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Diabetes Molecular Level

Molecular Mechanisms Of Insulin Resistance In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Molecular Mechanisms Of Insulin Resistance In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus Vandana Saini, Department of Biochemistry, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi 110001, India. Author contributions: Saini V contributed solely to this work. Correspondence to: Vandana Saini, MD, Department of Biochemistry, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi 110001, India. [email protected] Received 2010 Jan 18; Revised 2010 Jun 22; Accepted 2010 Jun 29. Copyright 2010 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Free fatty acids are known to play a key role in promoting loss of insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. It has been postulated that an increase in the intracellular concentration of fatty acid metabolites activates a serine kinase cascade, which leads to defects in insulin signaling downstream to the insulin receptor. In addition, the complex network of adipokines released from adipose tissue modulates the response of tissues to insulin. Among the many molecules involved in the intracellular processing of the signal provided by insulin, the insulin receptor substrate-2, the protein kinase B and the forkhead transcription factor Foxo 1a are of particular interest, as recent data has provided strong evidence that dysfunction of these proteins results in insulin resistance in vivo. Recently, studies have revealed that phosphoinositidedependent kinase 1-independent phosphorylation of protein kinase C causes a reduction in insulin receptor gene expression. Additionally, it has been suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction triggers activation of several serine kinases, and weakens insulin signal transduction. Thus, in this review, the current developmen Continue reading >>

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. You have Type 2 diabetes if your tissues are resistant to insulin, and if you lack enough insulin to overcome this resistance. You have Type 2 diabetes if your tissues are resistant to insulin, and if you lack enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes of diabetes worldwide and accounts for 90-95% of cases. Risk Factors Your risk of type 2 diabetes typically increases when you are: Other risk factors are: Family history of diabetes in close relatives Being of African, Asian, Native American, Latino, or Pacific Islander ancestry High blood pressure High blood levels of fats, known as triglycerides, coupled with low levels of high-density lipoprotein, known as HDL, in the blood stream Prior diagnosis of pre-diabetes such as glucose intolerance or elevated blood sugar In women, a history of giving birth to large babies (over 9 lbs) and/or diabetes during pregnancy Type 2 diabetes is strongly inherited These are some of the statistics: 80-90% of people with Type 2 diabetes have other family members with diabetes. 10-15% of children of a diabetic parent will develop diabetes. If one identical twin has type 2 diabetes, there is up to a 75% chance that the other will also be diabetic. There are many genetic or molecular causes of type 2 diabetes, all of which result in a high blood sugar. As yet, there is no single genetic test to determine who is at risk for type 2 diabetes. To develop type 2 diabetes, you must be born with the genetic traits for diabetes. Because there is a wide range of genetic causes, there is also a wide range in how you will respond to treatment. You may be easily treated with just a change in diet or you may need multiple types of medication. The ha Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus At A Molecular Level

Diabetes Mellitus At A Molecular Level

We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime. This presentation is all about the well-known disease "Diabetes". I have tried to focus on the molecular level of the disease, and I've discussed in detail the proteins and genes related in the process. I definitely looked through many references, watched many videos and read many articles about it. I was pretty much confused, but thanks to God, I was finally able to put together all I had learned into a nice, neat PowerPoint presentation. Wether you are a college student seeking a presentation about diabetes, or maybe just a normal person wanting to get some info, maybe a patient with diabetes, then you should be in the right place. My presentation should help you get through! I have first begun with an introduction to the disease, including some data from International Diabetes Federation to show the huge number of people worldwide having diabetes. I have then talked about how our body functions normally without diabetes. This will help you understand what goes wrong during the disease. After that, I have discussed both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and what causes each type at a molecular level as well as talking about some differences. Then I've come to talk about symptoms and complications of diabetes. The signs that could indicate someone has diabetes, and if someone has it for a long time, it's going to have impact on the various body systems and cause other diseases - known as complications. So I have also made clear what the complications of diabetes are in very easy to understand diagrams. Finally, I have talked about how diabetes may be diagnosed and what the possible treatments are for each type. I've used many graphi Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance

Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin. The body produces insulin when glucose starts to be released into the bloodstream from the digestion of carbohydrates in the diet. Normally this insulin response triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy, and inhibits the body from using fat for energy. The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. When the body produces insulin under conditions of insulin resistance, the cells are resistant to the insulin and are unable to use it as effectively, leading to high blood sugar. Beta cells in the pancreas subsequently increase their production of insulin, further contributing to a high blood insulin level. This often remains undetected and can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults.[1] Although this type of chronic insulin resistance is harmful, during acute illness it is actually a well-evolved protective mechanism. Recent investigations have revealed that insulin resistance helps to conserve the brain's glucose supply by preventing muscles from taking up excessive glucose.[2] In theory, insulin resistance should even be strengthened under harsh metabolic conditions such as pregnancy, during which the expanding fetal brain demands more glucose. People who develop type 2 diabetes usually pass through earlier stages of insulin resistance and prediabetes, although those often go undiagnosed. Insulin resistance is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) resulting from reduced insulin activity; it is also part of a larger constellation of symptoms called the metabolic syndrome. Insuli Continue reading >>

Molecular Aspects Of Type 1 Diabetes

Molecular Aspects Of Type 1 Diabetes

Go to: Abstract Type 1 diabetes is a T cell mediated autoimmune disease, characterised by the selective destruction of pancreatic β cells, and susceptibility is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental agents implicated include viruses and dietary factors, although none has yet been shown to be directly responsible for triggering β cell autoimmunity. The genetic factors that influence disease risk have been subjected to more intensive study and two gene regions of major importance have been identified: the human leucocyte antigen locus and the insulin gene. This review will focus on the mechanisms by which these genes might influence the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Keywords: type 1 diabetes, HLA molecules, molecular mechanisms Type 1 diabetes is a multifactorial autoimmune disease, which is characterised by T cell mediated destruction of the insulin secreting β cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. The destructive process leads to severe insulin depletion, which results in hyperglycaemia, because of hepatic overproduction of glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and decreased cellular uptake of glucose from the circulation. In the absence of insulin, there is also an increase in fat breakdown and fatty acid oxidation, resulting in the excessive production of ketones. If left untreated, these metabolic disturbances lead progressively to central nervous system depression, coma, and death. Therefore, the disease requires life long treatment with exogenous insulin for survival. The rate of β cell destruction varies from patient to patient, but tends to be more aggressive in infants and young children.1 Hence, type 1 diabetes usually presents during childhood or adolescence, although it may develop m Continue reading >>

Curing Type 1 Diabetes At The Molecular Level

Curing Type 1 Diabetes At The Molecular Level

Curing Type 1 Diabetes at the Molecular Level Thank you to the Lyfebulb team for hosting another engaging event last month (June 2015)! I was intrigued to learn about some leading technological advances in diabetes research, from speakers Dr. Jeffrey Friedman and Mr. Mike Moradi. As a molecular genetics scientist, Dr. Friedmanspoke about a hormone he has identified, leptin, which balances food intake and maintains body weight. He discussed the potential for this hormone in improving the lives of people with diabetes: In 1994, we identified a new hormone called leptin. Leptin is part of a feedback loop that maintains constancy of your weight If you lose weight, leptin level falls and thats a stimulus to eat more. If you gain weight, leptin rises and thats a stimulus to eat less. And by this mechanism, body weight is maintained in a narrow range. We realized pretty early that leptin could also affect glucose metabolism. And theres one aspect of this, having to do with type 1 diabetes that Id like to tell you about: An investigator in Texas, named Roger Unger did an experiment. He took a type 1 diabetic animal that made no insulin whatsoever. [The] animals in the experimental group, are end stage type1 diabetic animals. [Without medication] theyre all dead within a month. In one group, he just gives them saline. In the other group, he gives them leptin. The leptin treated group lives for as long as he gives the animal leptin. So leptin, by that criteria, appears to have miraculous curative powers and might have some utility either as a treatment or an adjunct for type 1 diabetes. If you could use leptin as a therapy for type 1 diabetes, you might diminish the needs for insulin, you might blunt hypoglycemia Leptin doesnt need insulin to work. Whatever its doing is independ Continue reading >>

