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Diabetes Secondary To Sleep Apnea

Obstructive Sleep Apnoea And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Are They Connected?

Obstructive Sleep Apnoea And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Are They Connected?

Obstructive sleep apnoea and Type 2 diabetes mellitus: are they connected? 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Changi General Hospital, Singapore 2Family Medicine, Changi General Hospital, Singapore 3Care and Health Integration, Changi General Hospital, Singapore 4Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Changi General Hospital, Singapore Correspondence: Dr Mok Yingjuan, Consultant, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Changi General Hospital, 2 Simei Street 3, Singapore 529889. [email protected]_nauj_gniy Copyright : Singapore Medical Association Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), a sleep-related breathing condition, is diagnosed based on a patients apnoea-hypopnea index from a sleep study, and the presence or absence of symptoms. Diabetes mellitus (DM) and OSA share a significant common risk factor, obesity, with all three conditions contributing to the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiological links between OSA and DM are still unclear, but intermittent hypoxia may be an important mechanism. More awareness of the possible link between OSA and DM is needed, given their increasing prevalence locally and worldwide. Continuous positive airway pressure is the standard treatment for OSA, while weight loss through dietary and lifestyle modifications is important to holistically manage patients with either condition. There is currently insufficient evidence to support the benefits of screening every diabetic patient for OSA. However, diabetic patients with symptoms suggestive of OSA should be referred to a sleep specialist for further evaluation. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnoea, sleep-disordered breathing Mr Lim visited your clinic with his wife for his regular review for Type 2 dia Continue reading >>

The Type 2 Diabetes And Sleep Apnea Connection

The Type 2 Diabetes And Sleep Apnea Connection

People with type 2 diabetes are at risk for sleep apnea, a disorder that's marked by pauses in breathing during sleep. If you have type 2 diabetes, there’s another condition that you should be aware of: sleep apnea, a disorder in which people experience pauses in their breathing throughout the night, possibly for one minute or more. In fact, according to a study published in 2013 in Family Medicine, people with type 2 diabetes can have a nearly 50-50 chance of being diagnosed with this sleep disorder. That’s a problem, since sleep apnea can worsen diabetes symptoms and lead to problems like high blood pressure, heart disease, or even stroke, says David Marrero, PhD, president of healthcare and education at the American Diabetes Association and director of the Diabetes Translational Research Center at the Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis. “Untreated sleep apnea is associated with increases in glucose and poor quality of life stemming from chronic fatigue,” says Dr. Marrero. “It’s also associated with cardiovascular disease, which is why it’s so important for people to get their sleep apnea diagnosed and treated.” Sleep apnea and type 2 diabetes often coexist because of shared risk factors like obesity. According to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, the more severe the untreated sleep apnea in a person with type 2 diabetes, the poorer their levels of glucose control. Read on to learn more about sleep apnea and how you can treat it effectively. Sleep Apnea: It's More Than Just Snoring Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder that’s characterized by pauses in breathing. These episodes, called apneas, can wake the sleeper as he or she gasps for air, which can lead to poor sleep and chronic tiredness. The most common type of sleep apnea is Continue reading >>

4 Lessons You Need To Learn To Service Connect Sleep Apnea.

4 Lessons You Need To Learn To Service Connect Sleep Apnea.

4 Lessons You Need to Learn to Service Connect Sleep Apnea. Do you have questions about how to service connect sleep apnea claims? Youre arent alone. Winning a VA claim to service connect sleep apnea is hard. Winning a VA Sleep Apnea is much harder. In fact, winning your VA sleep apnea claim can feel like you just led your team to victory in the World Cup. Its almost as much work and it can often take as much dedication. Veterans ask me more questions about sleep apnea than almost any other question about VA Benefits Law. Closely followed by PTSD , Hearing Loss , Tinnitus and TDIU . * Can I service connect sleep apnea without a sleep study in service? * What if it wasnt diagnosed until years after service can I service connect it then? * How do I appeal the VA s denial of my Sleep Apnea? I got so many questions that I began to do a lot of research into how to service connect Sleep Apnea claims and what is happening with Sleep Apnea in the Veterans community. Heres 4 lessons I learned that I want to pass on to you if you can really learn and understand these lessons, you will have the power to really improve and service connect sleep apnea claims and appeals. There are 3 things that the human body cannot live or function without: Blood/Oxygen, Food/Water and Sleep. You can lose a kidney, and live a full and complete life. You can lose your arms and legs and still survive. But if your body cannot get sleep, you will die. In fact, sleep deprivation is a common form of torture, as many of us know all too well. Thats what Sleep Apnea does while you are sleeping, you stop breathing. You cut off oxygen to the brain and blood, and other body systems break down. If you are lucky, you start breathing again. Not a lot of VSO s or advocates get this when helping a Veteran file a V Continue reading >>

