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Diabetes Stroke

Diabetes And Stroke

Diabetes And Stroke

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Stroke

Stroke

Damage to brain tissue caused by a disruption in blood flow to the brain. Strokes can be fatal and can result in temporary or permanent disability. Common aftereffects of a stroke include paralysis, weakness, muscular contractions, loss of sensation, and speech difficulties. Stroke is the third largest cause of death in the United States, and it is estimated to affect as many as 700,000 Americans each year. There are two types of strokes: ischemic and hemorrhagic. Ischemic strokes, which account for 70% to 80% of all strokes, occur when fatty material or a blood clot blocks one of the blood vessels in the brain. Without the oxygen and nutrients carried in blood, brain cells can die within minutes. Hemorrhagic strokes occur when arterial blood leaks into the brain. This not only deprives some areas of the brain of blood and oxygen, but the accumulated blood may also exert pressure on surrounding tissue and cause further brain damage. Some risk factors for stroke cannot be controlled. These include age (risk increases with age), gender (men are at greater risk than women), race (African-Americans are at greatest risk), and a family history of stroke. Other risk factors, including the following, can be avoided or managed: High blood pressure is the most important controllable factor. It makes a person four to six times more likely to have a stroke. Controlling blood pressure by losing excess weight, exercising more, reducing sodium intake, drinking less alcohol, and eating more fruits and vegetables or by taking medicines can significantly reduce your risk of stroke. Smoking doubles a person’s risk of having a stroke. You can significantly reduce your risk of stroke and many other health problems by quitting smoking. Atrial fibrillation, a condition in which the upper ch Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Stroke

Diabetes And Stroke

Tweet Stroke is a condition in which blood supply to be the brain is affected. A stroke can sometimes lead to permanent damage including communication problems, paralysis and visual problems. The risk factors of stroke are similar to the risk factors for heart problems. Statistically, people with diabetes have a higher risk of dying from heart disease and stroke than the general population. By maintaining stable blood glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol, people with diabetes can increase their chances of preventing a stroke. What is a stroke? Stroke occurs when blood supply to the brain is interrupted and brain tissue is damaged. The two main types of stroke are: Ischaemic - where a blood clot forms in the brain. This accounts for about 8 out of 10 instances of stroke. Haemorrhagic - whereby a blood vessel in the brain bursts and causes a brain haemorrhage. Stroke can be especially damaging physically, but may also cause mental problems with thought or speech. What are stroke symptoms? The warning signs of a stroke are given the acronym FAST: Face - stroke will often affect muscles on one side of the face causing the mouth or eyes to droop down in contrast with the unaffected side Arms - a person having had a stroke may be unable to hold up one of their arms Speech - slurred speech may be a sign of a stroke Time - refers to the need for urgent action, call 999 immediately if one or more of the symptoms are present Other symptoms of a stroke may include: Sudden numbness or weakness on one side of the body Confusion Trouble seeing Dizziness Loss of balance Double vision Severe headache Sometimes people may experience a stroke without being fully aware that they have had one. This kind of stroke is called a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and is sometimes referred to Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Stroke: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Pharmaceuticals And Outcomes

Diabetes And Stroke: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Pharmaceuticals And Outcomes

Go to: INTRODUCTION cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including stroke, are major healthcare issues in both developing and developed countries with deleterious effects at individual, family and societal levels. Between 2010 and 2030, the estimated total direct medical costs would escalate from $273–$818 billion in the United States alone.1 Major modifiable risk factors for stroke include hypertension, diabetes, smoking and dyslipidemia. Diabetes is a well-established risk factor for stroke. It can cause pathologic changes in blood vessels at various locations and can lead to stroke if cerebral vessels are directly affected. Additionally, mortality is higher and poststroke outcomes are poorer in patients with stroke with uncontrolled glucose levels. Whether tight control of hyperglycemia is associated with better outcomes in acute stroke phase needs to be further investigated in Phase III clinical trials. Controlling diabetes and other associated risk factors are effective ways to prevent initial strokes as well as stroke recurrence. In this narrative article, we review the epidemiology linking diabetes and stroke; the pathophysiology of diabetes and stroke patterns and outcomes in individuals with diabetes. Additionally, we summarize the influence of hyperglycemia on poststroke outcomes and management of hyperglycemia during the acute phase of stroke. Finally, we review stroke prevention strategies for individuals with diabetes. Continue reading >>

