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Diabetes Pathophysiology Animation

Acute Complications Of Diabetes - Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Acute Complications Of Diabetes - Diabetic Ketoacidosis

- [Voiceover] Oftentimes we think of diabetes mellitus as a chronic disease that causes serious complications over a long period of time if it's not treated properly. However, the acute complications of diabetes mellitus are often the most serious, and can be potentially even life threatening. Let's discuss one of the acute complications of diabetes, known as diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA for short, which can occur in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Now recall that type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. And as such, there's an autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas, which prevents the pancreas from producing and secreting insulin. Therefore, there is an absolute insulin deficiency in type 1 diabetes. But what exactly does this mean for the body? To get a better understanding, let's think about insulin requirements as a balancing act with energy needs. Now the goal here is to keep the balance in balance. As the energy requirements of the body go up, insulin is needed to take the glucose out of the blood and store it throughout the body. Normally in individuals without type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is able to produce enough insulin to keep up with any amount of energy requirement. But how does this change is someone has type 1 diabetes? Well since their pancreas cannot produces as much insulin, they have an absolute insulin deficiency. Now for day-to-day activities, this may not actually cause any problems, because the small amount of insulin that is produced is able to compensate and keep the balance in balance. However, over time, as type 1 diabetes worsens, and less insulin is able to be produced, then the balance becomes slightly unequal. And this results in the sub-acute or mild symptoms of type 1 diabetes such as fatigue, because the body isn Continue reading >>

The Best Diabetes Videos Of The Year

The Best Diabetes Videos Of The Year

We’ve carefully selected these videos because they’re actively working to educate, inspire, and empower their viewers with personal stories and high-quality information. Nominate your favorite video by emailing us at [email protected]! Diabetes is a chronic disease caused by improper insulin function. This leads to overly high blood sugar. The three types of diabetes include type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes. Prediabetes, where blood sugar is high but not over the diabetic threshold, increases your risk for type 2 diabetes. People of all ages, ethnicities and sizes can get diabetes. Nearly 50 percent of U.S. adults have diabetes or prediabetes, according to a 2015 study. This includes people living with diabetes who haven’t yet received an official diagnosis. Receiving a diabetes diagnosis can feel shocking or overwhelming. The illness has some serious potential complications, such as blindness and amputation. And it’s the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Treatment often requires immediate and significant lifestyle adjustments. However, with careful management, you can still enjoy a varied diet and active lifestyle. There are plenty of people out there who refuse to let diabetes stop them from thriving. If you’re seeking some inspiration or information, look no further than these videos. 7 Best Superfoods for Diabetes - Saturday Strategy A healthy diet plays a huge role in managing diabetes. Drew Canole, CEO of fitlife.tv, shares insights into superfoods that help keep diabetes in check. Canole says these superfoods will help you regulate glucose levels and lower insulin levels. One such superfood is the Moringa leaf. He says studies have indicated it lowers blood sugar levels by up to 29 percent. Why not give his diabetes-bu Continue reading >>

Video: How Diabetes Affects Your Blood Sugar

Video: How Diabetes Affects Your Blood Sugar

Your body uses glucose for energy. Glucose metabolism requires insulin, a hormone produced by your pancreas. Here's how normal glucose metabolism works, and what happens when you have diabetes — a disease where your body either can't produce enough insulin or it can't use insulin properly. The food you eat consists of three basic nutrients: carbohydrates, protein and fat. During digestion, chemicals in your stomach break down carbohydrates into glucose, which is absorbed into your bloodstream. Your pancreas responds to the glucose by releasing insulin. Insulin is responsible for allowing glucose into your body's cells. When the glucose enters your cells, the amount of glucose in your bloodstream falls. If you have type 1 diabetes, your pancreas doesn't secrete insulin — which causes a buildup of glucose in your bloodstream. Without insulin, the glucose can't get into your cells. If you have type 2 diabetes, your pancreas secretes less insulin than your body requires because your body is resistant to its effect. With both types of diabetes, glucose cannot be used for energy, and it builds up in your bloodstream — causing potentially serious health complications. Continue reading >>

