscious people all over the world. Sucralose is sold under the brand name Splenda, which is commonly available in the market. Some claim sucralose is also better than other artificial sweeteners as it can be used in baking… me personally, I think there are healthier alternatives when it comes to cooking. Thing is, most artificial sweeteners cannot be used in baking due to their instability. But, this is not the case with sucralose as it remains stable even when exposed to heat for a longer time (gotta love that chemical structure). This additional property makes it a favored choice among other artificial sweeteners including aspartame. Also, due to its extra sweet property, it is used for making a variety of sweets and desserts like jams, jellies, candies, sweet fillings, fruits juices, etc. However, you should be aware of the negative side effects that sucralose can pose. Sucralose And Chlorine: One possible side effect from Splenda unrelated to allergies is the possibility of chlorine poisoning. Sucralose is one of the few artificial Continue reading >>
You May Want To Skip The Splenda
New research sheds light on sucraloses effect on blood sugar, insulin and fat Before you sweeten your coffee with the contents of a little yellow packet, read this. A popular artificial sweetener known as sucralose and marketed as Splenda can adversely affect how some people metabolize sugar, according to a new study from researchers at Washington University in St. Louis. The study compared overweight people with normal sugar metabolism to see how they reacted when they were given either water or sucraloseabout as much as is in one can of diet sodato drink before a glucose challenge test, which involves drinking a glucose mixture and then having blood taken at multiple intervals. Researchers found a kind of insulin-and-blood-sugar roller-coaster scenario. Peoples blood sugar levels peaked higher if they got sucralose, rather than water, before the glucose challenge test. Insulin levels also climbed higher. And, a few hours into the test, at the lowest blood sugar point, sucralose consumption led to lower blood sugar levels than did water, which can set the stage for carb cravings. Everyone got the same amount of glucose, both times, but their bodies secreted much more insulin when they got sucralose first, says M. Yanina Pepino, PhD, the studys main researcher. Insulin is needed for the body to use sugar for energy, but too much is harmful, Dr. Pepino says. High blood levels of insulin keep fat from being broken down for energy, making it hard to lose weight. And chronically high insulin levels can lead to insulin resistance, a precursor to type-2 diabetes. Does that mean that people who drink diet soda all the time are setting themselves up for type-2 diabetes? No one knows, Dr. Pepino says. However, in two large population studies, consumption of non-nutritive sweete Continue reading >>
Are Artificial Sweeteners Safe For People With Diabetes?
As diabetes educators, we are frequently asked if sugar substitutes are safe and which ones are best. Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy Over time, there have been many sugar substitutes, and we always tell people that the one you use is a personal choice. They are safe for people with diabetes, and they can be used to reduce both your calorie and carbohydrate intake. Sugar substitutes also can help curb those cravings you have for something sweet. Youll find artificial sweeteners in diet drinks , baked goods, frozen desserts, candy, light yogurt and chewing gum. You can also find them as stand-alone sweeteners to add to coffee, tea , cereal and fruit. Some are also available for cooking and baking. Its important to remember that only a small amount is needed since the sweetening power of these substitutes is (at least) 100 times stronger than regular sugar. There are currently six artificial sweeteners that have been tested and approved by the FDAor placed on the agencys Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) list. Numerous scientific studies have been performed on each of them to confirm they are safe for consumption. The FDA has established an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for each of the products. This represents the amount of a food ingredient that can be used safely on a daily basis over a lifetime without risk.Here is a current list of sweeteners that have been approved by the FDA. 1. Acesulfame-potassium, also known as Ace-K This is generally blended with another low-calorie sweetener. Brand names include Sunett and Sweet One It is stable under heat, even under moderately acidic or basic conditions, allowing it to be used as Continue reading >>
Splenda: Is It Safe?
