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Diabetes Pneumonia Vaccine

Suggested Use Of Vaccines In Diabetes

Suggested Use Of Vaccines In Diabetes

Go to: According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Diabetes Atlas, in 2011 India is already home to 61.3 million diabetes subjects and this number is predicted to reach 101.2 million by 2030.[1] Diabetes complications are looming large and 65% of the reported deaths are due to the cardiovascular complications.[2] Diabetes also confers an increased risk of developing and dying from infectious diseases and it is now considered an important complication of diabetes.[3] Indeed, the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases like influenza and pneumonia, which are preventable by appropriate vaccination, are also very high. Although people of all ages are prone to infectious diseases like pneumonia and influenza, extremes of age and certain underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, asthma, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) aggravate the risk.[4] Recommendations for vaccines assume great significance due to the increased prevalence of drug-resistant influenza and pneumococcal disease, and related complications in the elderly. The increased susceptibility of diabetes subjects to pneumonia is mainly due to hyperglycemia, poor long-term diabetes control, longer duration of diabetes, decreased immunity, impaired lung function, pulmonary micro angiopathy, increased risk of aspiration and coexisting morbidity.[5] Longer duration of diabetes and poor glycemic control causes a 25–75% increase in the relative risk of pneumonia-related hospitalizations in diabetes subjects emphasizing the increased importance of immunization in diabetes subjects.[6] The Centers for Disease Control's (CDC′s) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends influenza and pneumococcal vaccines for all individuals with diabetes.[7] A recent publication from Indi Continue reading >>

Know Your Risk For Pneumococcal Disease

Know Your Risk For Pneumococcal Disease

PNEUMOVAX 23 may not protect everyone who gets it. It will not protect against diseases that are caused by bacteria types that are not in the vaccine. You should not get PNEUMOVAX 23 if you are allergic to any of its ingredients, had an allergic reaction to PNEUMOVAX 23 in the past, or are less than 2 years of age. Before getting PNEUMOVAX 23, tell your health care professional if you or your child are allergic to the vaccine, have heart or lung problems, have a fever, have immune problems, or are receiving radiation treatment or chemotherapy, are pregnant or breastfeeding. PNEUMOVAX 23 may not prevent pneumococcal meningitis in patients with leakage of spinal fluid caused by a cracked or injured skull or a medical operation. Talk to your health care professional if you plan to get ZOSTAVAX® (Zoster Vaccine Live) at the same time as PNEUMOVAX 23 because it may be better to get these vaccines at least 4 weeks apart. Also talk to your health care professional if you plan to get PNEUMOVAX 23 at the same time as other vaccines. The most common side effects of PNEUMOVAX 23 are: pain, warmth, soreness, redness, swelling, and hardening at the injection site, headache, weakness and feeling tired, and muscle pain. Tell your health care professional or get help right away if you have any of the following problems, which may be signs of an allergic reaction: difficulty breathing, wheezing, rash, hives. Side effects at the site where you get the shot may be more common and may feel worse after a second shot than after the first shot. Tell your health care professional if you or your child has a side effect that bothers you or that does not go away. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch, or call 1-800-FDA-108 Continue reading >>

Do Influenza And Pneumococcal Vaccines Prevent Community-acquired Respiratory Infections Among Older People With Diabetes And Does This Vary By Chronic Kidney Disease? A Cohort Study Using Electronic Health Records

Do Influenza And Pneumococcal Vaccines Prevent Community-acquired Respiratory Infections Among Older People With Diabetes And Does This Vary By Chronic Kidney Disease? A Cohort Study Using Electronic Health Records

Objective We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of influenza and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination on reducing the burden of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) among older people with diabetes, and whether this varied by chronic kidney disease (CKD) status. Research design and methods We used linked UK electronic health records for a retrospective cohort study of 190 492 patients ≥65 years with diabetes mellitus and no history of renal replacement therapy, 1997–2011. We included community-acquired LRTIs managed in primary or secondary care. Infection incidence rate ratios were estimated using the Poisson regression. Pneumococcal vaccine effectiveness (VE) was calculated as (1−effect measure). To estimate influenza VE, a ratio-of-ratios analysis (winter effectiveness/summer effectiveness) was used to address confounding by indication. Final VE estimates were stratified according to estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria status. Results Neither influenza nor pneumococcal vaccine uptake varied according to CKD status. Pneumococcal VE was 22% (95% CI 11% to 31%) against community-acquired pneumonia for the first year after vaccination, but was negligible after 5 years. In the ratio-of-ratios analysis, current influenza vaccination had 7% effectiveness for preventing community-acquired LRTI (95% CI 3 to 12). Pneumococcal VE was lower among patients with a history of proteinuria than among patients without proteinuria (p=0.04), but otherwise this study did not identify variation in pneumococcal or influenza VE by markers of CKD. Conclusions The public health benefits of influenza vaccine may be modest among older people with diabetes. Pneumococcal vaccination protection against community-acquired pneumonia declines Continue reading >>

