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Diabetes Oxidative Stress And Antioxidants A Review

Diabetes, Oxidative Stress, And Antioxidants: A Review.

Diabetes, Oxidative Stress, And Antioxidants: A Review.

1. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2003;17(1):24-38. Diabetes, oxidative stress, and antioxidants: a review. Maritim AC(1), Sanders RA, Watkins JB 3rd. (1)Moi University, College of Health Sciences, Eldoret, Kenya. Increasing evidence in both experimental and clinical studies suggests thatoxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetesmellitus. Free radicals are formed disproportionately in diabetes by glucoseoxidation, nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, and the subsequent oxidativedegradation of glycated proteins. Abnormally high levels of free radicals and thesimultaneous decline of antioxidant defense mechanisms can lead to damage ofcellular organelles and enzymes, increased lipid peroxidation, and development ofinsulin resistance. These consequences of oxidative stress can promote thedevelopment of complications of diabetes mellitus. Changes in oxidative stressbiomarkers, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase,glutathione peroxidase, glutathione levels, vitamins, lipid peroxidation, nitriteconcentration, nonenzymatic glycosylated proteins, and hyperglycemia in diabetes,and their consequences, are discussed in this review. In vivo studies of theeffects of various conventional and alternative drugs on these biomarkers aresurveyed. There is a need to continue to explore the relationship between freeradicals, diabetes, and its complications, and to elucidate the mechanisms bywhich increased oxidative stress accelerates the development of diabeticcomplications, in an effort to expand treatment options.Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Continue reading >>

Frontiers | Oxidative Stress As A Covariate Of Recovery In Diabetes Therapy | Endocrinology

Frontiers | Oxidative Stress As A Covariate Of Recovery In Diabetes Therapy | Endocrinology

Front. Endocrinol., 12 June 2014 | Oxidative stress as a covariate of recovery in diabetes therapy 1Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Pune, Pune, India 2Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune, India 3Mathematics and Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Pune, Pune, India Excess glucose hyperglycemia has long been associated with type 2 diabetes. Ancient literature from Egypt and India describe the disease; it was easily identifiable because a patients urine attracted ants ( 1 ). More than two millennia later, monitoring glycemic status continues to be central to clinical management. It is currently the only variable accepted for standardization of both diagnosis as well as treatment ( 2 ). Despite its strong association with diabetes, however, hyperglycemia is not the disease per se. It is important to ask what other variables besides glucose are relevant to the disorder. In particular, it would be very useful to discover covariates of glucose that can help predict patient recovery on anti-diabetic treatment. The recognition that medical care needs to be personalized since individual responses to anti-diabetic treatment vary with patient pathophysiology is relatively recent. The American Diabetes Association, for example, now recommends that targets of glycemic control be selected individually, not uniformly ( 3 ). Raz et al. point to the need for data that can help identify what characteristics of patients determine how well they respond to specific treatments ( 4 ). Research seeking covariates of glucose in diabetes is, in fact, not new; it has been ongoing for a very long time. Different disease models exist, and they vary in emphasis on what factor is thought to be of causal importance. From an etiological vi Continue reading >>

Oxidative Stress And Disease: An Updated Review

Oxidative Stress And Disease: An Updated Review

Oxidative Stress and Disease: An Updated Review How to cite this article: Amira A.M. Adly , 2010. Oxidative Stress and Disease: An Updated Review. Research Journal of Immunology, 3: 129-145. Received: June 14, 2010; Accepted: July 27, 2010; Published: October 08, 2010 Oxidative stress is the presence of active oxygen species (ROS) in excess of the available antioxidant buffering capacity ( Fig. 1 ). These reactive oxygen species can damage proteins, lipids and DNA, altering the organisms structure and function ( Roberts and Hubel, 2004 ). Sies and Cadenas (1985) introduced the term from the book. Most stable molecular species have the electrons in their outer orbital, arranged in pairs. Each electron of this pair has an opposite spin, which is important to stabilize the molecules. A free radical is a molecule with one or more unpaired electrons in its outer orbital, which makes this specie very unstable and tending to react with other molecules to pair this electron and thereby generate more stable specie ( Gueteens et al., 2002 ). The highly reactive molecules include Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) as shown in Fig. 2 ( Martin et al., 2003 ). Both types were listed in Table 1 and 2 . Imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant ( Garrido et al., 2004 ) Types of reactive species ( www.nature.com2008 ) Of these reactive molecules (O2, NO, ONOO-) are the most widely studied species and play important roles in the diabetic cardiovascular complications. Superoxide (O2) is produced by one electron reduction of oxygen by different oxidases including dihydro nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, xanthine oxidase , cycloxygenase as well as by the mitochondrial electron transport chain during the course of normal oxidative Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Oxidative Stress, And Antioxidants: A Review