Diabetes, The Metabolic Syndrome, And Ischemic Stroke

Diabetes, The Metabolic Syndrome, And Ischemic Stroke

Epidemiology and possible mechanisms Stroke affects more than 700,000 individuals each year; it is the third largest cause of death and the largest cause of adult disability in the U.S. Diabetes is a major risk factor for the development of stroke, yet this risk is not realized or understood by patients with diabetes. This likely reflects a lack of understanding within the medical community of how diabetes confers this risk. We will explore the potential underlying mechanisms that lead to increased incidence of stroke among diabetic patients. Beyond diabetes itself, the metabolic syndrome and its components will also be discussed. The impact of diabetes and hyperglycemia on stroke outcomes and a discussion of current approaches to reduce stroke in this high-risk population are included. Because type 2 diabetes affects the vast majority of those diagnosed with diabetes, it will be the primary focus of this discussion. DEFINING THE PROBLEM— It has been well documented that diabetes confers a significantly increased risk of stroke, as well as increased mortality following stroke (1–7). Stroke is a preventable disease with high personal and societal cost. While great progress has been made in understanding the link between diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD), the literature on diabetes and stroke has been less enlightening. CHD is a larger problem that accounts for 40–50% of mortality in diabetes. Because of the overwhelming impact of CHD, the impact of stroke has been relatively underappreciated. Thus, physicians, diabetes educators, and nurses are less equipped to educate patients. We therefore review the relationship between diabetes and stroke. Given that more than one million people are diagnosed with diabetes yearly, a figure that is expected to rise, the Continue reading >>

Relationship Between Diabetes And Ischemic Stroke: Analysis Of Diabetes- Related Risk Factors For Stroke And Of Specific Patterns Of Stroke Associated With Diabetes Mellitus

Relationship Between Diabetes And Ischemic Stroke: Analysis Of Diabetes- Related Risk Factors For Stroke And Of Specific Patterns Of Stroke Associated With Diabetes Mellitus

1Internal Medicine Ward,Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica (Di.Bi.M.I.S), Università degli Studi di Palermo (Italy) 2Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Experimental Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Citation: Tuttolomondo A, Maida C, Maugeri R, Iacopino G, Pinto A (2015) Relationship between Diabetes and Ischemic Stroke: Analysis of Diabetes-Related Risk Factors for Stroke and of Specific Patterns of Stroke Associated with Diabetes Mellitus. J Diabetes Metab 6:544. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000544 Copyright: © 2015 Tuttolomondo A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism Abstract Diabetes and ischemic stroke are common diseases that frequently occurring together. Among patients with diabetes mellitus several factors contribute in varying degrees to the overall cerebrovascular risk including hyperglycemia, vascular risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia and also genetic, demographic, and lifestyle factors and several studies have shown that people with diabetes have approximately twice the risk of ischemic stroke compared with those without diabetes. The association between ischemic stroke and diabetes is bidirectional and it is not limited to acute ischemic stroke since diabetes may contribute to a more insidious brain damage represented by lacunar infarcts increasing the risk of dementia and leading to a steeper decline in cognitive function. The higher cerebrovascular risk profile of subjects with diabetes mellitus emphasizes the Continue reading >>

Diabetes - Preventing Heart Attack And Stroke

Diabetes - Preventing Heart Attack And Stroke

When you have extra cholesterol in your blood, it can build up inside the walls of your heart's arteries (blood vessels). This buildup is called plaque. It can narrow your arteries and reduces or stops blood flow. This can lead to heart attack, stroke, or other serious heart disease. Most people with diabetes are prescribed a medicine to reduce their LDL cholesterol levels. Medicines called statins are often used. You should learn how to take your statin medicine and how to watch for side effects. Your doctor will tell you if there is a target LDL level you need to aim for. If you have other risk factors for heart disease or stroke, your doctor may prescribe higher doses of a statin drug. Your doctor should check your cholesterol levels at least once a year. Eat foods that are low in fat and learn how to shop for and cook foods that are healthy for your heart. Get plenty of exercise, as well. Talk with your doctor about what kinds of exercises are right for you. Have your blood pressure checked often. Your provider should check your blood pressure at every visit. For most people with diabetes, a good blood pressure goal is less than 130 to 140 over 90 mm Hg. Ask your doctor what is best for you. Exercising, eating low-salt foods, and losing weight (if you are overweight or obese) can lower your blood pressure. If your blood pressure is too high, your doctor will prescribe medicines to lower it. Getting exercise will help you control your diabetes and make your heart stronger. Always talk with your doctor before you start a new exercise program or before you increase the amount of exercise you are doing. Some people with diabetes may have heart problems and not know it because they do not have symptoms. Taking aspirin every day may lower your chance of having a heart att Continue reading >>

