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Diabetes Microbiome

Type 2 Diabetes And Gut Microbiome: At The Intersection Of Known And Unknown.

Type 2 Diabetes And Gut Microbiome: At The Intersection Of Known And Unknown.

Gut Microbes. 2015;6(2):85-92. doi: 10.1080/19490976.2015.1024918. Type 2 diabetes and gut microbiome: at the intersection of known and unknown. a Unilever Research and Development ; Bangalore , India. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing rapidly across the globe. Though the prevalence of the disease is similar in population of upper middle income and high income countries, the age of affected population is lower in upper middle income countries. This is attributed to genetic as well as changing life style factors. The contributing factors for type 2 diabetes range from genetic/epigenetic disposal, intra uterine nutrition, dietary pattern to sedentary lifestyle. The role of the gut microbiota in metabolic disorders is increasingly gaining importance. Several studies have reported significant difference in the profile of the gut microbiota in Caucasian population considering obese and type 2 diabetic populations while limited number of studies are available on populations from the developing world. The metabolites from the gut microbes contribute to the gut barrier integrity and a compromised barrier leads to leakage of inflammatory mediators into systemic circulation and hence increases insulin resistance. Attempts have been made at correcting metabolic syndrome through dietary changes by altering the gut microbiota with some success. This report is an attempt to explain the hypothesis of compromised nutrition altering the gut microbiota, gut metabolites, gut barrier function, systemic inflammation and hence insulin response. dysbiosys; gut metabolites; malnourishment; nutrition; obesity Images from this publication. See all images (4) Free text Number of people with diabetes in millions classified based on income groups, IDF 2013. The number of people wi Continue reading >>

Can Probiotics Help Lower Blood Sugar Levels In Diabetics?

Can Probiotics Help Lower Blood Sugar Levels In Diabetics?

Individuals with diabetes have to be fairly cautious with what they are consuming and how they are consuming. Their blood sugar levels tend to fluctuate often. For instance, if a diabetic person consumes a piece of cake in a party, his blood sugar levels might shoot up overnight. While diet, exercise, and medications have their own significance in the management of diabetes, the drastic increase in the rates of diabetes has led scientists to explore alternative therapies. One of these therapies includes the use of probiotics in diabetes. Luckily, probiotics have been so far shown to regulate the blood glucose levels and benefit people with diabetes. Probiotics raise insulin and incretin and lower blood sugar levels Insulin is a hormone released by pancreas (a gut organ) that functions to move the ingested glucose into the target cells, thereby lowering the blood glucose levels. In individuals with diabetes, insulin is either completely absent (such as in type 1 diabetes) or the target organs are unresponsive (like in type 2 diabetes). Probiotics can raise the levels of insulin as well as another intestinal hormone called incretin that works to increase insulin levels in the body after a meal, allowing the blood glucose levels to drop. German experts conducted a study to determine the antidiabetic potential of the probiotic, Lactobacillus reuteri. [1] What did they discover? After daily administration of L. reuteri for a month, the subjects were found to have raised insulin and incretin levels. Probiotics reduce oxidative stress and glucose levels Oxidative stress or damage is a state in which excess of oxidants or highly reactive and damaging molecules (called free radicals) overcome the body’s natural antioxidant potential. This oxidative stress plays a vital role in Continue reading >>