Diabetes, Oxidative Stress, And Antioxidants: A Review

Diabetes, oxidative stress, and antioxidants: A review J. B. Watkins - Indiana University Bloomington Increasing evidence in both experimental and clinical studies suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus. Free radicals are formed disproportionately in diabetes by glucose oxidation, nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, and the subsequent oxidative degradation of glycated proteins. Abnormally high levels of free radicals and the simultaneous decline of antioxidant defense mechanisms can lead to damage of cellular organelles and enzymes, increased lipid peroxidation, and development of insulin resistance. These consequences of oxidative stress can promote the development of complications of diabetes mellitus. Changes in oxidative stress biomarkers, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione levels, vitamins, lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, nonenzymatic glycosylated proteins, and hyperglycemia in diabetes, and their consequences, are discussed in this review. In vivo studies of the effects of various conventional and alternative drugs on these biomarkers are surveyed. There is a need to continue to explore the relationship between free radicals, diabetes, and its complications, and to elucidate the mechanisms by which increased oxidative stress accelerates the development of diabetic complications, in an effort to expand treatment options. 2018 Digital Science & Research Solutions, Inc. All Rights Reserved | About us Privacy policy Legal terms VPAT Citation Count is the number of times that this paper has been cited by other published papers in the database. The Altmetric Attention Score is a weighted count of all of the online attention Altm Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Cardiovascular Damage Can Antioxidants Reduce The Risk?

Diabetes And Cardiovascular Damage Can Antioxidants Reduce The Risk?

Diabetes and Cardiovascular Damage Can Antioxidants Reduce the Risk? Diabetes and its cardiovascular complications are an epidemic in the making. An estimated 8.3% of the US population has diabetes (90% to 95% of those have type 2 diabetes), while 35% of adults older than age 20 have prediabetes, and most dont know they have it.1 Fifty percent of adults aged 65 and older have diabetes, and according to a recent report, if the current pattern continues, by 2020, more than one-half of the people in the United States either will have prediabetes or diabetes.2 These statistics are more sobering when considering that diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) three- to eightfold.3,4 Diabetes makes the heart more vulnerable to injury and more susceptible to heart failure.5 It isnt surprising then that nearly 25 million adults in the United States have been diagnosed with diabetes and coronary artery atherosclerosis.5 Oxidative stress, in large part, contributes to cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes,4 caused by an imbalance between damaging free radicals and the bodys antioxidant defenses, which is linked to cellular dysfunctions that lead to various diseases such as CVD.6 Diabetes is associated with a state of increased oxidative stress, says Angela Ginn, RDN, LDN, CDE, a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Studies have shown that the metabolism of excessive glucose and free fatty acids that occurs with diabetes and insulin resistance increases oxidative stress and may accelerate the development of complications.7 Oxidative stress results from the production of oxidizing compounds (free radicals) in cells that exceeds the bodys natural antioxidant defense system and can destroy cardiac tissue and promote atherosclerosi Continue reading >>

A Systematic Review Of Oxidative Stress And Safety Of Antioxidants In Diabetes: Focus On Islets And Their Defense.

A Systematic Review Of Oxidative Stress And Safety Of Antioxidants In Diabetes: Focus On Islets And Their Defense.

A growing body of evidence suggests that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress plays an important role in diabetic complications, especially -cell dysfunction and failure. Under physiological conditions, reactive oxygen species serve as second messengers that facilitate signal transduction and gene expression in pancreatic -cells. However, under pathological conditions, an imbalance in redox homeostasis leads to aberrant tissue damage and -cell death due to a lack of antioxidant defense systems. Taking into account the vulnerability of islets to oxidative damage, induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes or exogenous antioxidant administration has been proposed as a way to protect -cells against diabetic insults. Here, we consider recent insights into how the redox response becomes deregulated under diabetic conditions, as well as the therapeutic benefits of antioxidants, which may provide clues for developing strategies aimed at the treatment or prevention of diabetes associated with -cell failure. Continue reading >>

Comparative Analysis Of The Oxidative Stress And Antioxidant Status In Type Ii Diabetics And Nondiabetics: A Biochemical Study Nair A, Nair Bj - J Oral Maxillofac Pathol