Building A Test Case: Diabetes Ii Secondary To Sleep Apnea - Va Disability Compensation Benefits Claims Research Forum - Veterans Affairs Disability Compensation Benefits Forums - Hadit.com Veterans

Building A Test Case: Diabetes Ii Secondary To Sleep Apnea - Va Disability Compensation Benefits Claims Research Forum - Veterans Affairs Disability Compensation Benefits Forums - Hadit.com Veterans

VA Disability Compensation Benefits Claims Research Forum Building A Test Case: Diabetes Ii Secondary To Sleep Apnea 14 Questions about VA Disability Compensation Benefits Claims When a Veteran starts considering whether or not to file a VA Disability Claim, there are a lot of questions that he or she tends to ask. Over the last 10 years, the following are the 14 most common basic questions I am asked about ... Most CommonVADisabilities Claimed for Compensation: Can a 100 percent Disabled Veteran Work and Earn an Income? Youve just been rated 100% disabled by the Veterans Affairs.After the excitement of finally having the rating you deserve wears off, you start asking questions.One of the first questions that you might ask is this:Its a legitimate question rare is the Veteran that finds themselves sitting on the couch eating bon-bons Continue reading Several people here have posted regarding diabetes II service-connection being only open to Vietnam vets. They're thinking of the presumptive connection Vietnam vets enjoy because of exposure to Agent Orange. It is possible to develop diabetes in-service, though unless you're in Twilight, you probably wold be medically discharged. In my case, un-treated sleep apnea in-service may have contributed to the development of diabetes post-service. I received a provisional diagnosis in-service for the sleep apnea before being deployed to Korea. After that, a brief tour to Hawaii and then retirement. The VA reopened the original claim and rated the sleep apnea recently. During the time I was researching for a possible appeal, I discovered that there have been several BVA cases where a vet's claim to diabetes II as a secondary to sleep apnea was approved based on the growing body of research supporting sleep apnea as a cause of diab Continue reading >>

Getting Veterans (va) Disability For Sleep Apnea

Getting Veterans (va) Disability For Sleep Apnea

Getting Veterans (VA) Disability for Sleep Apnea Home Veterans Law Getting Veterans (VA) Disability for Sleep Apnea If you developed sleep apnea during your military service, you could be eligible to receive disability benefits. But there are several challenges to winning veterans (VA) disability for sleep apnea, and many veterans receive denials after they apply. The legal team at Chisholm Chisholm & Kilpatrick LTD can help you file an appeal and prove your sleep apnea is a result of an in-service illness, injury, or event. We have years of experience successfully advocating for VA disability appeals for our veteran clients including those diagnosed with sleep apnea. We want to put that experience to work for you. Call us today to learn more about how we can help you: 800-544-9144 . What Does It Mean for a Condition to be Service-Connected? Only service-connected medical conditions are eligible for disability compensation. A service-connected condition is one that resulted from an in-service illness, injury, or event. This connection to service can be presumptive, direct, or secondary. How Can I Prove My Sleep Apnea Resulted from an In-Service Illness, Injury, or Event? Sleep apnea is not considered a presumptive condition for veterans exposed to Agent Orange or ionized radiation, or contaminated water at Camp Lejeune. However, veterans of the Persian Gulf War may be entitled to presumptive service connection for their sleep apnea. Under the VAs regulation concerning Persian Gulf War veterans, 38 C.F.R. 3.17, sleep apnea falls under sleep disturbances as an undiagnosed illness and medically unexplained chronic multisymptom illness . Veterans can also prove service connection for sleep apnea by showing that their sleep apnea began in service using service medical recor Continue reading >>