With the growing trends of obesity and type 2 diabetes, many people are looking to alternative sweeteners to ease their sugar cravings. Sucralose, known by the brand name Splenda, is an artificial sweetener approved for general use as a sugar substitute. But is Splenda safe? Here we explain what Splenda is, how it is used, and what the science says about this sugar substitute. We also compare it with stevia, another popular sugar alternative. Here are some key points about Splenda. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Splenda is referred to as a high-intensity sweetener There are five artificial sweeteners approved for use in the U.S., including Splenda Although Splenda is considered safe to consume, recent research questions its role in disease What is Splenda? Splenda is a brand name artificial sweetener. It is used as a sugar substitute by people looking for low-calorie alternatives to their daily sweet treats. Sweeteners like Splenda mimic the sweetness of sugar, without the calories. The sweetness of Splenda is due to a compound called sucralose, a type of indigestible artificial sugar. This is made by replacing certain atoms in sugar with atoms of chlorine. Sucralose is also combined with other digestible sweeteners like maltodextrin to make Splenda. Splenda is approximately 600 times as sweet as sugar; this is why sweeteners such as Splenda are known as high-intensity sweeteners. Since it was introduced in 1998, Splenda has become one of the most popular artificial sweeteners on the market. What is Splenda used for? Splenda is a general sweetener that can be found in everything from baked goods to beverages. Frozen desserts, chewing gum, and gelatins are also commonly sweetened with Splenda; diet foods of all sorts contain the sweetener. Continue reading >>
How Safe Is Sucralose?
Sucralose is a calorie-free artificialsweetener derived from sucrose and is up to 650 times sweeter than sugar. Valued for having no bitter aftertaste, sucralose-based products are found in a broad range of lower-calorie foods, including table top sweeteners, fizzy drinks, chewing gum, baking mixes, breakfast cerealsand salad dressings. Because it is very sweet, sucralose is often mixed with other sweetening ingredientsthat are not calorie-free, such as dextrose or maltodextrin, to dilute its intense sweetness. When consumed, most of thesucralose is not absorbed by the body and is eliminated through excretion. Between 8% and 20% enters the blood and is removed through urine, essentially unchanged.TheEU's Scientific Committee on Food(SCF) has concluded that repeated consumption of sucralose is "unlikely" to lead toaccumulation inthe body (PDF, 128kb) . There have been reports of adverse reactions to sucralose, including claims that it could be a migraine trigger . There is alsoresearch suggesting that it could harm the immune system. However, in a review of the evidence in 2000 (PDF, 128kb) , the SCF concluded that sucralose is safe for human consumption. In particular, that it is not harmful to the immune system, does not cause cancer, infertility, pose a risk to pregnancy, or affect blood sugar levels. Sucralose has no effect on tooth decay and is commonly found in oral health products, such as chewing gum. It also has less of an impact on blood glucose than sugar. Both of these health claims werevalidated in a 2011 review by the European Food Safety Authority (PDF, 331kb) . Acceptable daily intake: 15mg/kg body weight. Find out what the latest scientific evidence says about these other common artificial sweeteners: Continue reading >>
The Relationship Between Diabetes And Sweeteners
Artificial sweeteners are always a “hot topic” and many people tend to have strong feelings about them, one way or another. It seems like every other month we get a report on the latest study on what artificial sweeteners do or don’t do to us. The data alternates between saying artificial sweeteners are good for us or they are going to kill us – so which is it? It can be hard to know what to believe and what to do, especially if you have diabetes and see artificial sweeteners as a healthy alternative. They seem like a great option for lowering calories and carbohydrates, but are they too good to be true? Let’s look at some of the claims, myths and facts related to artificial sweeteners. We’ll start with the basics. The Background and the Basics Artificial sweeteners, also called sugar substitutes, were originally created to help people lose weight and manage diabetes. They were thought to be a great alternative. Saccharin was the first artificial sweetener, accidentally discovered by scientists at John’s Hopkins. Eventually there were concerns over the safety of saccharin based on studies done in rodents. Even though the FDA was leaning toward banning it, but they didn’t, and it was partially because of consumer uproar over that possibility. The final ruling was that saccharin was only required to have a warning label about cancer, but could remain on the market. In 2000, the warning label was removed because they could only prove its carcinogenic affect in rodents and not in humans. You will still find saccharin “the pink packet” on the market today. Now, we have a total of 8 sugar substitutes. There are two different kinds, nutritive and non-nutritive. Nutritive means it adds to the caloric value of food and it contains more than 2% of the amount o Continue reading >>