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Diabetes Nclex Review

Nclex: Drugs For Diabetes

Nclex: Drugs For Diabetes

The pancreas produces the peptide hormones insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. The peptide hormones are secreted from cells in the islets of Langerhans ( cells produce insulin, cells produce glucagon, and cells produce somatostatin). These hormones play an important role in regulating metabolic activities of the body, particularly glucose homeostasis. A relative or absolute lack of insulin, as seen in diabetes mellitus, can cause serious hyperglycemia. Left untreated, retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular complications may result. Administration of insulin preparations or other glucose-lowering agents can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. The incidence of diabetes is growing rapidly in the United States and worldwide. An estimated 25.8 million people in the United States and 347 million people worldwide are afflicted with diabetes. Diabetes is not a single disease. Rather, it is a heterogeneous group of syndromes characterized by elevated blood glucose attributed to a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recognizes four clinical classifications of diabetes: type 1 diabetes (formerly insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), type 2 diabetes (formerly noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), gestational diabetes, and diabetes due to other causes such as genetic defects or medications.Gestational diabetes is defined as carbohydrate intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Uncontrolled gestational diabetes can lead to fetal macrosomia (abnormally large body) and shoulder dystocia (difficult delivery), as well as neonatal hypoglycemia. Diet, exercise, and/or insulin administration are effective in this condition. Glyburide and metformin may be reasonable alternatives t Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes | Remar Review For Nclex

Type 1 Diabetes | Remar Review For Nclex

The primary treatment for type 1 diabetes will be insulin injection. The insulin injections could range from 1-7 times a day with a combination of short and long acting insulin . This is important because if insulin is not available for energy consumption the body will burn fats. When fat breakdown occurs, the result is ketone production. If ketones are present in the body; clients are at risk for diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life threatening condition that occurs when not enough insulin is present. The three main symptoms are: The ketone production will create an acidotic state in the body. Dehydration will be caused by excessive urination, clients may lose up to 6 liters a day. Hyperglycemia is caused due to a lack of insulin. Other signs of DKA: fruity breath, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, hyperventilation Treatment for DKA will be IV fluid + electrolytes and Regular Insulin IV. The Insulin will reverse both the acidosis and hyperglycemia. What is the primary way type 1 diabetes is controlled? What is the life threatening condition that can occur if type 1 diabetes is uncontrolled? If ketones are present in the body should the client exercise? What is the treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis? **Remember if insulin injection is the primary mode of treatment for type 1 diabetes education will be the key. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Nclex Practice Quiz #2 (30 Questions)

Diabetes Mellitus Nclex Practice Quiz #2 (30 Questions)

6. Jansen is receiving metformin ( Glucophage ). What will be the best plan of the nurse with regard to patient education with this drug? Select all that apply. A. It stimulates the pancreas to produce more insulin. C. It decreases sugar production in the liver . D. It inhibits absorption of carbohydrates. 7. Serafica who has diabetes mellitus type 1 is found unresponsive in the clinical setting. Which nursing action is a priority? arrange from 1 to 4. 8. Serge who has diabetes mellitus is taking oral agents, and is scheduled for a diagnostic test that requires him to be NPO. What is the best plan of the nurse with regard to giving the client his oral medications? A. Administer the oral agents immediately after the test. B. Notify the the diagnostic department and request orders. C. Notify the physician and request orders. D. Administer the oral agents with a sip of water before the test. 9. A client diagnosed with type 1 diabetes receives insulin. He asks the nurse why he cant just take pills instead. What is the best response by the nurse? A. Insulin must be injected because it needs to work quickly. B. Insulin cant be in a pill because it is destroyed in stomach acid. C. Have you talked to your doctor about taking pills instead? D. I know it is tough, but you will get used to the shots soon. 10. Nurse Andy has finished teaching a client with diabetes mellitus how to administer insulin. He evaluates the learning has occurred when the client makes which statement? A. I should check my blood sugar immediately prior to the administration. B. I should provide direct pressure over the site following the injection. C. I should use the abdominal area only for insulin injections. D. I should only use calibrated insulin syringe for the injections. 11. Genevieve has diabetes t Continue reading >>