The Link Between Stroke And Diabetes

The Link Between Stroke And Diabetes

While multiple studies say diabetes puts you at risk of conditions such as heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure, a healthy lifestyle and insulin treatments can help keep your risk low. In a stroke, one of the many blood vessels that supply your brain with oxygen becomes damaged or blocked. If the blood flow is cut off for more than 3 to 4 minutes, that part of your brain begins to die. There are two types of strokes: Hemorrhagic strokes are caused by a ruptured artery. Ischemic strokes result from a blocked artery. Diabetes can also make it harder for your body to respond to a stroke. When your oxygen supply is cut off, other arteries can usually serve as a bypass. But if you have diabetes, those vessels may be hardened or clogged with plaque, a condition known as atherosclerosis. This makes it harder for blood to get to your brain. High blood pressure is the leading risk factor for stroke. Others include smoking cigarettes and high levels of LDL ("bad") cholesterol. A stroke is an emergency whether you have diabetes or not. If you or someone near you has any of these symptoms, call 911 at once. Sudden numbness or weakness in the face, arm, or leg (especially on one side of the body) Trouble speaking or understanding words or simple sentences Sudden trouble swallowing Dizziness, loss of balance, or lack of coordination Brief loss of consciousness Sudden inability to move part of the body (paralysis) Sudden, unexplainable, and intense headache One treatment for ischemic stroke is a clot-buster drug called tPA, which must be taken within the first 3 hours after stroke symptoms begin. It dissolves the clot that has clogged an artery and can restore blood flow to brain tissue. But this drug isn’t for all people who have an ischemic stroke, especially if you've had ma Continue reading >>

Acute And Chronic Complications Of Diabetes

Acute And Chronic Complications Of Diabetes

Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and premature death in patients with diabetes. The majority of cases of stroke result from thromboembolic occlusion of cerebral arteries with a smaller percentage attributable to intracerebral haemorrhage. Risk factors including obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia, which are commonly present in patients with type 2 diabetes, contribute to the elevated risk of stroke. Patients with diabetes tend to have stroke at a younger age compared with the non-diabetic population; this risk is especially marked in patients with type 1 diabetes. Mortality is higher and functional outcomes are generally poorer following stroke in the presence of diabetes. Primary and secondary prevention relies on a comprehensive multi-factorial approach to risk factor modification. Background Diabetes mellitus is a modifiable risk factor for stroke.[1] Approximately 20% of patients with diabetes will die as a result of stroke, making this one of the leading causes of death for this population.[2] Symptom onset tends to occur at an earlier age in the presence of diabetes and functional outcomes are worse than for non-diabetics.[2] The increase in risk of ischaemic stroke is especially evident in the under-65 age group. While overall stroke incidence and mortality in developed countries has declined in recent decades the incidence of stroke in young adults has been increasing. Diabetes and obesity have been identified as risk factors for stroke in younger adults. The elevated risk of stroke in patients with type 1 diabetes is particularly evident in the second to fourth decades of life.[3] The incidence of stroke – classically defined as an acute focal cerebral deficit with no apparent cause other than a vascular origin – is increased several-fold by the pre Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Stroke 101