Role Of The Gut Microbiome In Diabetes

Role Of The Gut Microbiome In Diabetes

With the rapid expansion of research into the role of the gut microbiome in all aspects of health, there is accumulating evidence linking it with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Investigations are currently underway into a wide array of topics relevant to the disease, and recent technological advances have made microbiome analysis more efficient and cost-effective. The intestinal microbiome represents one of the largest areas of contact of the human body with non-human substances, Emory Hsu, MD, endocrinology fellow at Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, told Endocrinology Advisor. It is affected in large part by environmental exposure, diet, medications, maternal transmission, and systemic disease. In a paper published in BMC Medicine in 2013, Spanish researchers presented the first study demonstrating an association between type 1 diabetes and significant alterations in the composition of gut microbiota, which the authors said could be associated with participants' glycemic levels.1 Moreover, the quantity of bacteria essential to maintain gut integrity was significantly lower in the children with diabetes than the healthy children, they reported. Another 2013 study found similar differences in adult patients with prediabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes vs those with normal glucose tolerance, and further showed a significant association between microbiota diversity and fasting plasma glucose and C-reactive protein.2 Subsequent studies have begun to shed light on the temporal relationship between diabetes pathogenesis and the microbiome, including a trial comparing veterans with normal glucose tolerance to those with prediabetes. The findings suggest a role for microbiota in early stages of diabetes development and that specific taxa are ass Continue reading >>

Metformin Alters Microbiota, Improving Insulin Sensitivity

Metformin Alters Microbiota, Improving Insulin Sensitivity

For Professionals Research Updates Type 2 Diabetes Metformin Alters Microbiota, Improving Insulin Sensitivity Given the strength of the findings, people who take metformin for their diabetes appear to have an enriched gut microflora that fosters a more efficient response to glucose metabolism. With Juan S. Escobar, PhD,and Caroline Apovian, MD The use of metformin in people with diabetes appears to favorably alter their gut microbiome, resulting in an improved glucose metabolism. The primary effect of metformin aims to stimulate levels of certain bacteria to enrich the microbiota milieu,1according to a team of researchers including the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, MD. "In particular, my colleagues and I found that mucin-degrading Akkermansia muciniphila and several butyrate-producing bacteria were positively associated with metformin use," said study researcher Juan S. Escobar, PhD, of the Vidarium Research Center in Medellin, Colombia.These results echo findings from an earlier study.2 "Although we are not the first to demonstrate alterations in the gut microbial community associated with intake of this medication, our study is unique in matching cases and control on sex, age and body mass index, which makes our findings robust," Dr. Escobar said told EndocrineWeb. Even so, he cannot claim a causal relationship yet, as the study was based on observational data. However, the findings may have some clinical relevance, he said, both for preventing disease and helping clinicians tailor treatments not only for those with type 2 diabetes but for other diseases associated with dysfunction in the gut microbiota. "Alterations in the microbiome have been shown to be central in many chronic diseases," he said, ''including obesity, cardiovascular Continue reading >>

How Your Gut Microbiome May Affect Diabetes

How Your Gut Microbiome May Affect Diabetes

How Your Gut Microbiome May Affect Diabetes Is your gut health the answer to better insulin function and blood sugar control in type 2 diabetes? Experts say the gut microbiome is one factor among many that can play a role in diabetes risk. If youve been diagnosed withprediabetesor type 2 diabetes, your doctor has likely told you to focus on healthy eating habits and exercise to help prevent the development, or progression, of the disease. Chances are youve probably also heard that caring for your gut health is the X factor that may decrease the risk of developing full-blown type 2 diabetes . Perhaps you also have heard that it could even reverse the disease as well. So, whats the truth? Your gutmicrobiomeis the collection of microbes in your gastrointestinal (GI) tract that may impact your immunity, your ability to extract energy from food, your metabolism, and more. They play an important role in your health but not the only role. If you look at diabetes and obesity, over 600 million people in the world are obese, and over 400 million have diabetes. There are multiple factors implicated in both diseases, including genetics, culture, environment, and lifestyle, says RuchiMathur, MD , director of Anna and Max Webb & Family Diabetes Outpatient Treatment and Education Centerat Cedars-Sinai inLosAngeles. Gut microbes may play one piece of a very large and complicated puzzle, but theyre not the be-all and end-all, she says. Even what we know about the gutmicrobiome is still in the early stages. We know disruptions in the gutmicrobiometouch almost all diseases we see in medicine. We know these (diabetes) patients may have a different gutmicrobiome than others, says Eugene Yen, MD , a physician in the division ofgastroenterologyatNorthShoreUniversityHealthSysteminEvanston, Il Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of The Gut Microbiome, Prediabetes And Diabetes In Latinos Kaplan, Robert C. Burk, Robert D. Knight, Rob Albert Einstein College Of Medicine, Inc, Bronx, Ny, United States