10 Diabetes Nclex Questions

10 Diabetes Nclex Questions

Take the Pop Quiz and See How Good You Are at Diabetes Questions 1) The nurse is educating a client that is newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, which of the following should the nurse emphasize? Select all that apply. 2) During discharge of a client with diabetes, the nurse recognizes a need for further education when the client makes which of the following statements? "I should cut my toe nails with rounded edges." 3) A client with type II diabetes is getting educated on their medications because the client was unsure why they took any of their medications so they don't take them all everyday. Which medication should the nurse educate this client on to help control their blood sugar levels? 4) It is halloween and a school nurse knows she needs to be ready for children who have diabetes and eat all the candy with which of the following medication? 5) A client with type II diabetes is getting educated on their medications because the client was unsure why they took any of their medications so they don't take them all everyday. Which medication should the nurse educate this client on to help control their blood sugar levels? 6) A nurse is counseling a patient who has hypertension and type 2 diabetes. During the initial assessment, the nurse notes that the patient has a blood pressure of 148/92 mmHg, a BMI of 28, and a blood glucose level of 161 mg/dL. Which of the following information about lifestyle changes would be most beneficial to help control this patients state of health? Describe how the patient can limit her fat intake in the diet to less than 45% of total daily calories Help the patient understand how to lose weight to get her BMI to less than 25 Tell the patient that she first must control her hypertension, and then her glucose levels are more likely to n Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Nclex Quiz

Diabetes Mellitus Nclex Quiz

This NCLEX diabetes mellitus quiz will test your knowledge on diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is where a patient does not have sufficient amounts of insulin to use the glucose that enters the blood stream. Therefore, the patient experiences hyperglycemia which is damaging to the body. The NCLEX and nursing school lecture exams love to test students on their ability to differentiate between causes, signs and symptoms, patient education, and various treatments for diabetes. This NCLEX quiz will test your ability: Patho of Diabetes Mellitus Causes of Diabetes Mellitus Different types of Diabetes Mellitus Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus Complications of Diabetes Mellitus Lecture on Diabetes Mellitus (NOTE: When you hit submit, it will refresh this same page. Scroll down to see your results.) Diabetes Mellitus NCLEX Quiz 1.Which of the following symptoms do NOT present in hyperglycemia? A. Extreme thirst B. Hunger C. Blood glucose <60 mg/dL D. Glycosuria 2. Type 1 diabetics typically have the following clinical characteristics: A. Thin, young with ketones present in the urine B. Overweight, young with no ketones present in the urine C. Thin, adult-aged with ketones present in the urine D. Thin, older adult with glycosuria 3. A patient with diabetes has a morning glucose of 50. The patient is sweaty, cold, and clammy. Which of the following nursing interventions is MOST important? A. Recheck the glucose level B. Give the patient ½ cup (4 oz) of fruit juice C. Call the doctor D. Keep the patient nothing by mouth 4. Which of the following patients is at most risk for Type 2 diabetes? A. A 6 year old girl recovering from a viral infection with a family history of diabetes. B. A 28 year old male with a BMI of 49. C. A 76 year old female with a history of cardiac disease. D. Continue reading >>

Nclex Review

Nclex Review

A nurse is providing education to a group of young adults regarding development of type 2 diabetes. Which information should be included? Select all that apply. While hospitalized for a myocardial infarction, the patient is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and is started on an oral antidiabetic medication. Which patient statement should the nurse correct? An insulin-dependent type 1 diabetic patient is admitted in a diabetic coma with a blood glucose of 65 mg/dL. The client's spouse says, "I don't see how this can have happened. We were working in the yard together and she seemed just fine until she collapsed." What explanation would the nurse offer? A patient is brought to the Emergency Department with suspected diabetic ketoacidosis. Which clinical manifestations would support this diagnosis? Select all that apply. It is suspected that a patient has diabetic ketoacidosis. Which anion gap measurement would support that supposition? Which patient history would the nurse evaluate as increasing risk for development of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS)? Select all that apply. A patient is being treated for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Acidosis is being corrected and the client's urine output is approaching normal. Which lab value is most important for the nurse to monitor? A patient is being treated for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Which cardiac monitor changes would the nurse evaluate as most significant? Select all that apply. Continue reading >>