Survey Of Vaccination Practices In Patients With Diabetes: A Report Examining Patient And Provider Perceptions And Barriers

Survey Of Vaccination Practices In Patients With Diabetes: A Report Examining Patient And Provider Perceptions And Barriers

Diabetes is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Although prevention and treatment of cardiovascular complications is well established, there is less robust information on the prevention of infectious complications in patients with diabetes. Like the general population, children and adults with diabetes must complete the mandatory vaccination schedule according to age-related recommendations [1,2]. In addition, annual vaccination against influenza is recommended for all persons with diabetes equal or greater than 6 months of age [3]. In the case of influenza, patients with diabetes have been found to have a fourfold higher risk of death from influenza than the general population adjusted for age [3]. Case-control studies show that influenza vaccine reduces hospital admissions of patients with diabetes by up to 79% during influenza epidemics [4]. Like influenza, pneumococcal pneumonia is a preventable disease and in patients with diabetes the incidence of pneumococcal bacteremic pneumonia is higher than the general population, with mortality rates as high as 50% [5]. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends vaccination against pneumonia for all people with diabetes 2 through 64 years of age with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). In patients aged 65 years or older it is recommended the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13), that it should be administered at least 1 year after the PPSV23 vaccine [1]. On the other hand, hepatitis B virus vaccination is also recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to unvaccinated adults with diabetes mellitus due to higher rates of infection and progression to cirrhosis than in the general population [6]. For these reasons we wa Continue reading >>

Flu And Pneumonia Immunization Campaign

Flu And Pneumonia Immunization Campaign

Chronic Disease Public Service Announcement Scripts (Downloadable Word Document) Chronic Disease Press Release (Downloadable Word Document) African American Specific Print Ad General Print Ad Television Commercial.mov Television Commercial in Spanish.mov General Radio Ad.mp3 African American Specific Radio Ad.mp3 General Radio Ad in Spanish.mp3 Kansas City Specific General Radio Ad.mp3 Kansas City Specific African American Radio Ad.mp3 Although people with diabetes are more likely to die with the flu, about 50% do not get an annual flu shot. Pneumococcal disease kills more people in the United States each year than all other vaccine-preventable diseases combined, and people with diabetes are at greater risk. Ideas for Flu/Pneumonia Community Campaign Promotion (Downloadable Word Document) If You Have Diabetes, A Flu Shot Could Save Your Life Brochure (English) If You Have Diabetes, A Flu Shot Could Save Your Life Brochure (Spanish) Diabetes and Pneumonia. Get the Facts (English) Diabetes and Pneumonia. Get the Facts (Spanish) Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Fact Shee Live, Intranasal Influenza Vaccine Fact Sheet Pneumococcal Vaccine Fact Sheet Fact Sheet: Influenza and Pneumonia If You Have Diabetes or Heart Disease, the Flu Could Kill You Handout (English-.doc) (English-.pdf) (Spanish-.doc) (Spanish-.pdf) WHO is at High Risk for Flu Complications? Flyer (English/Spanish) STOP! Ask Your Doctor About a Flu Shot Today! Handout (English/Spanish) You Can Prevent the Flu Flyer (English/Spanish) Flu Vaccine Facts & Myths Flu/Pneumonia Immunization Campaign Materials Available from Department of Health and Senior Services (Downloadable Word Document) CDC Life Preserver Campaign Materials Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services’ Influenza Web Page CDC Flu Gallery: Pat Continue reading >>

Pneumococcal Vaccine In Diabetes: Relevance In India.

Pneumococcal Vaccine In Diabetes: Relevance In India.