Epidemiology Of The Gut Microbiome, Prediabetes And Diabetes In Latinos Kaplan, Robert C. Burk, Robert D. Knight, Rob Albert Einstein College Of Medicine, Inc, Bronx, Ny, United States

Epidemiology of the gut microbiome, prediabetes and diabetes in Latinos How should you pick the next fundable research topic? Read more... The Hispanic/Latino population is the fasting growing segment of the US population. Diabetes disproportionately affects this group. National US 2007-09 data found that >20 yr old Hispanics (11.8%) have a 66% higher rate of diabetes compared to non-Hispanic whites (7.1%). In the population-based Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL), diabetes had a baseline prevalence of approximately 17%. Very recent data implicates the gut microbiome (GMB) as a key determinant of diabetes. Since different ancestral populations harbor different diabetes-associated sets of GMBs, it is necessary to study Hispanic/Latino populations with high rates of diabetes to determine the relationship between the GMB and diabetes. Understanding the relationship of the GMB to diabetes is anticipated to lead to a new era of prevention and treatment options, especially since therapeutic interventions are available that target the GMB. Nevertheless, there are major gaps in understanding the epidemiology of the GMB in the population and its role in the development of diabetes. The proposed study will leverage the HCHS/SOL study that will re-examine the participants in 2014-2017. This study has a major focus on diabetes including a fasting 2h glucose tolerance test (GTT), a standardized and universally accepted metric of glucose metabolism, in addition to specific other laboratory and clinical measurements. This proposed ancillary study will test the hypothesis that specific patterns of the gut microbiome will be significantly associated with pre-diabetes and diabetes, building upon recent advances in understanding the importance of the GMB in hu Continue reading >>

Gut Bacteria Found To Trigger Gene That Protects Against Type 1 Diabetes

Gut Bacteria Found To Trigger Gene That Protects Against Type 1 Diabetes

Gut bacteria found to trigger gene that protects against type 1 diabetes Early antibiotic use could affect the development of the gut microbiome and increase prevalence of autoimmune diseases(Credit: AnatomyInsider/Depositphotos ) Researchers have discovered that a powerful guardian gene known to protect against a variety of autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, is triggered by the bacteria in our gut. This finding offers a clue to the complex interaction between our genes, immune system and gut microbiota. Scientists at the Harvard Medical School set out to investigate what factors influence the activity of a powerful gene complex known as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA). It has been known for some time that specific variants of HLA genes in humans and major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) in mice can protect against diseases such as type 1 diabetes, but how that influence is exerted has been a mystery. The team focused on gut bacteria as being a potential catalyst for modulating the genes' activity. In a series of experiments, non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice engineered to carry a guardian gene were treated with gut bacteria killing antibiotics at various times in their development. The mice treated with antibiotics during the first six weeks of life were found to subsequently develop symptoms of early stage type 1 diabetes despite holding the protective guardian gene. On the other hand, when treated with antibiotics at between six and 10 weeks of age, the mice still displayed signs of genetic diabetic resistance. These results imply that early-life formation of gut microbiota has a significant effect on gene modulation influencing immune system behavior. The experiment also delivered antibiotics to mother mice in the 10 days before giving birth and disco Continue reading >>