Diabetes And Stroke 101

If you have diabetes, your risk of having a stroke is greater than that of someone without diabetes, even if you are otherwise healthy. Here's why: Diabetes can damage your blood vessels, so they are more prone to blockage. Your brain needs oxygen to survive. When you have a stroke, one or more of the blood vessels that delivers oxygen to the brain has become blocked. Also, with diabetes, the blood is thicker and more prone to clotting, thus slowing or blocking circulation. In addition, those with diabetes who suffer strokes often have a worse prognosis than those without diabetes. When the oxygen to the brain is blocked, other arteries can sometimes bypass the blockage and get enough oxygen to the brain. If you have diabetes, you may have blocked or narrow arteries that are less able to come to the rescue. How Do I Know When I'm Having a Stroke? You can improve your odds of surviving a stroke by knowing the symptoms. Signs of a stroke include sudden onset of any of the following: numbness (especially on one side, of your face, arm, or leg), paralysis in one part of the body, blurred vision or trouble swallowing, intense headache, difficulty speaking or understanding what is being said, and a brief period of unconsciousness. Call 911 as soon as possible if you or someone you are with experiences any of these symptoms. What Happens After a Stroke? If you suffer a stroke, your doctor may prescribe medication. Alternatively, your doctor may recommend surgery. Surgical options for treating a stroke include surgically removing the blockage from the carotid artery (this supplies blood to the brain) or inserting a stent into the blocked artery to hold it open and allow the blood to flow. You Can Prevent Stroke With the addition of controlling blood sugar, the tips to help prev Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Stroke

Diabetes And Stroke

Diabetes and stroke: : What is diabetes? (Type 1 or Type 2) Our bodies need a hormone called insulin to turn sugar (from our food) into energy. If you have Type 1 diabetes, your body does not produce insulin. If you have Type 2 diabetes, your body does not make enough insulin. This means your body has difficulty absorbing the sugars from food. If diabetes is left untreated or uncontrolled it increases the risk of vascular disease (disease of the blood vessels). This is when your artery walls become hard and narrow. This increases the risk of stroke, particularly ischaemic stroke. People with diabetes are also more likely to have high blood pressure. This can also increase your risk of further strokes. If you have diabetes it is important to maintain healthy blood sugar levels to reduce your risk of having a stroke or second stroke. I have diabetes If you have diabetes it is important to keep your blood sugars within a recommended range. (This is sometimes called ‘controlling’ your blood sugar levels). This requires regular monitoring of blood sugar levels (BSLs) usually through finger-prick test. If you have Type 1 diabetes you should have your blood sugar level checked 4–6 times per day. If you have Type 2 diabetes you should talk to your doctor or diabetes educator about how often to check your blood sugar level. It should be at least two times a day but could be more often. If you have Type 1 diabetes you will need to use insulin to keep their blood sugars in the healthy range. Insulin is usually taken by an injection. If you have Type 2 diabetes you can usually use a healthy diet and regular exercise to keep your blood sugars in the healthy range. Talk to your doctor or diabetes educator about the things you should do. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus As A Risk Factor For Death From Stroke

Diabetes Mellitus As A Risk Factor For Death From Stroke

Abstract Background and Purpose High blood pressure is the most important risk factor for stroke. It is also known that diabetic patients are at increased risk of both hypertension and stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the independent effect of diabetes as a risk factor for stroke. Results from the previous studies of this question have been somewhat inconclusive. Methods We performed a prospective study (average follow-up, 16.4 years) of 8077 men and 8572 women who had participated in risk factor surveys in Eastern Finland in 1972 (20 years of follow-up) and 1977 (15 years of follow-up). Risk factors included in the current analyses were smoking, blood pressure, antihypertensive drug treatment, serum total cholesterol, and diabetes either at baseline or developed during the follow-up. Age- and risk factor-adjusted relative risks for death of stroke were determined with the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Diabetes mellitus was the strongest risk factor for death from stroke among both men and women in univariate and multivariate analyses. In addition, smoking and systolic blood pressure appeared to be independent risk factors among both sexes, as did serum total cholesterol among men. Men with diabetes at baseline appeared to be at a sixfold increased risk of death from stroke, while relative risk for men who developed diabetes during the follow-up was 1.7. In women, those who were diabetic at baseline were at higher risk of stroke than women who developed diabetes later (relative risks, 8.2 and 3.7, respectively). Of stroke deaths, 16% in men and 33% in women were attributed to diabetes. Conclusions Diabetic subjects have a very high risk of death from stroke, particularly women. Our data also suggest that the duration of diabetes is an important fact Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Heart Disease, And Stroke