Abstract Currently we have more than 65 million Diabetes patients in India with estimated 80 million prediabetics. Diabetes is a immunologically vulnerable population to develop all types of microbial infections. Pneumoccocal infections do have a substantial morbidity and mortality burden in the community. India has a large geriatric pool now which has substantially increased pneumococcal disease burden. Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for pneumococcal infection and predisposes individuals to nasopharyngeal colonization with the pneumococcus which is associated with invasive infection. In diabetics who are elderly, with chronic kidney or pulmonary disease and long standing duration of the disease with poor glycemic control are the highest risk group susceptible to invasive pneumococcal disease. With now availibilty of Pneumoccal vaccine in India, now it may be an preventive option which can be offered. Most global organisations recommend pneumococcal vaccination to diabetics. Continue reading >>

Influenza And Pneumococcal Vaccinations (october 2014)

Influenza And Pneumococcal Vaccinations (october 2014)

Save for later Influenza is highly infectious and pneumococcal pneumonia is a severe illness. People with diabetes are more at risk of complications arising from infections including influenza and pneumonia. Diabetes UK recommends that people with diabetes should be offered an annual vaccination to protect them against influenza (flu) and a single vaccination to protect them from pneumonia. Professionals Continue reading >>

Pneumococcal Vaccination (pneumonia Vaccine)

Pneumococcal Vaccination (pneumonia Vaccine)

What are the current recommendations for administration of pneumococcal vaccine in healthy adults? Pneumococcal vaccination is a method of preventing a specific type of lung infection ( pneumonia ) that is caused by the pneumococcus ( Streptococcus pneumoniae) bacterium. There are more than 80 different types of pneumococcus bacteria -- 23 of them covered by the vaccine. The vaccine is injected into the body to stimulate the normal immune system to produce antibodies that are directed against pneumococcus bacteria. This method of stimulating the normal immune system to be directed against a specific microbe is called immunization. Pneumococcal vaccination is also referred to as pneumococcal immunization. Pneumococcal vaccination does not protect against pneumonia caused by microbes other than pneumococcus bacteria, nor does it protect against pneumococcal bacterial strains not included in the vaccine. It is reassuring to note that of the 80 different serotypes, the vast majority of infections are caused by the 23 serotypes contained in the vaccine. In children, especially under 2 years of age, a special conjugated vaccine has been developed to stimulate less developed immune systems. Originally only covering seven serotypes, the newer vaccine released in 2010 now covers 13 serotypes of pneumococcus ( Prevnar 13 ). Who should consider pneumococcal vaccination? Pneumococcal vaccination should be considered by people in the following groups: Read more about pneumonia signs and symptoms Who should not receive pneumococcal vaccine? What about pregnancy? The pneumococcal vaccine should not be received by people with a prior history of hypersensitivity reactions to the vaccine. The safety of the pneumococcus vaccine for pregnant women has not yet been studied. There is no evi Continue reading >>

3 Vaccinations You Need If You Have Diabetes

3 Vaccinations You Need If You Have Diabetes

Thinkstock Staying healthy with diabetes is about more than just controlling your blood sugar. Keeping up-to-date on vaccinations, like flu shots, is also an important part of diabetes management. “People with diabetes typically don’t handle infections as well,” says William Schaffner, MD, an infectious disease specialist and professor of preventive medicine at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. Diabetes can cause an altered immune response that increases the susceptibility to and severity of infections, such as the flu, Dr. Schaffner says. “We also know that blood sugar levels can be negatively affected when a person with diabetes is under physiologic stress like infection,” he adds. In addition, "people with diabetes are at higher risk of complications from many vaccine-preventable illnesses, so why not focus on prevention?” asks Deborah Malkoff-Cohen, RD, a dietitian and certified diabetes educator in private practice in New York City. Your Vaccination To-Do List The three most important vaccines for people with diabetes are: Flu: If you have diabetes, you should be at the head of the line when the annual flu shot becomes available, says Schaffner. “People with all forms of diabetes are more likely to become infected and are more susceptible to complications of flu,” he says. “An illness like influenza can raise blood glucose to alarmingly high levels and be dangerous," Malkoff-Cohen adds. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends getting a flu shot as soon as it becomes available, usually by October. However, as long as the flu is circulating, it’s never too late in the season to get vaccinated. “Before and during flu season, there are abundant reminders in most pharmacies that say ‘get your flu shot.’ If y Continue reading >>