Nclex Review For Diabetes

Nclex Review For Diabetes

Discover the NCLEX CAT program that every nurse are now using to pass the NCLEX . 1. Knowing that gluconeogenesis helps to maintain blood levels, a nurse should: a. Document weight changes because of fatty acid mobilization b. Evaluate the patients sensitivity to low room temperatures because of decreased adipose tissue insulation c. Protect the patient from sources of infection because of decreased cellular protein deposits 2. Clinical manifestations associated with a diagnosis of type 1 DM include all of the following except: 3. The lowest fasting plasma glucose level suggestive of a diagnosis of DM is: 4. Rotation sites for insulin injection should be separated from one another by 2.5 cm (1 inch) and should be used only every: 5. A clinical feature that distinguishes a hypoglycemic reaction from a ketoacidosis reaction is: 6. Clinical nursing assessment for a patient with microangiopathy who has manifested impaired peripheral arterial circulation includes all of the following except: a. Integumentary inspection for the presence of brown spots on the lower extremities b. Observation for paleness of the lower extremities c. Observation for blanching of the feet after the legs are elevated for 60 seconds d. Palpation for increased pulse volume in the arteries of the lower extremities 7. The nurse expects that a type 1 diabetic may receive ____ of his or her morning dose of insulin preoperatively: 8. Albert, a 35-year-old insulin dependent diabetic, is admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of pneumonia. He has been febrile since admission. His daily insulin requirement is 24 units of NPH. Every morning Albert is given NPH insulin at 0730. Meals are served at 0830, 1230, and 1830. The nurse expects that the NPH insulin will reach its maximum effect (peak) between the Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Nclex Review Notes Medications & Nursing Management

Diabetes Mellitus Nclex Review Notes Medications & Nursing Management

Below are review notes for Diabetes Mellitus to help you study for the NCLEX exam or your nursing lecture exams. As the nurse taking care of the diabetic patient, you must know how to properly care for them, especially newly diagnosed diabetics. The nurses role include educating, assessing, planning, administering medications, and evaluating treatment. These NCLEX review notes will cover: Diet Exercise Oral Diabetic Medications Insulin Mnemonics After reviewing these notes, don’t forget to take the Diabetes NCLEX quiz. Lecture on Diabetes Mellitus for NCLEX Review Diabetes Nursing Management Nurse’s role: educating, monitoring, and administering (medications) Teach patient to follow the Triangle of Diabetes Management **Diet, medications, and exercise all work together while monitoring blood glucose Example: Patient wants to make sure their diet is balanced with their medication (insulin/oral meds) and they use exercise to manage glucose levels (doing all this while monitoring blood glucose). As the nurse you will be educating the diabetic…so for the NCLEX know education pieces like: Diet, exercising, oral medications, giving insulin (peak times), drugs that increase blood glucose and lower glucose etc. DIET: Diets are individualized due to physical activity and medication therapy (they always need tweaking)…recommend following American Diabetic Association Diet (ADA) Limitation of the following: Carbs (45-60%) grains, vegetables with starches potatoes, corn, sweets…cookies, soda, dried beans, milk) Fats (<20 %)….limit unhealthy fats saturated, trans fats, cholesterol: lard, gravies, whole milk, bologna, hot dogs, sausage, processed foods hydrogenated oils…concentrate on mono & polyunsaturated avocadoes, olives, peanuts, nuts Proteins (15-20%) meats don’ Continue reading >>

Diabetes Practice Questions

Diabetes Practice Questions

1. The risk factors for type 1 diabetes include all of the following except: a. Diet b. Genetic c. Autoimmune d. Environmental 2. Type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately what percentage of all cases of diabetes in adults? a. 55%-60% b. 35%-40% c. 90-95% d. 25-30% 3. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include all of the following except: a. Advanced age b. Obesity c. Smoking d. Physical inactivity 4. What percentage of women with gestational diabetes is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes following pregnancy? a. 25%-30% b. 5%-10% c. <5% d. 20%-25% 5. Untreated diabetes may result in all of the following except: a. Blindness b. Cardiovascular disease c. Kidney disease d. Tinnitus 6. Prediabetes is associated with all of the following except: a. Increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes b. Impaired glucose tolerance c. Increased risk of heart disease and stroke d. Increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes 7. Diabetics are at increased risk of heart disease if they also: a. Smoke b. Have high HDL cholesterol levels c. Take aspirin d. Consume a high-fiber diet 8. Blood sugar is well controlled when Hemoglobin A1C is: a. Below 7% b. Between 12%-15% c. Less than 180 mg/dL d. Between 90 and 130 mg/dL 9. Excessive thirst and volume of very dilute urine may be symptoms of: a. Urinary tract infection b. Diabetes insipidus c. Viral gastroenteritis d. Hypoglycemia 10. Among female children and adolescents, the first sign of type 1 diabetes may be: a. Rapid weight gain b. Constipation c. Genital candidiasis d. Insomnia 11. Untreated hyperglycemia may lead to all of the following complications except: a. Hyperosmolar syndrome b Vitiligo c. Diabetic ketoacidosis d. Coma 12. Hyperinsulinemia may be caused by all of the following except: a. An insulinoma b. Nesidioblastosis c. Insulin Continue reading >>