Information About Diabetes Secondary Conditions

Information About Diabetes Secondary Conditions

This page has conditions secondary to Agent Orange Diabetes. What this means is if you had diabetes prior to any of these conditions you can file for disabilities related to Agent Orange. More: Email Bob:bob[at]vetshome[dot]com CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE: In this chronic disease, atherosclerosis narrows the coronary arteries, the arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle. As the coronary arteries narrow, the chest pain called angina may be triggered. And the risk of a heart attack (myocardial infarction), which occurs when a coronary artery is blocked completely, is increased. Coronary artery disease currently affects 11 million people in the United States. 7000 Valvular heart disease (including rheumatic heart disease): 1. Service connection is in effect for Type II diabetes mellitus. 2. There is competent evidence of record of the current existence of sleep apnea. 3. The preponderance of the competent evidence of record demonstrates that there is a medical nexus between the service-connected diabetes and the current sleep apnea on the basis of aggravation. Sleep apnea is aggravated by the service-connected Type II diabetes mellitus. 38 U.S.C.A. 1110 (West 2002); 38 C.F.R. 3.102, 3.303, 3.310 (2009), Allen v. Brown, 7 Vet. App. 439 (1995). REASONS AND BASES FOR FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION Applicable law provides that service connection will be granted if it is shown that the veteran suffers from disability resulting from an injury suffered or disease contracted in line of duty, or for aggravation of a preexisting injury suffered or disease contracted in line of duty, in the active military, naval, or air service. 38 U.S.C.A. 1110; 38 C.F.R. 3.303.Service connection may be established on a secondary basis for a disability which is proximately due to or the result of servic Continue reading >>

Va Disability Sleep Apnea Secondary To Diabetes

Va Disability Sleep Apnea Secondary To Diabetes

Va disability sleep apnea secondary to diabetes Download "Va disability sleep apnea secondary to diabetes" 1 Flex seal removal from skin Bbsr randi phone no Pacific fitness zuma workout Myspace login mobile Va disability sleep apnea secondary to diabetes Thomas on Market Street yard on a recent such p less than.. This page has conditions secondary to Agent Orange Diabetes.. SLEEP APNEA: Using a sleep machine, 50% due to weight gain.. This is the date on which the VA received the claim that resulted in the grant of compensation.. Service connection may be established on a secondary basis for a disability which is. Jun 14, Building A Test Case: Diabetes Ii Secondary To Sleep Apnea. 10; 145 posts; Location:Central Valley, CA; Service Connected Disability: 90I am presently rated at 70% disability: 20% DM II, 20% PN left leg, 20% right leg and. The examiner agrees that he has sleep apnea since the VA supplies his. You may be able to get Sleep Apnea as secondary to diabetes.appeal -- Diabetes secondary to sleep apnea (Citation Nr: ) Appeal -- Diabetes. Service Connected Disability: 100%; Branch of Service: USMC. Mar 29, CLAIM: Sleep Apnea W/CPAP secondarily aggravated by medications, pain, obesity,. Apnea post discharge has been granted service connection in cases as secondary to obesity... Seaman; 1; 9 posts; Service Connected Disability: None.. Diabetes, chronic pain, depression, GERD and finally OSA.Veterans Administration Disability Benefits. Obstructive Sleep Apnea.. Ten Years of Service to America's Military Veterans. Since 2005 This Is The Site VA. According to a recent article in Military.com Sleep Apnea will will not be. DoVA disability claim with service-connection for Sleep Apnea shall.. Hmm, I have not seen the DoVA D-RAS yielding a rating with PTSD secondary to Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Sleep Apnea