Mechanism Of Diabetic Retinopathy

Mechanism Of Diabetic Retinopathy

The retina Enlarge Light enters the eye from the left in this diagram...shown by the yellow arrow. It passes through the clear jelly of the eye (the vitreous) to reach the retina (pink) Retinopathy is a disease of the retina, occurring in about a quarter of people with diabetes. How does the eye 'work'? Light enters the eye from the front, and passes through the eye to hit the retina, just like in a camera. The retina contains cells that convert the light into the electric signals, and these signals are then sent on to the brain so we can see. Two types of diagram are used in the descriptions in this section about retinopathy. First, a side or 'cut through' view of the eye, like a cut through drawing of a camera as opposite (upper picture). Second, the view the doctor sees when he looks into your eye, like a map, with the blood vessels spreading out from the centre (the optic nerve). The yellow dot is the fovea, where light is focused. The red & blue lines are the larger retinal blood vessels spreading out from the optic nerve. How does the retina work? Light ...in yellow... falls onto the retina. The retinal cells are rods (the long straight cells) and cones (the cells with the pointed end). There are tiny blood vessels (capillaries) on the surface of the retina ...the red ovals enlarge The retinal cells stand next to each other, a bit like houses in a street. The main cells are the rods and cones: these are the cells that take up light and convert it into electrical messages, which are then sent onto the brain. These cells receive their oxygen and other nutrients from tiny blood vessels nearby. These blood vessels are like pipes which pass nearby the cells; imagine a largish pipe passing past your house, containing blood. The walls of these pipes/blood vessels are ver Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes is the condition that results from lack of insulin in a person's blood, or when their body has a problem using the insulin it produces (Insulin resistance). There are other kinds of diabetes, like diabetes insipidus. However, when people say "diabetes", they usually mean diabetes mellitus. People with diabetes mellitus are called "diabetics". Glucose is not regular sugar that is available in stores and supermarkets. Glucose is a natural carbohydrate that our bodies use as a source of energy. The kind of sugar sold in supermarkets is called sucrose, and is much different from glucose. High concentrations of glucose can be found in soft drinks and fruits.[1] Glucose level in the blood is controlled by several hormones. Hormones are chemicals in your body that send messages from cells to other cells. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas. When you eat, the pancreas makes insulin to send a message to other cells in the body. This insulin tells the cells to take up glucose from the blood. The glucose is used by cells for energy. Extra glucose that is not needed right away is stored in some cells as glycogen. When you are not eating, cells break down glycogen into glucose to use as energy. Warning Signs of Diabetes Frequent urination Excessive thirst Increased hunger Weight loss Fruity breath odor Tiredness Lack of interest and concentration Vomiting and stomach pain (often mistaken as the flu) A tingling sensation or numbness in the hands or feet Blurred vision Frequent infections Slow-healing wounds Bedwetting - in children and adults The onset of symptoms in Type 1 diabetes usually happens suddenly. In Type 2 diabetes, there may be mild symptoms or no symptoms at all. Making it much harder to detect. Type 1 diabetes mellitus happens when the part of the pancre Continue reading >>

68: Insulin Action, Insulin Resistance, And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

68: Insulin Action, Insulin Resistance, And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Abstract Abstract Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the plasma. The American Diabetes Association has recently proposed revised criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes: (a) a fasting plasma glucose level >126 mg/dl, or (b) a plasma glucose level >200 mg/dl at 2 h after the ingestion of oral glucose (75 g), or (c) random plasma glucose >200 mg/dl. Diabetes is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome with multiple etiologies. Type 1 diabetes is caused by destruction of pancreatic beta cells, most often by autoimmune mechanisms. Type 2 diabetes (the most common form of diabetes, accounting for >90 percent of patients) is caused by a combination of two physiological defects: resistance to the action of insulin combined with a deficiency in insulin secretion. Although the molecular basis of the common form of type 2 diabetes has not been elucidated, it is thought to result from genetic defects that cause both insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. Type 2 diabetes generally has onset after the age of 40. Unlike type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes is usually associated with relatively mild hyperglycemia, and ketoacidosis seldom develops. Gestational diabetes mellitus is a form of diabetes that has its initial onset during pregnancy, and resolves after the end of the pregnancy. Insulin exerts multiple effects upon target cells—especially skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. In general, insulin promotes storage of fuels (e.g., glycogen and triglyceride), and inhibits the breakdown of stored fuel. To accomplish these general physiological functions, insulin exerts multiple specific actions upon target cells. For example, insulin promotes recruitment of glucose transporters from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane, thereby s Continue reading >>

Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Anesthetic Management In The Ambulatory Setting. Part 1: Pathophysiology And Associated Disease States

Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Anesthetic Management In The Ambulatory Setting. Part 1: Pathophysiology And Associated Disease States

Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Anesthetic Management in the Ambulatory Setting. Part 1: Pathophysiology and Associated Disease States Assistant Professor, Department of Dental Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Address correspondence to Dr Bryant W. Cornelius; 3501 Terrace Street, G-89 Salk Hall, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261; [email protected] . Received 2016 Sep 6; Accepted 2016 Sep 6. Copyright 2016 by the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology The increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population has many implications for the ambulatory anesthesia provider. Complications, particularly associated with poor glycemic control, can affect multiple organ systems and jeopardize the safety of any planned anesthetic. It is essential that anesthesiologists and sedation providers have in-depth knowledge of the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and the comorbid conditions that commonly accompany it. Anesthesiologists and sedation providers must also understand certain surgical and anesthetic considerations when planning an effective and safe anesthetic for diabetic patients. This is a 2-part series concerning perioperative glycemic control for patients with diabetes mellitus. Part 1 will focus on the physiology of diabetes and its associated disease states. Part 2 will address the pharmacology associated with the wide variety of medications used to treat the disorder and the most recent guidelines for blood glucose management in ambulatory surgical patients. Key Words: Type 2 diabetes, Prediabetes, Hyperglycemia, Hypoglycemia, Hemoglobin A1c Currently, there are approximately 22 million people in the United States diagnosed with diabetes. 1 , 2 These patients represent approximately 6.9% of the co Continue reading >>

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

This animation describes the metabolic disorder of type 2 diabetes and the role of glucose used by the cells of the body. It explains how food is broken down into nutrient molecules that are absorbed in the digestive tract for use by the body and the role of the pancreas and insulin. The symptoms of diabetes are explained as well as the damage caused by diabetes to body organs and blood vessels in terms of diabetic complications. This slide show describes the metabolic disorder of type 2 diabetes and the role of glucose used by the cells of the body. It explains how food is broken down into nutrient molecules that are absorbed in the digestive tract for use by the body and the role of the pancreas and insulin. The symptoms of diabetes are explained as well as the damage caused by diabetes to body organs and blood vessels in terms of diabetic complications. Jointly sponsored by the Annenberg Center for Health Sciences at Eisenhower and Prime Medic Inc. in collaboration with Postgraduate Institute for Medicine. This activity is supported by educational grants from: This website is part of The Animated Patient Series developed by Prime Medic Inc., to provide highly developed visual formats of learning for patients to improve their understanding, make informed decisions, and partner with their health care professionals for optimal outcomes. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Insulin Medications Animation Pathophysiology

Diabetes Mellitus Insulin Medications Animation Pathophysiology

Diabetes Mellitus Insulin Medications Animation Pathophysiology Foods For Gestational Diabetes especially when it comes with regard to your diet. Mycotic infections of the penis. Diabetes Mellitus Insulin Medications Animation Pathophysiology vanilla Ice Cream Ice Cream {Pictured in lower right} From the Kitchen of Deep South Dish. Codes in ICD-10-CM to report diabetes mellitus by type Neonatal diabetes P70.2 ICD-10-CM diabetes codes include one or more of the complications or A doctor uses the results from a creatinine blood test to calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The 2005 Fifth International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus recommends postpartum OGTT at 6-12wks 1yr and every 3 years after a GDM pregnancy.71. This chapter provides information about the two most common types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2 diabetes (see Table 1). Diabetes and diet soda. Are Depression and Diabetes Linked? is a very effective treatment for depression. Reading Food Labels When You Have Diabetes. This hypothesis would account for the association between gestational diabetes and hypertension and higher rates of infant morbidity and mortality. Red meat has long been linked to type 2 diabetes RECOMMENDED BY FORBES. 16 EUS in Idiopathic Acute Pancreatitis. The first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes is diet weight control Diabetes; Treatments for Type 2 Diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes; Type 1 Diabetes; Diabetes Mellitus; In uncontrolled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus enhanced glucagon activity helps raise blood-glucose and Diabetes Mellitus Insulin Medications Animation Pathophysiology blood-lipid levels. 50-59 Universidad Militar Nueva Granada Bogot Colombia and guidelines about diabetes mellitus type 2 in Type 2 Diabetes Results from previous Definition Pe Continue reading >>