How The Microbiome Diet Can Help Type 2 Diabetes

How The Microbiome Diet Can Help Type 2 Diabetes

A study published in Nature, from researchers at the University of Copenhagen, suggests that a gut bacteria imbalance may raise the risk of developing insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is the metabolic process involved in the development of pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease. Raphael Kellman, MD, author of The Microbiome Diet and Founder of The Kellman Center for Integrative and Functional Medicine is a microbiome expert. In light of this study, we ask him questions about how we can pay attention to our microbiome in order to reap the benefits of a healthy gut. These benefits include better blood sugar levels, more energy, weight loss, and a better mood. DD: What is the microbiome and why is having a balanced one important for preventing diseases? The microbiome is made up of trillions of microscopic organisms, the majority of which flourish in the gastrointestinal track playing a huge role in the health and function of the entire body. Similar to an Intel processor in a computer, the microbiome is our internal software that unifies all the systems of our bodies to make us the super-organisms that we are. These ideas about tapping into healing the microbiome are only now beginning to permeate the conventional medical world. The microbiome is the key to healing diseases and an essential part to healthy weight loss. The microbiome affects everything from our metabolism to our immune system and has been revolutionary in helping to manage developmental illness, mood disorders, chronic illness, endocrinology conditions and the list goes on and on. The microbiome is also the key to preventing and even reversing such major illnesses as diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, autoimmune disorders, and autism and other developmental d Continue reading >>

The Gut Microbiome As A Target For Prevention And Treatment Of Hyperglycaemia In Type 2 Diabetes: From Current Human Evidence To Future Possibilities.

The Gut Microbiome As A Target For Prevention And Treatment Of Hyperglycaemia In Type 2 Diabetes: From Current Human Evidence To Future Possibilities.

Department of Clinical Sciences in Malm, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Lund University, Jan Waldenstrms gata 35, 205 02, Malm, Sweden. Department of Clinical Sciences in Malm, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Lund University, Jan Waldenstrms gata 35, 205 02, Malm, Sweden. [email protected] Diabetologia. 2017 Jun;60(6):943-951. doi: 10.1007/s00125-017-4278-3. Epub 2017 Apr 22. The totality of microbial genomes in the gut exceeds the size of the human genome, having around 500-fold more genes that importantly complement our coding potential. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of indigestible dietary fibres to short-chain fatty acids, biosynthesis of amino acids and vitamins, and production of neurotransmitters and hormones. During the last decade, evidence has accumulated to support a role for gut microbiota (analysed from faecal samples) in glycaemic control and type 2 diabetes. Mechanistic studies in mice support a causal role for gut microbiota in metabolic diseases, although human data favouring causality is insufficient. As it may be challenging to sort the human evidence from the large number of animal studies in the field, there is a need to provide a review of human studies. Thus, the aim of this review is to cover the current and future possibilities and challenges of using the gut microbiota, with its capacity to be modified, in the development of preventive and treatment strategies for hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes in humans. We discuss what is known about the composition and functionality of human gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes and summarise recent evidence of current treatment strategies that involve, or are based on, modification of gut microbiota (diet, probiotics, metformin and bariatri Continue reading >>

Metformin Alters The Gut Microbiome Of Individuals With Treatment-naive Type 2 Diabetes, Contributing To The Therapeutic Effects Of The Drug

Metformin Alters The Gut Microbiome Of Individuals With Treatment-naive Type 2 Diabetes, Contributing To The Therapeutic Effects Of The Drug

Metformin is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but its mechanism of action is poorly defined. Recent evidence implicates the gut microbiota as a site of metformin action. In a double-blind study, we randomized individuals with treatment-naive T2D to placebo or metformin for 4 months and showed that metformin had strong effects on the gut microbiome. These results were verified in a subset of the placebo group that switched to metformin 6 months after the start of the trial. Transfer of fecal samples (obtained before and 4 months after treatment) from metformin-treated donors to germ-free mice showed that glucose tolerance was improved in mice that received metformin-altered microbiota. By directly investigating metformin–microbiota interactions in a gut simulator, we showed that metformin affected pathways with common biological functions in species from two different phyla, and many of the metformin-regulated genes in these species encoded metalloproteins or metal transporters. Our findings provide support for the notion that altered gut microbiota mediates some of metformin's antidiabetic effects. Nathan, D.M. et al. Medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: a consensus statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care 32, 193–203 (2009). Collado, M.C., Derrien, M., Isolauri, E., de Vos, W.M. & Salminen, S. Intestinal integrity and Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin-degrading member of the intestinal microbiota present in infants, adults, and the elderly. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73, 7767–7770 (2007). We thank C. Arvidsson, S. Nordin-Larsson, C. Wennberg, and U. Enqvist for superb mouse husbandry Continue reading >>

Are Microbiome Changes A Cause Or Symptom Of Type 1 Diabetes?