Research Into Understanding Disease At Cellular And Molecular Level

Research Into Understanding Disease At Cellular And Molecular Level

Basic knowledge about cells, their differences and how they communicate with each other, is necessary for understanding what happens when we become sick. In recent years, our understanding of diseases and how they occur at cellular and molecular level has grown exponentially. In particular, the latest advances in genome sequencing have advanced knowledge of genetic components making it possible to pose, and answer, brand new questions. Better understanding of communication networks within and between cells also paves the way for new paths towards the treatment and prevention of diseases. Researchers at the University of Copenhagen are working to decode and understand the mechanisms behind diseases such as diabetes, cancer and malaria. Below are some examples of the new knowledge that researchers have already identified. Development of insulin-producing beta cells Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas, by what are called beta cells. In people with type 1 diabetes, the beta cells are destroyed by the patient's own immune system. The aim is therefore to develop insulin-producing beta cells. This will require an understanding of the mechanisms that control the formation of beta cells. Researchers from DanStem have shown that the so-called 'notch' signal's ability to inhibit and then stimulate the formation of hormone-producing cells is important for monitoring the development of the beta cells. Several cancers may be caused by diseased stem cells The discovery of more and more of the cells that maintain tissue and organs throughout life (the stem cells) offers new perspectives for the treatment of diseases. In order to find new principles for treatment, we must be able to compare cancer cells with their normal cell of origin. This will only be possible with a suffic Continue reading >>

Cellular, Molecular And Therapeutic Advances In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Cellular, Molecular And Therapeutic Advances In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Abstract Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2 DM) is an ancient disease, discussed 3500 years ago in literature. Vast population worldwide is suffering from this disease and yet it is found to be untreatable. As per WHO statistics 2012, the number of deaths in the world due to T2 DM almost reached to 1.5 million. The number of people suffering from T2 DM in India is expected to rise from 40.9 million in 2007 to 69.9 million in 2025 due to change in their life style. Of the two types of DM- Type 1 and Type 2, the latter is most common, affecting 80% of DM patients. Modern lifestyle and food habits have been responsible for tremendous rise in the number of patients all over the world. Even though, the symptoms of T2 DM are seen in the later stages of life, the onset of the disease occurs quite early. Insulin resistance and β cell dysfunction are the main causative abnormalities. Several mutations in the genes important for glucose homeostasis and β cell development have been related to progress of hyperglycemia, while this progress is related to various metabolic syndromes arising in the patients’ body. Thus, forming a vicious circle of the causes and effects of hyperglycemia interlinked together forming the whole picture of T2 DM in the patient. This review discusses these causes and effects at the molecular and cellular levels. The current therapy practices use of oral therapeutic drugs, which controls hyperglycemia and related complications but fails to cure the disease permanently. Hence, stem cell therapy has drawn interest of the researchers in recent times, which seems to be a promising source of remedy for this notorious disease. This review will provide a better understanding of T2 DM and associated complications, recent advances in the therapy and the molecular and Continue reading >>

What Are The Causes Of Adult-onset Diabetes On A Molecular Level?

What Are The Causes Of Adult-onset Diabetes On A Molecular Level?

The insulin molecule is like a key, in that when it physically attaches to the appropriate receptor site on the wall of a muscle cell, it allows the cell to open up and take in sugar molecules from the blood. In adult-onset diabetes, the cell stays closed up and the sugar molecules remain in the blood, because the receptor cell gets blocked by saturated fats acting similar to gum blocking a keyhole and stopping the key from being able to work. Increasing the amount of insulin molecules in the blood by external means increases the chances that at least some other cells may open up for taking in the sugar molecules. However, this is a matter of doing things by brute force. Another more natural approach is to remove the fats that "gum up" the receptor sites, by reducing the intake of animal based products (which always include their own molecular impurities & junks). This is why American Diabetes Association recommend the optimum diet as the vegan diet. The documentary "Forks Over Knives" which is available on NetFlix, speaks to this fact, as can be seen here: www.ForksOverKnives.com/synopsis/. I highly recommend getting on their mailing list (at the bottom of the page). Continue reading >>