Nclex-rn Exam Cram: Care Of The Client With Endocrine Disorders

Nclex-rn Exam Cram: Care Of The Client With Endocrine Disorders

Diabetes Mellitus There are two types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1, also called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes, is a condition where the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas do not produce needed insulin. Insulin is necessary for food to be metabolized. Antibodies have been found in the majority of clients with type 1 diabetes. These antibodies are proteins in the blood that are part of the client’s immune system. It is believed that type 1 diabetes is in part genetically transmitted from parent to child. At stressful times in life, such as when infection is present, pregnancy or environmental toxins might trigger abnormal antibody responses that result in this autoimmune response. When this happens, the client’s body stops producing insulin. Type 1 diabetes tends to occur in young, lean individuals, usually before 30 years of age; however, it can occur in older individuals. These individuals are referred to as latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). Diabetes occurs in about 6% of Caucasians, 10% of African Americans, 20–50% of Native Americans, and 15% of Hispanics. Type 2 diabetes was referred to as non–insulin-dependent, adult-onset diabetes mellitus (ADDM). However, in recent years, more and more children have been diagnosed with ADDM. This trend can be attributed to obesity and sedentary lifestyle. In ADDM, the cells of the body, particularly fat and muscle cells, become resistant to insulin. This leads to increased insulin production with increased insulin resistance. Tests have also shown that this increased insulin resistance leads to a steady decline in beta cell production further worsening glucose control. This problem along with gluconeogenesis, a process in which the liver continues to produce gl Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Lecture Nclex Review Notes

Diabetes Mellitus Lecture Nclex Review Notes

Diabetes Mellitus Lecture NCLEX Review Notes Below are review notes for Diabetes Mellitusto help you study for the NCLEX exam or your nursing lecture exams. As the nurse taking care of the diabetic patient, you must know how to properly care for them, especially newly diagnosed diabetics. The nurses role include educating, assessing, planning, administering medications, and evaluating treatment. After reviewing these notes, dont forget to take the Diabetes NCLEX quiz . Diabetes Mellitus Lecture Notes for NCLEX Review Sugar (body needs it to survive) fuels the cells of your body so they can work properly, BUT IT CAN NOT ENTER THE CELL WITHOUT THE HELP OF INSULIN It is stored mainly in the liver in the form of glycogen A hormone that helps regulate the amount of glucose in the blood (too much glucose is very toxic to the body). It allows your body to use glucose by allowing it to enter the cells (without insulin glucose would just float around in your body) Secreted by the BETA cells of the pancreas from the islets of Langerhans A peptide hormone that causes the liver to turn glycogen into glucosedoes the opposite as insulin. Sensitive to insulin levels and stores and turns glycogen into glucose when the pancreas secretes glucagon. Example: (if the body has increased blood glucose/increased insulin in the blood the liver with absorb and store the extra glucose for later.if there is low blood sugar/low insulin levels the liver will release glycogen which turns into glucose to help increase the blood sugar level) Increased blood sugar -> pancreas releases insulin -> causes glucose to enter into the cells to be used or be saved as glycogen for later (stored mainly in the liver) Decrease blood sugar -> pancreas release glucagon -> causes the liver to release glycogen which t Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Nclex Practice Quiz #1 (40 Questions)

Diabetes Mellitus Nclex Practice Quiz #1 (40 Questions)

This exam is all about Diabetes Mellitus! The purpose of this exam is to provide nurses and future nurses an overview of the disease, including its management, impact, and complications. Accomplish this 40-item NCLEX style examination and guarantee a good performance on your NCLEX. Though no one can go back and make a brand new start, anyone can start from now and make a brand new ending. ~ Carl Bard Topics Included topics in this practice quiz are: Guidelines Follow the guidelines below to make the most out of this exam: Read each question carefully and choose the best answer. You are given one minute per question. Spend your time wisely! Answers and rationales are given below. Be sure to read them. If you need more clarifications, please direct them to the comments section. Questions See Also You may also like these quizzes: 3,500+ NCLEX-RN Practice Questions for Free – Tons of practice questions for various topics in the NCLEX-RN! Study Guides Cardiovascular System Respiratory System Nervous System Digestive and Gastrointestinal System Endocrine System Urinary System Homeostasis: Fluids and Electrolytes Cancer and Oncology Nursing Burns and Burn Injury Management Emergency Nursing Miscellaneous Recommended Books and Resources Selected NCLEX-RN review books: MUST HAVE: Saunders Comprehensive Review for the NCLEX-RN® Examination, 7th Edition – A must have book if you're taking the NCLEX-RN. You need to have this. Saunders Strategies for Success for the NCLEX – An invaluable guide that will help you master what matters most in passing nursing school and the NCLEX. Mosby's Comprehensive Review of Nursing for NCLEX-RN – This book has helped nurses pass the NCLEX exam for over 60 years. Practice with over 600 alternative item question formats. Prioritization, Dele Continue reading >>