Comparative Analysis Of The Oxidative Stress And Antioxidant Status In Type Ii Diabetics And Nondiabetics: A Biochemical Study Nair A, Nair Bj - J Oral Maxillofac Pathol

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder whose prevalence is rising rapidly in an alarming rate. This disease has shown a change in its condition over the last 30 years from a mild disorder of the elderly to the major cause for morbidity and mortality affecting the youth and middle-aged people. India leads the world with the largest number of diabetic patients, earning the distinction, the diabetes capital of the world. Although there is an increase in the prevalence of type I diabetes, the most common form of diabetes is type II, which accounts for more than 90% of all diabetes cases. [1] Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia and insufficiency in the secretion and function of endogenous insulin. [2] Type II diabetes is a multicausal disease which develops slowly in a step-wise manner initially commencing with insulin resistance and progressing with time which results in failure of the body to maintain glucose hemostasis causing glucose intolerance. [3] The most common factors which contribute to the development of type II diabetes mellitus include complex heritable genetic correlation, environmental and lifestyle factors such as obesity, physical inactivity and smoking and alcohol consumption along with other risk factors such as aging and pregnancy. [4] The immune system of an individual works in a very well-organized manner for the sustenance of the normal equilibrium, thus helping in achieving a disease-free state. The immune system can respond overprotective at times leading to increased emission of free radicals, resulting in oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. [5] The increase in the lipid peroxidation and decline in the antioxidant defense may appear early in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus before the development of secondary complica Continue reading >>

Oxidative Stress And The Use Of Antioxidants In Diabetes: Linking Basic Science To Clinical Practice

Oxidative Stress And The Use Of Antioxidants In Diabetes: Linking Basic Science To Clinical Practice

Abstract Cardiovascular complications, characterized by endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis, are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. There is growing evidence that excess generation of highly reactive free radicals, largely due to hyperglycemia, causes oxidative stress, which further exacerbates the development and progression of diabetes and its complications. Overproduction and/or insufficient removal of these free radicals result in vascular dysfunction, damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids. Despite overwhelming evidence on the damaging consequences of oxidative stress and its role in experimental diabetes, large scale clinical trials with classic antioxidants failed to demonstrate any benefit for diabetic patients. As our understanding of the mechanisms of free radical generation evolves, it is becoming clear that rather than merely scavenging reactive radicals, a more comprehensive approach aimed at preventing the generation of these reactive species as well as scavenging may prove more beneficial. Therefore, new strategies with classic as well as new antioxidants should be implemented in the treatment of diabetes. Introduction It is a well-established fact that diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease [1, 2]. While microvascular complications of diabetes include nephropathy and retinopathy, macrovascular complications resulting in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease are the leading cause of death in the diabetic population [3, 4]. The Diabetes Control and Complications trial (DCCT) demonstrated that tight control of blood glucose is effective in reducing clinical complications signi Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Oxidative Stress, And Antioxidants: A Review

Diabetes, Oxidative Stress, And Antioxidants: A Review

Increasing evidence in both experimental and clinical studies suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus. Free radicals are formed disproportionately in diabetes by glucose oxidation, nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, and the subsequent oxidative degradation of glycated proteins. Abnormally high levels of free radicals and the simultaneous decline of antioxidant defense mechanisms can lead to damage of cellular organelles and enzymes, increased lipid peroxidation, and development of insulin resistance. These consequences of oxidative stress can promote the development of complications of diabetes mellitus. Changes in oxidative stress biomarkers, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione levels, vitamins, lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, nonenzymatic glycosylated proteins, and hyperglycemia in diabetes, and their consequences, are discussed in this review. In vivo studies of the effects of various conventional and alternative drugs on these biomarkers are surveyed. There is a need to continue to explore the relationship between free radicals, diabetes, and its complications, and to elucidate the mechanisms by which increased oxidative stress accelerates the development of diabetic complications, in an effort to expand treatment options. Do you want to read the rest of this article? ... ROS produced in various tissues leads to tissue injury as well as early events related to the development of diabetes mellitus and its complications . HIE may have beneficial effects on type 1 and 2 diabetes, as the mechanism of development of both the diabetes involve oxidative stress. ... ... Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between the productio Continue reading >>