Exercise On A Molecular Level

Exercise On A Molecular Level

Dr. Laurie Goodyear studies the effects of exercise at the molecular level at Joslin. Dr. Laurie Goodyear studies the effects of exercise at the molecular level at Joslin. This article was first posted on May 31, 2013. We all know exercise is good for us. Running, biking, weight lifting, or yogamoving our bodies makes us healthier. And research at Joslin is clarifyingwhy. The lab of Laurie Goodyear, Ph.D. studies what exercise does to our bodies on the molecular level, both after one exercise session and after making exercise a routine part of life. When you exercise aerobically oncetake one run, say, or swim 50 lapsyour body experiences immediate benefits. This single bout of exercise, or acute exercise as its referred to in Dr. Goodyears lab, increases the amount of fuel your muscles need to keep working. And that fuel usually comes in the form of blood glucose, helping to clear the bloodstream of excess sugar. Muscle is home to proteins called glucose transporters. They function as their name suggeststransporting glucose from the blood stream into the muscle. They usually live deep inside the muscle cells, but exercise turns on signals in the cells that call the transporters to the surface, allowing them to take up all the glucose muscles need to keep powering through the workout. Benefits extend post-acute exercise, too. Insulin works a lot better after exercise, said Dr. Goodyear. You can more readily take up blood sugar into your tissues. The effect can last up to 24 hours after exercise. You dont have to be highly trained for these responses to occur, said Dr. Goodyear. Any form of exercise, even walking, helps; however, the more intense the exercise session the more benefit your body gets. Studies have mostly focused on these acute exercise effects in aerobic e Continue reading >>

Pathophysiology And Pathogenesis Of Type 2 Diabetes

Pathophysiology And Pathogenesis Of Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes Overview Type 2 Diabetes at the Cellular Level Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes Insulin Resistance The Impact of Cortisol Cellular Inflammation Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) The 7 Stages of Type 2 Diabetes Pathogenesis Red Blood Cell Lifecycle Why Understanding Diabetes Is So Important Next Steps to Reverse Your Diabetes Clinical References Author Sidebar: When I was in the hospital (and after I came out of the coma), I remember the doctors and nurses telling me that I had Type 2 diabetes. They said I had a very severe blood sugar problem because my blood sugar was over 1300. And, because my blood sugar was so high, I was given insulin to bring my blood sugar back down. At the time, this all made sense to me. So, I concluded (at that time) that once my blood sugar returned to normal, everything would be okay. But, instead, I was told that once my blood sugar returned to normal, everything would not be okay because I would still be diabetic. Needless to say, this was confusing and disheartening. But, I quickly realized that "high blood sugar" was not the real problem! -- it was a symptom of the problem. And, the real problem of having Type 2 diabetes was more than just a blood sugar problem. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, with more than 90% of diabetics being Type 2; and, 5% to 10% being Type 1. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disorder with varying prevalence among different ethnic groups. In the United States the populations most affected are Native Americans, particularly in the desert Southwest, Hispanic-Americans, African-Americans, and Asian-Americans. However, Caucasian-Americans are also affected, but not at the same disproportionate percentage levels. Type 2 Diabetes Impacts ALL groups and cultures! The Continue reading >>

What Causes Type 2 Diabetes?

What Causes Type 2 Diabetes?

Insulin resistance and high levels of insulin and lipids all precede the development of metabolic dysfunction. Which metabolic factor is to blame? Type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial metabolic disease.1 Obesity, elevated levels of lipids and insulin in the blood, and insulin resistance all accompany the elevated blood glucose that defines diabetes. (Diabetes is defined as fasting blood glucose concentrations above 7 millimolar (mM), or above 11 mM two hours after ingestion of 75 grams of glucose.) But while researchers have made much progress in understanding these components of the metabolic dysfunction, one major question remains: What serves as the primary driver of disease? Lifestyle choices characterized by inactivity have been postulated as one possible cause. Researchers have also pointed the finger at nutrition, postulating that poor food choices can contribute to metabolic disease. However, there is thus far weak support for these hypotheses. Changing to a healthy diet typically does not result in significant weight loss or the resolution of metabolic dysfunction, and it is rare to reverse obesity or diabetes through increased exercise. Furthermore, there does not appear to be a strong relationship between body-mass index (BMI) and activity level, though exercise clearly has many other health benefits. With such macroscale factors unable to explain most cases of obesity and diabetes, scientists have looked to molecular mechanisms for answers. There are at least 40 genetic mutations known to be associated with type 2 diabetes. These genes tend to be involved in the function of pancreatic β cells, which secrete insulin in response to elevated levels of the three types of cellular fuel: sugar, fat, and protein. In healthy young adults, circulating glucose concent Continue reading >>