Pneumococcal Vaccines (pcv13 And Ppsv23)

Pneumococcal Vaccines (pcv13 And Ppsv23)

Ask the Experts: Diseases & Vaccines Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV13 and PPSV23) What causes pneumococcal disease? Pneumococcal disease is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a bacterium that has more than 90 serotypes. Most serotypes cause disease, but only a few produce the majority of invasive pneumococcal disease. The 10 most common types cause 62% of invasive disease worldwide. How does pneumococcal disease spread? The disease is spread from person to person by droplets in the air. The pneumococci bacteria are common inhabitants of the human respiratory tract. They may be isolated from the nasopharnyx of 5%-70% of normal, healthy adults. How long does it take to show signs of pneumococcal disease after being exposed? As noted above, many people carry the bacteria in their nose and throat without ever developing invasive disease. What are the types of invasive pneumococcal disease? There are two major clinical syndromes of invasive pneumococcal disease: bacteremia, and meningitis. They are both caused by infection with the same bacteria, but have different manifestations. Pneumococcal pneumonia is the most common disease caused by pneumococcal infection. Pneumococcal pneumonia can occur in combination with bacteremia and/or meningitis, or it can occur alone. Isolated pneumococcal pneumonia is not considered invasive disease but it can be severe. It is estimated that 175,000 cases occur each year in the United States. The incubation period is short (1-3 days). Symptoms include abrupt onset of fever, shaking chills or rigors, chest pain, cough, shortness of breath, rapid breathing and heart rate, and weakness. The fatality rate is 5%-7% and may be much higher in the elderly. Pneumococcal bacteremia occurs in about 25%–30% of patients with pneumococcal pneumonia. More t Continue reading >>

Get Your Flu And Pneumonia Shots

Get Your Flu And Pneumonia Shots

Flu season is getting under way, and if you have not done so already this year, it’s time to get your flu shot. People with diabetes age 2 and older will also benefit from being vaccinated against pneumonia. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), “Every person with diabetes needs a flu shot each year.” The ADA also recommends that people with diabetes encourage the people they live with or spend a lot of time with to be vaccinated as well—this will decrease their chances of being exposed to the flu by the people around them. People who have diabetes should be vaccinated against the flu by injection, not by the nasal-spray flu vaccine (also called the Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine, or “LAIV,” brand name FluMist). That’s because the nasal-spray vaccine contains weakened live viruses (unlike the injection, which contains killed viruses), and therefore is not appropriate for people with diabetes, who are at higher risk of developing influenza-related complications. The sooner you can be vaccinated the better, since the flu shot takes about two weeks to take effect in the body. However, if you have a cold or other respiratory illness, wait until you have recovered to get a shot. Also, people who are allergic to eggs should not get a flu shot because the viruses used in the vaccine are grown in hens’ eggs. To find out where flu shots are available near you, click here to visit The American Lung Association’s Flu Clinic Locator Site. At the site, you can also sign up to have a yearly vaccination reminder e-mailed to you. If you have questions about the flu vaccine, check out the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Q&A page on the subject. Getting a pneumococcal vaccine (often referred to as the “pneumonia” shot), is also part Continue reading >>

Top 5 Vaccines Recommended For Patients With Diabetes

Top 5 Vaccines Recommended For Patients With Diabetes

Top 5 Vaccines Recommended for Patients with Diabetes Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes may be at an increased risk of certain preventable conditions. Vaccination is recommended for all patients, but is strongly emphasized among young children and older adults. As patients age, they may believe that they no longer need to get routine vaccinations; however, this is not the case. The CDC reports that getting vaccinated can prevent illnesses that take time away from work and loved ones. Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes may be at a higher risk for diseases and infections that can be prevented through vaccination, according to the CDC. The agency recommends that patients with diabetes stay up to date on necessary vaccines. The CDC recommends that patients with diabetes receive the following vaccines: Influenza affects many individuals each year, with some cases resulting in serious illness and even death. The CDC recommends an annual flu shot to prevent seasonal influenza . This vaccine prevents individuals from developing pneumococcal disease, which can result in pneumonia or meningitis. Both conditions can become severe and result in increased healthcare costs or hospitalization. While meningitis can resolve without treatment, it can be life-threatening. This vaccine prevents a hepatitis B infection, which can be contracted through sexual contact. While the condition typically clears on its own, chronic cases can lead to cirrhosis and require a liver transplant. The potent tdap vaccine protects patients against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. Tetanus can lead to tightening of the muscles of the head and neck and kills 1 in 10 people with the infection, while diptheria can cause breathing problems, heart failure, paralysis, and death, according to the CDC Continue reading >>