Oxidative Stress In The Pathogenesis Of Diabetic Neuropathy

Oxidative Stress In The Pathogenesis Of Diabetic Neuropathy

Oxidative Stress in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Neuropathy Department of Neurology (A.M.V., J.W.R., E.L.F.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Andrea M. Vincent, Ph.D., Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Room 4414, Kresge III, 200 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 Search for other works by this author on: Department of Neurology (A.M.V., J.W.R., E.L.F.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 Search for other works by this author on: Department of Neurology (P.L.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 Search for other works by this author on: Department of Neurology (A.M.V., J.W.R., E.L.F.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 Search for other works by this author on: Endocrine Reviews, Volume 25, Issue 4, 1 August 2004, Pages 612628, Andrea M. Vincent, James W. Russell, Phillip Low, Eva L. Feldman; Oxidative Stress in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Neuropathy, Endocrine Reviews, Volume 25, Issue 4, 1 August 2004, Pages 612628, Oxidative stress results from a cell or tissue failing to detoxify the free radicals that are produced during metabolic activity. Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia that produces dysregulation of cellular metabolism. This review explores the concept that diabetes overloads glucose metabolic pathways, resulting in excess free radical production and oxidative stress. Evidence is presented to support the idea that both chronic and acute hyperglycemia cause oxidative stress in the peripheral nervous system that can promote the development of diabetic neuropathy. Proteins that are damaged by oxidative stress have decreased biological activity leading to loss of energy metabolism, cell signaling, transport, and, Continue reading >>

Total Antioxidant Status In Type 2 Diabetic Patients In Palestine

Total Antioxidant Status In Type 2 Diabetic Patients In Palestine

Total Antioxidant Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Palestine 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Professions, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, State of Palestine 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, State of Palestine 3Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, State of Palestine 4Faculty of Public Health, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, State of Palestine 5United Nation Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), Jerusalem, State of Palestine Received 9 January 2015; Revised 11 May 2015; Accepted 12 May 2015 Copyright 2015 Akram T. Kharroubi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The objective of this study was to compare the level of total antioxidant status (TAS) in type 2 diabetic and normal Palestinian subjects as well as the major factors influencing TAS levels. A sample of convenience composed of 212 type 2 diabetic and 208 normal subjects above the age of 40 were recruited. Only 9.8% of the subjects had normal body mass index (BMI) levels (<25), 29% were overweight (25 to <30), and 61.2% were obese (30). The mean levels of TAS were significantly higher in diabetic compared to control subjects (2.18 versus 1.84 mM Trolox, P = 0.001) and in hypertensive subjects compared to subjects with normal blood pressure (BP). Mean TAS levels were higher in obese compared to nonobese subjects (2.12 versus 1.85 mM Trolox, P = 0.001). Mean TAS levels were similarly higher in subjects with high fasting plasma glucose (FPG) compared to normal FPG (2.19 versus 1.90 mM Trolox) and hi Continue reading >>

An Insight In To The Pathogenesis Of Diabetic Vascular Diseases: Role Ofoxidative Stress And Antioxidants

An Insight In To The Pathogenesis Of Diabetic Vascular Diseases: Role Ofoxidative Stress And Antioxidants

Received date: October 18, 2013; Accepted date: November 25, 2013; Published date: November 27, 2013 Citation: Aditi, Mahajan N, Rawal S, Katare R (2013) An Insight in to the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Vascular Diseases: Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants. Pharmaceut Anal Acta 4:273. doi: 10.4172/2153-2435.1000273 Copyright: 2013 Aditi, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The profound effects of hyperglycaemia on the vascular tree are the major causes of morbidity and mortality among patients suffering from diabetes. Diabetic Vascular Diseases (DVD) includes accelerated forms of atherosclerosis due to endothelial dysfunction and microangiopathy of retinal vessels. A host of several studies indicate that increased oxidative stress play a pivotal role in the development and progression of diabetic vascular diseases. The metabolic abnormalities due to oxidative stress are linked to the structural and functional changes in the vasculature, consequently resulting in atherosclerosis and diabetic retinopathy. Oxidative stress brings alterations in downstream transcription factors which result in changes in gene expression, myocardial substrate utilization, myocyte growth, endothelial function and myocardial compliance. Based on this, an approach towards investigating new and effective antioxidant therapies could serve as potential therapeutic implications in preventing the deleterious effects of oxidative stress on vasculature. This review aims to understand the underlying mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of vascular complications in diabetes with special empha Continue reading >>