Pathophysiology - Type I Diabetes

Pathophysiology - Type I Diabetes

- Now Diabetes Mellitus is a group of disorders that's caused by improper function of insulin which is a hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar or blood glucose. And this results in Hyperglycemia. But since Diabetes is a group of disorders there's many different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that can cause the disease. And depending on which mechanism is occurring in someone the presentation of the disease can actually be very different. So before we get started, I want to briefly talk about the Pancreas. Now you can see here we have the esophagus coming down and it dives behind the liver here. And then it goes into the stomach and then the stomach goes back behind the liver and comes out as the small intestine. And in yellow here, nestled in next to the small intestine and behind the stomach is the Pancreas. Now, the Pancreas is frequently referred to as being comma shaped and you can kind of get that. Oh, if you kind of turned it on its side it might look like a comma. But the way I like to remember how the Pancreas looks is by thinking about my favorite professional football team which is the Minnesota Vikings. And I kind of think the Pancreas maybe it looks like the horns on the side of the Minnesota Vikings helmet. So whatever helps you remember what the Pancreas looks like. But regardless, the Pancreas has two main functions. And the first function is Exocrine. What this means is that the Pancreas secretes Enzymes into the digestive tract which then chemically digests food and help your body absorb the nutrients we eat. So it helps with digestion. But the Pancreas also has some Endocrine function. And what this means is that it produces Hormones. And specifically for the Pancreas these Hormones help the body with Metabolism. But what does all th Continue reading >>

Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists For The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists For The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

INTRODUCTION Despite advances in options for the treatment of diabetes, optimal glycemic control is often not achieved. Hypoglycemia and weight gain associated with many antidiabetic medications may interfere with the implementation and long-term application of "intensive" therapies [1]. Current treatments have centered on increasing insulin availability (either through direct insulin administration or through agents that promote insulin secretion), improving sensitivity to insulin, delaying the delivery and absorption of carbohydrate from the gastrointestinal tract, or increasing urinary glucose excretion. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapies (eg, GLP-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] inhibitors) affect glucose control through several mechanisms, including enhancement of glucose-dependent insulin secretion, slowed gastric emptying, and reduction of postprandial glucagon and of food intake (table 1). These agents do not usually cause hypoglycemia in the absence of therapies that otherwise cause hypoglycemia. This topic will review the mechanism of action and therapeutic utility of GLP-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. DPP-4 inhibitors are discussed separately. A general discussion of the initial management of blood glucose and the management of persistent hyperglycemia in adults with type 2 diabetes is also presented separately. (See "Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus" and "Initial management of blood glucose in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus" and "Management of persistent hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus".) GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE-1 Glucose homeostasis is dependent upon a complex interplay of multiple hormones: insulin and amylin, produced by Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Overview And Treatments

Diabetes Mellitus Overview And Treatments

Diabetes Mellitus : a group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both 20.8 million in US ( 7% of population) estimated 14.6 million diagnosed (only 2/3) Consists of 3 types: 1) Type 1 diabetes 2) Type 2 diabetes 3) Gestational diabetes Complications : - Stroke - Heart attack - Kidney disease - Eye Disease - Nerve Damage Continue reading >>