Are Microbiome Changes A Cause Or Symptom Of Type 1 Diabetes?

Two years ago, I interviewed Alex Kostic, who was then a postdoctoral fellow at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard exploring the microbiome’s connection to type 1 diabetes. His work studying children in Finland and parts of neighboring Russia showed that the microbiomes of children with type 1 diabetes were drastically different from the microbiomes of those without the disease. Now Kostic is running his own lab at the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston, and investigating questions such as whether or not the changes in the microbiome are causing disease or are merely a symptom of it. He is also looking at the microbiota of the Joslin medalists—those who have lived with type 1 diabetes for more than fifty years. About 20-30 percent of those medalists still produce a trace amount of insulin, and Kostic is trying to understand whether that insulin production can be explained by differences in those medalists’ microbiomes. Jessica Dunne, director of discovery research at JDRF, which is funding Kostic’s study of the medalists commented on the new lens that Kostic is bringing to the study of T1D. “We’re often thinking about how the microbiome is affecting the immune system. He took a different tack that we haven’t seen anyone take: what’s the role of the microbiome on beta cells? To me, it’s a completely novel approach; it’s very out of the box thinking in terms of how the microbiome can affect residual insulin production in type 1.” The question is, she continued, “can we reawaken those sleeping beta cells by modifying the microbiome?” Dr. George King, who oversees Kostic’s lab as Joslin’s chief scientific officer, noted how integral the microbiome is now thought to be in terms of the development of type 1—and therefore how important it is t Continue reading >>

Understanding The Microbiome

Understanding The Microbiome

Its one of the hottest topics in sciencebut could it lead to a diabetes cure? We know more bacteria are good for you. The more diverse your microbiome, the less likely you are to have type 1. Dont look now, but youre covered in bacteriainside and out. The human body plays host to thousands of different species of microscopic organisms. All of the bacteria that live inside us are collectively known as the microbiome, and its a world as diverse and complicated as any rainforest. These organisms live in and on our hair and skin, and especially in our digestive system. Researchers estimate our bodies contain 100 trillion single-celled bacteria and just 10 trillion human cells. All of these passengers arent just along for the ride. We now know that some of the bacteria inside us perform necessary tasks. The microbiome breaks down the food you eat and makes essential vitamins, says Stanford University geneticist Mike Snyder, PhD. Other bacteria are unpleasant or harmful, producing toxins, eating away at our teeth, or making our armpits stink. Still others may be an evolutionary advantage gone wrong: By helping the body wring more calories out of food, for example, some species of gut bacteria may contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes . The idea that the trillions of bacteria inside our bodies could have a dramatic effect on our health is relatively new. In the past decade, research into this world within has become one of the hottest fields in science, driven by new gene sequencing technologies that let researchers quickly and inexpensively catalog and identify the thousands of different species living inside us. As they learn more about how the microbiome works, some scientists have begun to wonder whether our bacteria are in a state of upheaval. Technological advances Continue reading >>

Research Shows Swapping Gut Bacteria Can Reverse Type 2 Diabetes And Other Diseases Hot

Research Shows Swapping Gut Bacteria Can Reverse Type 2 Diabetes And Other Diseases Hot