Oxidative Stress And Antioxidants In Hypertensiona Current Review

Oxidative Stress And Antioxidants In Hypertensiona Current Review

Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in HypertensionA Current Review Author(s): Nakshi Sinha , Pradeep Kumar Dabla . Department of Biochemistry, Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalya, Associated to Maulana Azad Medical College, Geeta Colony, New Delhi -110031, India. Journal Name: Current Hypertension Reviews Free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by oxygenmetabolism which is balanced by the rate of oxidant formation and the rate of oxidantelimination. Oxidative stress is a result of imbalance between the generation ofreactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant defence systems. Hypertension isone of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and is considered as a leadingcause of mortality and morbidity. These diseases affect more than 600 million peopleand it has been estimated that 29% of the world population will be suffering from hypertension by 2025. It has beenindicated by experimental evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathophysiology ofhypertension. The vasculature is a rich source of NADPH oxidase which produces most of the reactive oxygen speciesand plays an important role in renal dysfunction and vascular damage. Recent studies indicate that increased oxidativestress is the important mediator of endothelial injury in the pathology of hypertension associated to increased productionof pro oxidants such as superoxideanion hydrogen peroxide, reduced nitric oxide synthesis and decreased bioavailabilityof antioxidants. Oxidative stress is found to be associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, hypertrophy,apoptosis, cell migration, fibrosis, and angiogenesis in relation to vascular remodelling of hypertension. Results in humansare still less conclusive inspite of data available that involve Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Oxidative Stress, And Antioxidants: A Review

Diabetes, Oxidative Stress, And Antioxidants: A Review

N2 - Increasing evidence in both experimental and clinical studies suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus. Free radicals are formed disproportionately in diabetes by glucose oxidation, nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, and the subsequent oxidative degradation of glycated proteins. Abnormally high levels of free radicals and the simultaneous decline of antioxidant defense mechanisms can lead to damage of cellular orgartelles and enzymes, increased lipid peroxidation, and development of insulin resistance. These consequences of oxidative stress can promote the development of complications of diabetes mellitus. Changes in oxidative stress biomarkers, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione levels, vitamins, lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, nonenzymatic glycosylated proteins, and hyperglycemia in diabetes, and their consequences, are discussed in this review. In vivo studies of the effects of various conventional and alternative drugs on these biomarkers are surveyed. There is a need to continue to explore the relationship between free radicals, diabetes, and its complications, and to elucidate the mechanisms by which increased oxidative stress accelerates the development of diabetic complications, in an effort to expand treatment options. AB - Increasing evidence in both experimental and clinical studies suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus. Free radicals are formed disproportionately in diabetes by glucose oxidation, nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, and the subsequent oxidative degradation of glycated proteins. Abnormally high levels of free radicals and the simult Continue reading >>

Review Diabetes Mellitus And Oxidative Stress—a Concise Review

Review Diabetes Mellitus And Oxidative Stress—a Concise Review

1. Diabetes mellitus Likewise Osteoporosis, Cushing’s syndrome and Scleroderma, Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders that is characterized by elevated levels of glucose in blood (hyperglycemia) and insufficiency in production or action of insulin produced by the pancreas inside the body (Maritim et al., 2003). Insulin is a protein (hormone) synthesized in beta cells of pancreas in response to various stimuli such as glucose, sulphonylureas, and arginine however glucose is the major determinant (Joshi et al., 2007). Long term elevation in blood glucose levels is associated with macro- and micro-vascular complications leading to heart diseases, stroke, blindness and kidney diseases (Loghmani, 2005). Sidewise to hyperglycemia, there are several other factors that play great role in pathogenesis of diabetes such as hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress leading to high risk of complications (Kangralkar et al., 2010). 2. Types of diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus can be classified in different ways but one form of classification is as follow (American Diabetes Association, 2004): 1. Type I diabetes (Insulin dependent) is due to immune mediated beta-cells destruction, leading to insulin deficiency. 2. Idiopathic diabetes is the type 1 diabetes with no known etiologies and is strongly inherited. 3. Type II diabetes (Non-Insulin dependent) is due to insulin secretory defect and insulin resistance. 4. Gestational diabetes mellitus is any form of intolerance to glucose with onset or first recognition of pregnancy. However diabetes is mostly classified basically into TWO major types: Type I Diabetes (IDDM) and Type II Diabetes (NIDDM). 3. Pathophysiology of diabetes Whenever somebody takes the meal, there is rise in blood glucose levels that stimulates insulin secr Continue reading >>

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