Pdb-101: Diabetes At A Molecular Level

Pdb-101: Diabetes At A Molecular Level

If you are a teacher and would like to access the accompanying teaching notes, you will need a PDB101 Teacher Log In ID. To request a Log In ID, please contact Shuchismita Dutta ([email protected]), giving your name and the name of your school/institution. If you already have a Teacher Log In ID click here or use the "Teacher Log In" link on the Curriculum Modules menu bar. Image courtesy Eli Lilly and Company Archives PDB-101 helps teachers, students, and the general public explore the 3D world of proteins and nucleic acids. Learning about their diverse shapes and functions helps to understand all aspects of biomedicine and agriculture, from protein synthesis to health and disease to biological energy. Why PDB-101? Researchers around the globe make these 3D structures freely available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive. PDB-101 builds introductory materials to help beginners get started in the subject ("101", as in an entry level course) as well as resources for extended learning. RCSB PDB ( citation ) is managed by two members of the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB): Continue reading >>

Pdb-101: Diabetes At A Molecular Level

Pdb-101: Diabetes At A Molecular Level

If you are a teacher and would like to access the accompanying teaching notes, you will need a PDB101 Teacher Log In ID. To request a Log In ID, please contact Shuchismita Dutta ([email protected]), giving your name and the name of your school/institution. If you already have a Teacher Log In ID click here or use the "Teacher Log In" link on the Curriculum Modules menu bar. Learning Materials Activity Molecular Storytelling Activity Resource Principles of Chemistry used in understanding Biology Review Atoms, bonds, molecules, macromolecules Explore bio-molecular stability and interactions Introduction to RCSB PDB data, tools, and resources Explore and Learn using RCSB PDB data, tools and resources Visualize and Analyze using RCSB PDB tools and resources Insulin Synthesis, Structure and Function Principles of Chemistry used in understanding Biology Review Atoms, bonds, molecules, macromolecules Explore bio-molecular stability and interactions Introduction to RCSB PDB data, tools, and resources Explore and Learn using RCSB PDB data, tools and resources Visualize and Analyze using RCSB PDB tools and resources Secretory Proteins: Synthesis and Sorting Insulin Synthesis, Structure and Function PDB-101 helps teachers, students, and the general public explore the 3D world of proteins and nucleic acids. Learning about their diverse shapes and functions helps to understand all aspects of biomedicine and agriculture, from protein synthesis to health and disease to biological energy. Why PDB-101? Researchers around the globe make these 3D structures freely available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive. PDB-101 builds introductory materials to help beginners get started in the subject ("101", as in an entry level course) as well as resources for extended learning. RCSB PD Continue reading >>

Biology Diagrams: Type 2 Diabetes At The Cellular Level

Biology Diagrams: Type 2 Diabetes At The Cellular Level

Author's Perspective: I loved biology when I was in school. But, now I really loved biology because it gave me a better insight into understanding diabetes pathology and how to defeat the disease at the cellular level. It also helped me to break down the complex medical terms and describe the biology in layman's terms. Being able to explain the biology of diabetes at the cell level in layman's terms provided the audience with a clear understanding of the biochemical and hormonal processes that fuel Type 2 diabetes. The benefit of this insight (to you) will empower you because you will have enough of an understanding of diabetes to comprehend whether the diabetes book that you are planning to purchase will actually help you. You will also have enough of an understanding to ask your doctor the right questions and give you some insight into what your doctor really knows about diabetes. This is not meant for you to go behind your doctor's back, but, to understand his/her limitations so that you don't get angry or frustrated with his recommendations for your diabetes. In addition, this information provides insight into how diabetes is damaging your body. This information will help you better understand the changes you need to make in order to control your diabetes and achieve tighter blood glucose control, insulin utilization, and blood glucose stability. By understanding these biological processes, you will gain a better insight into how to successfully reverse and defeat your diabetes. As a bonus, especially for healthcare professionals, you will gain an insight into how the author used "reverse engineering" as one of his engineering methodologies to better define how to control the disease, stop the progression of the disease, and then reverse the progression of Type 2 di Continue reading >>

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