Immunizations - Diabetes

Immunizations - Diabetes

Immunizations (vaccines or vaccinations) help protect you from some diseases. When you have diabetes, you're more likely to get infections because your immune system doesn't work as well. Vaccines can prevent illnesses that can be very serious and can put you in the hospital. Vaccines have an inactive, small, amount of a certain germ. This germ is often a virus or bacteria. After you get a vaccine, your body learns to attack the virus or bacteria if you get it again. This means you have less of a chance of getting sick than if you did not get the vaccine. Or you may just have a milder illness. Below are some of the vaccines you need to know about. Ask your health care provider which are right for you. Continue reading >>

Vaccination Practices For People With Diabetes Aade Practice Synopsis

Vaccination Practices For People With Diabetes Aade Practice Synopsis

Introduction Influenza, pneumococcal, hepatitis B, tetanus, pertussis, and shingles are common preventable infectious diseases with high morbidity and mortality in people with chronic diseases, such as diabetes, renal failure, and in the elderly.1 Observational study of patients with a wide variety of chronic illnesses has shown that these conditions are associated with a higher hospitalization rate and complications compared to persons without chronic health conditions.2,3 Communities with pockets of unvaccinated and undervaccinated populations are at increased risk for outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. 4,5 Background/Rationale and Evidence Annual administration of the influenza vaccine has been shown to decrease diabetes-related hospital admissions for influenza during “flu epidemics†by as much as 79% based on reports of case-controlled series.1 The number of seasonal influenza- associated deaths varies from year to year because of the unpredictability in length and severity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates flu associated deaths ranged from a low of 3,000 to a high of about 40,000 during flu seasons from 1976-2007.6 While anyone can have influenza related complications and hospitalizations, serious illness and death, the CDC reports that older adults are especially vulnerable. According to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), the American College of Physicians, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians, vaccinating individuals at high risk before influenza season each year is the most effective measure for reducing the impact of influenza.7 Individuals with diabetes are six times more likely to be hospitalized and three times more likely to die from complicat Continue reading >>

Recommendations For Adults Aged 19–64 Years—diabetes Mellitus

Recommendations For Adults Aged 19–64 Years—diabetes Mellitus

PNEUMOVAX®23 (Pneumococcal Vaccine Polyvalent) is a vaccine indicated for active immunization for the prevention of pneumococcal disease caused by the 23 serotypes contained in the vaccine (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6B, 7F, 8, 9N, 9V, 10A, 11A, 12F, 14, 15B, 17F, 18C, 19F, 19A, 20, 22F, 23F, and 33F). PNEUMOVAX 23 is approved for use in persons 50 years of age or older and persons aged ≥2 years who are at increased risk for pneumococcal disease. PNEUMOVAX 23 will not prevent disease caused by capsular types of pneumococcus other than those contained in the vaccine. Do not administer PNEUMOVAX 23 to individuals with a history of a hypersensitivity reaction to any component of the vaccine. Defer vaccination with PNEUMOVAX 23 in persons with moderate or severe acute illness. Use caution and appropriate care in administering PNEUMOVAX 23 to individuals with severely compromised cardiovascular and/or pulmonary function in whom a systemic reaction would pose a significant risk. PNEUMOVAX 23 should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed. Caution should be exercised when PNEUMOVAX 23 is administered to a nursing woman. Since elderly individuals may not tolerate medical interventions as well as younger individuals, a higher frequency and/or a greater severity of reactions in some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Persons who are immunocompromised, including persons receiving immunosuppressive therapy, may have a diminished immune response to PNEUMOVAX 23. PNEUMOVAX 23 may not be effective in preventing pneumococcal meningitis in patients who have chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage resulting from congenital lesions, skull fractures, or neurosurgical procedures. The most common adverse reactions, reported in >10% of subjects vaccinated with PNEUMOVAX 23 in clinica Continue reading >>

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