Diabetes And Sleep Apnea

Am wondering if any of you guys have filed a claim for Sleep Apnea secondary to DM II and been awarded a disability for it? I have been diagnosed with Diabetessince 2006 and now ObstructedSleep Apnea in Jan 2012, after going to a sleep center for tests. I have a CPAP machine I have to use to sleep at night. I am presently rated at 70% disability: 20% DM II, 20% PN left leg, 20% right leg and 30% IHD/CAD with a claim in for an increase due to low METS 4.6 and LVEF 40%. I have been reading on some Medical web sites that there is a nexus between DM II and OSA. Thanks res1pcnn, you need to get a doctor to make the connection for you. res1pcnn, you need to get a doctor to make the connection for you. I will when I submit a claim. I would just like to know if anybody has filed for OSA and been granted compensation as secondary to DM II. Or is it a waste of time. I was diagnosed with DM II in 2006. In late 2007 my wife started complaining about me snoring. I did not think much about it until my PCP at the VA Hospital sent me for a sleep study. I too was diagnosed with OSA and given a CPAP machine. My PCP stated that the OSA is secondary to my DM II. I filed a claim with the VA in March 2011. Currently waiting for a decision on my claim at this time. My husband just had a C & P exam for sleep apnea s/c secondary to his diabetes a few weeks ago. We got a copy of the exam. The examiner agrees that he has sleep apnea since the VA supplies his CPAP, but he states that he that it's more likely than not related to the diabetes, so I'm sure they will deny the claim. You may be able to get Sleep Apnea as secondary to diabetes. If you are on insulin therapy for DMII, and have gained weight due to the insulin, and the weight gain is causing the Obstructive Sleep Apnea, you might be succ Continue reading >>

Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Or Hypertension Must Be Evaluated For Sleep Apnea

Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Or Hypertension Must Be Evaluated For Sleep Apnea

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE CONTACT: Katie Blyth, L.C. Williams & Associates, 312-565-3900, [email protected] BALTIMORE, MD – June 3, 2013 – The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) is advising anyone with Type 2 diabetes or hypertension to be evaluated for sleep apnea by a board-certified sleep medicine physician. The recommendation comes as the group of international clinicians and researchers meets in Baltimore for SLEEP 2013, the foremost gathering of sleep experts annually. Overwhelming clinical evidence has shown that patients suffering from two very common illnesses – Type 2 diabetes and hypertension – are at much higher risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a dangerous condition characterized by episodes of complete or partial airway obstruction during sleep. Research also has shown that treating sleep apnea can help in the management of these two disorders. “Type 2 diabetics and people with hypertension are much more likely to have obstructive sleep apnea than other people, and as a result should immediately discuss their risk for sleep apnea with a sleep specialist,” said M. Safwan Badr, MD, president of AASM. “Diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea from a board-certified sleep medicine physician will promote improvement in these conditions – including improved insulin sensitivity, blood pressure and cholesterol.” Type 2 Diabetes and Obstructive Sleep Apnea According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 25.6 million Americans aged 20 years or older suffer from diabetes, and Type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases. Seven in 10 people with Type 2 diabetes also have obstructive sleep apnea, and the severity of the sleep disorder directly impacts diabetes symptoms; the more severe a diabetic’s unt Continue reading >>

How Do Secondary Service-connected Disabilities Work?

How Do Secondary Service-connected Disabilities Work?

You are here: Home / Veterans Disability Benefits / How Do Secondary Service-Connected Disabilities Work? How Do Secondary Service-Connected Disabilities Work? This page explains how secondary service-connected disabilities work. The information below is organized by disability and then explains what disabilities may be connected to it. If you have questions after reading the information below, you can always call us for a free VA disability claim evaluation. For help, dial toll-free(866) 232-5777 or just fill out thecontact form . About Secondary Service-Connected Disabilities When applying for VA disability benefits, many veterans forget to include their secondary service-connected disabilities. Most mental and physical conditions cause other mental and physical conditions. Suppose a Vietnam veteran is eligible for VA disability benefits because they have diabetes from Agent Orange exposure. Any medical condition that is caused by diabetes is now considered a secondary service-connected impairment. Unfortunately, the VA often denies secondary service-connected disabilities. Very often, the VA is flat out wrong. Too many times our lawyers see that the error is simply due to someone at the VA not fully understanding how the law works we are sure this surprises you. How to ProveSecondary Service-Connected Disabilities There must be medical evidence that links both your first and secondary service-connected impairments to each other. You cant claim secondary service-connection to just any disability you want. There must be sound medical research that shows a link to be eligible for veterans disability benefits. Tell the VA that you consider a particular medical condition secondary to your service-connected impairments. Dont just assume the VA is going to automatically un Continue reading >>