The quality, quantity, and composition of the bacteria in your gut have enormous influence on your brain. Dr. David Perlmutter explores this phenomenon in great detail in his new book, Brain Maker: The Power of Gut Microbes to Heal and Protect Your Brain-for Life. Dr. Perlmutter is a board-certified neurologist and a fellow of the American College of Nutrition (ACN). He also has a clinic in Naples, Florida, and he's been very active in publishing his findings in peer-reviewed medical journals. His previous book, Grain Brain, topped the New York Times bestseller list for 54 weeks. In my view, Dr. Perlmutter is probably the leading natural medicine neurologist in the US. Certainly, most neurologists fail to consider how lifestyle impacts the neurological disorders they diagnose and treat every day, and prevention is an area of utmost importance as we still do not have effective treatments for many of the most common brain disorders. "We're now recognizing from research at our most well-respected institutions from around the globe that the gut bacteria are wielding this very powerful sword of Damocles," he says. They determine whether we're going to have a healthy brain or not, whether our brain is going to function well or not, and whether our brain is going to become diseased or not. Who knew that we'd be referring back to the gut?" Microbiome Research Shreds Notion of Reductionism It turns out that this notion of reductionism—where your body is reduced to its individual parts—is completely nonsensical and grossly flawed. As explained by Dr. Perlmutter, every system in your body interrelates in a way that ultimately causes the manifestation of either health or disease. In a previous interview, Dr. Perlmutter discussed specific dietary factors that influence your brai Continue reading >>

Valbiotis Targets Gut Microbiome To Treat Diabetes

Valbiotis Targets Gut Microbiome To Treat Diabetes

Valbiotis has shown that its treatment restores diversity in a population of gut microorganisms imbalanced by type 2 diabetes in mice. Valbiotis, based inPrigny, France, wants to treat type 2 diabetes by restoring the balance of microbial populations in the gut microbiome.New data from a metagenomic sequencing study in mice has shown that its drug, Valedia, increases the diversity of the gut microbiome, which is typically reduced in diabetic patients.Backed by previous clinical studies that showed the drug could prevent diabetes, these results support Valbiotis plans to test the drug in humans. The gut microbiome is the collection of tens of trillions of microorganisms that live in our digestive tract. It has a wide range of functions, from helping us digest food to combating disease-causing microorganisms. Imbalances in the gut microbiome have been associated with various health conditions, including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, the sequencing study showed that mice who were fed a high-fat diet with the addition of Valbiotis Valedia had a microbiome composition closer to a normal state than mice on a high-fat diet without the addition of Valedia. However, the study only looked at the effect of Valedia on microbiome composition and not diabetes itself. Furthermore, while there seems to be an undeniable connection between the gut and diabetes, microbiome research is in its early stages and its exact relationship with diabetes is still being uncovered.Even though Valbiotis reported positive Phase I/II results for Valedia preventing type 2 diabetes in humans, it is still a ways away from completing the clinical development process. Valbiotis treatment Valedia might bring balance to the intestinal microbiome in type 2 diabetes patients. The microb Continue reading >>

Microbiome And Type 1 Diabetes

Microbiome And Type 1 Diabetes

Creators: Linda Wampach , Paul Wilmes , Carine de Beaufort The human microbiome (the collective of microorganisms, which inhabit the human body) and changes therein (often referred to as microbial dysbiosis) is emerging as a potential player in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. This section discusses the human microbiome and its potential involvement in type 1 diabetes through its central roles in energy metabolism and modulation of the immune system. Microbiota: Communities of microorganisms comprising bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes (e.g. fungi, protists) and viruses. Microbiome: The entirety of microorganisms, including their genes, functional gene products and metabolites, found in a given habitat, e.g. the human host, at a given point in time. Dysbiosis: An imbalanced intestinal microbial community characterized by quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the microbiota itself, in its modified metabolic activities or in the local distribution of its members [1] . Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, which leads to the destruction of insulin-secreting beta cells in the pancreas and thereby to the dependency on external supplies of insulin in order to regulate glucose metabolism. Regarding the factors that trigger the destruction of the beta cells, it is generally accepted that genetic predisposition is a major contributing factor. However, environmental factors are also thought to contribute significantly to the development of autoimmunity. In this context, the threshold hypothesis has been proposed as a model for type 1 diabetes by simultaneously considering the contributions of genetic and environmental determinants for developing the disease [2] . Many scientific studies have focused on such environmental factors, which range from Continue reading >>

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