Living With Diabetes

Living With Diabetes

Managing diabetes is a daily challenge. There are so many variables to keep in mind -- food, exercise, stress, general health, etc. -- that keeping blood sugar levels in the desired range is a constant balancing act. We want to make managing diabetes easier. So, the DRI's Education Team hasdeveloped short brochures about the topics listed below -- offering useful tips on many of the day-to-day issues facing people living with diabetes. And, most of the materials are offered in English and Spanish. If you can benefit by learning about one or more of these subjects, just click on the title to expand. Do you know what foods have the greatest impact on your blood sugars? If you answered CARBOHYDRATE FOODS...youre right! Carbohydrates -- "carbs" -- are broken down into glucose. So if you eat too much of them, your blood sugar level may rise. For this reason, people with diabetes find it helpful to keep track of the carbs they eat in order to manage their blood sugars. Carb counting is easy. It just takes some practice at first. Caring for older people with diabetes requires special thought and consideration. The older individual is more likely to have other health problems and may be taking a variety of different medications. Many people are frightened to check their blood sugar -- or "blood glucose" -- levels because they do not want to see levels that are higher or lower than their target range. But, checking blood sugar at home, in school, and in the workplace is key to managing diabetes. It puts you in control of your diabetes. Remember, your blood sugar levels remain the same whether you know about them or not. Checking blood sugar levels is the most accurate way to see if your lifestyle changes and medications are helping you to better manage your diabetes. If levels Continue reading >>

Animation: Type 1 Diabetes

Animation: Type 1 Diabetes

View our animation of how foods containing carbohydrate are normally digested by your body into glucose. See the part that insulin plays in helping glucose to enter your fat and muscle cells for energy production or storage. Then scroll down to see what happens in people with type 1 diabetes. This animation requires the latest version of Adobe Flash Player. Use the Next navigation button to move through the scenes. You can also use the Play again and Back navigation buttons to review scenes and to move backwards. In people with type 1 diabetes the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin the beta cells have been destroyed. This means that the pancreas can't produce insulin, so there's no insulin to unlock the glucose channels in the body's fat and muscle cells. With the glucose channels locked, no glucose can enter the fat and muscle cells where it is needed for fuel to make energy, or for storage for later energy requirements. Glucose then builds up in the bloodstream leading to what's known as a high blood sugar or high blood glucose level. People with type 1 diabetes have to inject insulin several times every day to allow glucose to enter the cells. This should bring their blood glucose levels within a healthy range. 1. Mayo Clinic [website]. Type 1 diabetes: causes (updated 2009, Jun 13). Available at: (accessed 2010, May 25) 2. Diabetes Australia - NSW [website]. Type 1 diabetes (updated 2009, Jun 23). Available at: (accessed 2010, May 25) 3. Merck Manual of Medical Information - Second Home Edition [website]. Diabetes mellitus (updated 2008, June). Available at: (accessed 2010, May 25) Continue reading >>

Pathophysiology - Type Ii Diabetes

Pathophysiology - Type Ii Diabetes

- Diabetes Mellitus is a group of disorders that's caused by improper function of insulin, which is a hormone produced by the pancreas. And insulin is responsible for helping regulate blood sugar, or glucose levels, in the blood. Now since it's a group of diseases, there are actually multiple different underlying causes of diabetes mellitus. And one of these causes is known as Type 2 Diabetes. Now, before we dive into the actual cause of Type 2 Diabetes, let's first get a better understanding of how exactly insulin works. And there are two major steps. So, imagine that you just ate a big meal. Maybe like a bowl of pasta or something. And your body is currently absorbing all of those nutrients from your digestive system into your bloodstream. Now one of these nutrients is glucose, and as your body absorbs it, that glucose starts building up in the blood stream. And in this feeding or absorptive state, your body wants to store this glucose in places like the liver and muscle cells so that it can be used for energy later when the body needs it. But unfortunately, glucose on its own can't get into these cells. In a sense, these cells are locked. But fortunately, the pancreas is able to help with this problem. So there are a couple types of cells in the pancreas that sense blood sugar levels. And these cells are located in the islets of Langerhans. And these green cells here in the islets of Langerhans are meant to represent the Beta cells. And when the blood glucose increases, the Beta cells of the pancreas sense this change, and they secrete a hormone known as insulin into the blood. And what insulin does is it acts like a key that can unlock these cells so that the glucose can be stored in both the liver and the muscle cells. So you can see that there are two steps in ord Continue reading >>

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