Diabetes, Heart Disease, And Stroke

Having diabetes means that you are more likely to develop heart disease and have a greater chance of a heart attack or a stroke. People with diabetes are also more likely to have certain conditions, or risk factors, that increase the chances of having heart disease or stroke, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol. If you have diabetes, you can protect your heart and health by managing your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, as well as your blood pressure and cholesterol. If you smoke, get help to stop. What is the link between diabetes, heart disease, and stroke? Over time, high blood glucose from diabetes can damage your blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart and blood vessels. The longer you have diabetes, the higher the chances that you will develop heart disease.1 People with diabetes tend to develop heart disease at a younger age than people without diabetes. In adults with diabetes, the most common causes of death are heart disease and stroke. Adults with diabetes are nearly twice as likely to die from heart disease or stroke as people without diabetes.2 The good news is that the steps you take to manage your diabetes also help to lower your chances of having heart disease or stroke. What else increases my chances of heart disease or stroke if I have diabetes? If you have diabetes, other factors add to your chances of developing heart disease or having a stroke. Smoking Smoking raises your risk of developing heart disease. If you have diabetes, it is important to stop smoking because both smoking and diabetes narrow blood vessels. Smoking also increases your chances of developing other long-term problems such as lung disease. Smoking also can damage the blood vessels in your legs and increase the risk of lower leg infections, ulcers, a Continue reading >>

Stroke: Diabetes And Other Risk Factors

Stroke: Diabetes And Other Risk Factors

Diabetes can increase your risk for many health conditions, including stroke. In general, people with diabetes are 1.5 times more likely to have a stroke than people without diabetes. People with diabetes are often left with too much sugar in their blood. That’s because their body is often unable to maintain the delicate balance that insulin plays in helping blood cells create energy from sugar. Over time, this excess sugar can lead to the buildup of clots or fat deposits inside vessels that supply blood to the neck and brain. If these deposits grow, they can cause a narrowing of the blood vessel wall or even a complete blockage. When blood flow to your brain stops for any reason, a stroke occurs. Stroke is a condition in which blood vessels in the brain are damaged. Strokes are characterized by a number of factors, including where in the brain blood vessels have been damaged and what event actually caused the damage. The main types of stroke are ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and transient ischemic attack (TIA). Ischemic stroke Ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke. It occurs when an artery that supplies oxygen-rich blood to the brain is blocked, most often by a blood clot. About 87 percent of strokes are ischemic strokes. Hemorrhagic stroke Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when an artery in the brain leaks blood or ruptures. Approximately 15 percent of strokes are hemorrhagic strokes. Hemorrhagic strokes can be very serious, and are responsible for about 40 percent of stroke-related deaths. Transient ischemic attack (TIA) A TIA is sometimes called a ministroke because the blood flow to the brain is blocked for a minute or so. Rarely, it can be blocked for more than 5 minutes. A TIA is an ischemic stroke, but a very short-lived one. You shouldn’t ignore, Continue reading >>

Diabetic Emergencies: Warning Signs And What To Do

Diabetic Emergencies: Warning Signs And What To Do

Diabetes symptoms can quickly turn into emergencies. The disease of diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States in 2010, claiming nearly 70,000 lives. Responding promptly to symptoms of a diabetic emergency can be lifesaving. Causes and types Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes inhibit the body's ability to manage blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes does so by destroying the cells that produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes reduces how responsive the body is to insulin, while not enough insulin is produced to counter the sugar in the body. Hence, most diabetic emergencies are related to disruptions in a person's blood sugar levels. Occasionally, even too much of a drug being used to treat diabetes can trigger a diabetic emergency. The most common diabetic emergencies include the following: Severe hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is when blood sugar levels are abnormally low. When blood sugar dips very low, it becomes a medical emergency. Hypoglycemia normally only occurs in people with diabetes who take medication that lowers blood sugar. Blood sugar levels may drop dangerously low when a person is: consuming too much alcohol exercising, especially without adjusting food intake or insulin dosage missing or delaying meals overdosing on diabetic medication Diabetic ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body does not have enough insulin to break down glucose properly, and hormones that normally work opposite insulin are high. Over time, the body releases hormones that break down fat to provide fuel. This produces acids called ketones. As ketones build up in the body, ketoacidosis can occur. Common causes of ketoacidosis include: uncontrolled or untreated diabetes an illness or infection that changes hormone production an illness or infection that chang Continue reading >>

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