Diabetic Kidney Disease And Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A New Frontier?

Diabetic Kidney Disease And Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A New Frontier?

Purpose of reviewObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development and progression of diabetes mellitus. Interestingly, there is also a strong correlation between OSA and the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). As diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of CKD, in this review we summarize the current literature regarding this interconnecting relationship between OSA, CKD, and diabetes mellitus. The literature increasingly supports a bidirectional relationship between CKD and OSA among diabetes mellitus patients leading to an increased rate of progression of diabetic nephropathy. Recent findingsThere is growing evidence that among patients with diabetes mellitus, OSA may be a strong risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy. The treatment of OSA in CKD patients may play a role in attenuating the rate of the progression of CKD. SummaryClinicians should have a low threshold for evaluating diabetic patients with CKD for OSA. Further studies examining if treatment of OSA would improve the outcomes of CKD patients in general and diabetic CKD patients in particular are needed. Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology Division, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA Correspondence to Mark Unruh, MD, MS, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, MSC 10-5550, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001, USA. Tel: +1 505 272 4750; fax: +1 505 272 2349; e-mail: [email protected] Copyright 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. Your message has been successfully sent to your colleague. Some error has occurred while processing your request. Please try aft Continue reading >>

Obstructive Sleep Apnea As A Risk Factor For Type Ii Diabetes

Obstructive Sleep Apnea As A Risk Factor For Type Ii Diabetes

Obstructive Sleep Apnea as a Risk Factor for Type II Diabetes We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Obstructive Sleep Apnea as a Risk Factor for Type II Diabetes Nader Botros, M.D., MPH, John Concato, M.D., [...], and Klar Yaggi, M.D., MPH Cross-sectional studies have documented the co-occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea (hereafter sleep apnea) with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and type II diabetes mellitus (hereafter diabetes). It has not been determined, however, whether sleep apnea is independently associated with the subsequent development of diabetes, accounting for established risk factors. This observational cohort study examined 1233 consecutive patients in the Veteran Affairs Connecticut Health Care System referred for evaluation of sleep-disordered breathing; 544 study participants were free of preexisting diabetes and completed a full, attended, diagnostic polysomnogram. The study population was divided into quartiles based on severity of sleep apnea as measured by the apnea-hypopnea index. The main outcome was incident diabetes defined as fasting glucose level > 126 mg/dL and a corresponding physician diagnosis. Compliance with positive airway pressure therapy, and its impact on the main outcome, was also examined. In unadjusted analysis, increasing severity of sleep apnea was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (P for linear trend < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, race, baseli Continue reading >>

Sleep Apnea Secondary To Ptsd Or Diabetes ? - Va Disability Compensation Benefits Claims Research Forum - Veterans Affairs Disability Compensation Benefits Forums - Hadit.com Veterans

Sleep Apnea Secondary To Ptsd Or Diabetes ? - Va Disability Compensation Benefits Claims Research Forum - Veterans Affairs Disability Compensation Benefits Forums - Hadit.com Veterans