Diabetes Online Review For The Nclex Exam - Elite Reviews

Diabetes Online Review For The Nclex Exam - Elite Reviews

Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is vital to your health because its an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. Its also your brains main source of fuel. If diabetes is detected, no matter what type, it means you have too much glucose in your blood, although the causes may differ. Too much glucose can lead to serious health problems. Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes and gestational diabetes, which occurs during pregnancy but may resolve after the baby is delivered. To understand diabetes, first you must understand how glucose is normally processed in the body. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. The insulin circulates, enabling sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secretion of insulin from your pancreas. Glucose a sugar is a source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and other tissues. Glucose comes from two major sources: food and your liver. Sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream, where it enters cells with the help of insulin. When your glucose levels are low, such as when you havent eaten in a while, the liver breaks down stored glycogen into glucose to keep your glucose level within a normal range Some of the signs and symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are: Frequent infections, such as gums or skin infections and vaginal infections The Continue reading >>

Diabetes Nclex Review Practice Questions

Diabetes Nclex Review Practice Questions

B. Increased high-density lipoproteins (HDL) C. Decreased low-density lipoproteins (LDL) D. Decreased very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) Macrovascular complications of diabetes include changes to large- and medium-sized blood vessels. They include cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, and peripheral vascular disease. Increased triglyceride levels are associated with these macrovascular changes. Increased HDL, decreased LDL, and decreased VLDL are positive in relation to atherosclerosis development. A patient is admitted with diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, and cellulitis. The patient's potassium level is 5.6 mEq/L. The nurse understands that what could be contributing factors for this laboratory result (select all that apply)? A. The level may be increased as a result of dehydration that accompanies hyperglycemia. B. The patient may be excreting extra sodium and retaining potassium because of malnutrition. C. The level is consistent with renal insufficiency that can develop with renal nephropathy. D. The level may be raised as a result of metabolic ketoacidosis caused by hyperglycemia. E. This level demonstrates adequate treatment of the cellulitis and effective serum glucose control. The additional stress of cellulitis may lead to an increase in the patient's serum glucose levels. Dehydration may cause hemoconcentration, resulting in elevated serum readings. Kidneys may have difficulty excreting potassium if renal insufficiency exists. Finally, the nurse must consider the potential for metabolic ketoacidosis since potassium will leave the cell when hydrogen enters in an attempt to compensate for a low pH. Malnutrition does not cause sodium excretion accompanied by potassium retention. Thus it is not a contributing factor to this patient's potassium level. The elevated p Continue reading >>

Diabetes Nclex Review

Diabetes Nclex Review

Rationale: The patient's impaired fasting glucose indicates prediabetes and the patient should be counseled about lifestyle changes to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. The patient with prediabetes does not require insulin or the oral hypoglycemics for glucose control and does not need to self-monitor blood glucose. Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1255 Nursing Process: Planning NCLEX: Physiological Integrity 3. During a diabetes screening program, a patient tells the nurse, "My mother died of complications of type 2 diabetes. Can I inherit diabetes?" The nurse explains that a. as long as the patient maintains normal weight and exercises, type 2 diabetes can be prevented. b. the patient is at a higher than normal risk for type 2 diabetes and should have periodic blood glucose level testing. c. there is a greater risk for children developing type 2 diabetes when the father has type 2 diabetes. d. although there is a tendency for children of people with type 2 diabetes to develop diabetes, the risk is higher for those with type 1 diabetes. Rationale: Offspring of people with type 2 diabetes are at higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The risk can be decreased, but not prevented, by maintenance of normal weight and exercising. The risk for children of a person with type 1 diabetes to develop diabetes is higher when it is the father who has the disease. Offspring of people with type 2 diabetes are more likely to develop diabetes than offspring of those with type 1 diabetes. Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1256 Nursing Process: Implementation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity 4. A program of weight loss and exercise is recommended for a patient with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). When teaching the patient about the reason for th Continue reading >>

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