VA Disability Compensation Benefits Claims Research Forum Sleep Apnea Secondary To Ptsd Or Diabetes ? 14 Questions about VA Disability Compensation Benefits Claims When a Veteran starts considering whether or not to file a VA Disability Claim, there are a lot of questions that he or she tends to ask. Over the last 10 years, the following are the 14 most common basic questions I am asked about ... Most CommonVADisabilities Claimed for Compensation: Can a 100 percent Disabled Veteran Work and Earn an Income? Youve just been rated 100% disabled by the Veterans Affairs.After the excitement of finally having the rating you deserve wears off, you start asking questions.One of the first questions that you might ask is this:Its a legitimate question rare is the Veteran that finds themselves sitting on the couch eating bon-bons Continue reading New to the forum, here goes.. I have 20% for Diabetes type ll, and now diagnosed I have an appeal pending at the VA for PTSD. What is the best way to proceed, claim sleep apnea as secondary to diabetes or with the PTSD? All comments welcome, will be thankful for all, Mike. Check the medical literature to see if you can find any link. GOOGLE is good for these types of searches. If you find a link in the literature, then have your doctor write up a letter indicating the secondary cause. Citing a letter from a doctor is stronger evidence then sending the VA medical literature. Although you could start a claim and include the literature and a request for a C&P exam. My theory is do not wait for a C&P exam. You can always request a letter from a doctor any time you want. More info on Sleep Apnea caused by PTSD from hadit.com vet. The above links were the reply to win your case for secondary to PTSD. Need to NOD, COSA, but more importantly, CE Continue reading >>

Sleep Apnea In Type 2 Diabetes

Sleep Apnea In Type 2 Diabetes

IN BRIEF Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) alters glucose metabolism, promotes insulin resistance, and is associated with development of type 2 diabetes. Obesity is a key moderator of the effect of OSA on type 2 diabetes. However, chronic exposure to intermittent hypoxia and other pathophysiological effects of OSA affect glucose metabolism directly, and treatment of OSA can improve glucose homeostasis. Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Dysfunction in OSA Mechanisms Figure 1 elucidates the biological pathways through which OSA leads to abnormal glucose homeostasis and the clinical conditions of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) in animal models has been shown to decrease insulin sensitivity (measured via glucose tolerance test [GTT]) and increase the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index (7–9). IH affects hepatocytes directly, resulting in increased cellular glycogen content and gluconeogenic enzymatic activity (9). Prolonged periods of IH exposure in mice cause an increase in proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2) and transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (10). Reduction in proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells and reduced conversion of proinsulin to insulin has been observed in response to IH in mice (11–13). Adipose tissue is also affected by IH, with downregulation of adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing hormone, and an increase in resistin (14,15). Finally, IH has been observed to be associated with sympathetic activation in both animal models and humans (16,17). Louis and Punjabi (18) studied healthy adults under conditions of normoxia and after 5 hours of IH exposure during wakefulness. IH was induced at a rate of 24 per hour, simulating moderate OSA. Intravenous GTT Continue reading >>

Obstructive Sleep Apnea And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Examining The Evidence

Obstructive Sleep Apnea And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Examining The Evidence

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Examining the Evidence Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are two common, chronic conditions that are associated with both prevalent and incident cardiac disease. Although T2DM and OSA share a common risk factor, i.e. obesity, accruing evidence over the last two decades has demonstrated that there is an independent association between OSA and T2DM. Estimates on the prevalence of OSA in type 2 diabetics are indeed staggering with studies showing that well over 50% of type 2 diabetics have OSA.1-3 Initial studies demonstrated a cross-sectional association between self-reported OSA and glucose disorders but had methodological limitations such as lack of objective assessment of sleep-disordered breathing and the absence of adjustment for important confounders such as obesity and sleep duration. Thus, interpretation of the findings from these studies was challenging. However, subsequent studies were more rigorous in their approach and included polysomnographic-derived metrics of sleep apnea, addressed confounding, and provided longitudinal data. These latter investigations confirmed an independent association between OSA and glucose disorders.4,5 Mechanistic pathways linking OSA to glucose dysregulation are less well elucidated and are being explored. The concurrence of experimental data from both animal and human studies suggest that intermittent hypoxia and recurrent arousals from sleep, the two pathophysiological concomitants of OSA, are likely to mediate the disruption in glucose homeostasis observed in OSA. However, downstream pathways that could connect intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation to metabolic dysfunction are not well delineated. Potential mechanisms include: 1) sympa Continue reading >>

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