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Researchers Cure Diabetes In Mice Without Side Effects

Researchers Cure Diabetes In Mice Without Side Effects

May 5 (UPI) -- Researchers at the University of Texas Health San Antonio report they have essentially cured type 1 diabetes in laboratory mice by using gene transfer. The discovery increases the types of pancreatic cells that secrete insulin, which represents a potential cure for type 1 diabetes and could end insulin dependence in type 2 diabetes. Insulin used by the body to lower blood sugar is only made by beta cells. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system destroys beta cells resulting in the body producing no insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the beta cells fail and insulin decreases but is still produced by the body. Researchers at UT Health San Antonio received a U.S. patent in January on the technique and plan to begin commercialization in the future. The technique, known as gene transfer, involves using a virus as a vector to carry selected genes into the pancreas, which then are incorporated and cause digestive system and other cell types to make insulin. Gene transfer using a viral vector is a process that has been approved for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, to treat various diseases. "The pancreas has many other cell types besides beta cells, and our approach is to alter these cells so that they start to secrete insulin, but only in response to glucose [sugar]," Dr. Ralph DeFronzo, professor of medicine and chief of the Division of Diabetes at UT Health, said in a press release. "This is basically just like beta cells." In type 1 diabetes, the body rejects beta cells, however, other cell populations in the pancreas co-exist with the body's immune defenses. "If a type 1 diabetic has been living with these cells for 30, 40 or 50 years, and all we're getting them to do is secrete insulin, we expect there to be no adverse immune response," DeFronz Continue reading >>

Diabetes Cured In Mice. Are We Next?

Diabetes Cured In Mice. Are We Next?

2 pictures According to the Center for Disease Control, 1.25 million people suffer from type 1 diabetes in the US alone. So far, it can only be managed with diet and regular doses of insulin, but scientists at UT Health San Antonio have invented a way of curing the disease in mice that may one day do the same for humans even with type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a particularly unpleasant condition. It occurs when the pancreas ceases to produce the insulin needed by the body to metabolize sugar and, until the invention of artificial insulin injections, it was as deadly as cancer. Type 2 is the less severe form of the disease, where the body produces insufficient insulin; it can often be managed through diet alone. Add some color to your diet with this recipe for rainbow sheet pan veggies, using Eggland’s Bes... Surprisingly, diabetes is an autoimmune disease. Insulin is made by specialized cells in the pancreas, called beta cells, and sometimes the body's immune system turns against itself and attacks these beta cells, destroying them. Diabetes results when this destruction is over 80 percent. Invented by Bruno Doiron and Ralph DeFronzo, the UT Health technique uses gene transfer to alter cells in the pancreases of mice to make them think they're beta cells and start making insulin. This involves taking selected genes from external beta cells and using viruses as carriers to move them into the new host cells, in the diabetic pancreas. According to DeFronzo, the altered cells then produce insulin, but only in the presence of sugar, which is how a functioning beta cell is supposed to work. Otherwise, the cells would just keep cranking out the hormone, metabolizing all the sugar in the bloodstream and causing hypoglycemia. Only about 20 percent of the lost cells need t Continue reading >>

Smartphone-controlled Cells Release Insulin On Demand In Diabetic Mice

Smartphone-controlled Cells Release Insulin On Demand In Diabetic Mice

A push of a button causes the cells implanted in this mouse's back to start making insulin. Here, the mouse is standing inside a coil that powers the implant. Future versions would need to be battery operated in order to work in humans. People with diabetes often need to inject themselves with insulin on a daily or weekly basis. But a new device, tested in mice, might one day eliminate the need for needles. In a study published today in Science Translational Medicine, Chinese researchers used a smartphone app to switch on insulin-producing cells implanted in a small group of diabetic mice. Less than two hours after the cells were switched on, the animals’ blood sugar stabilized, without making them hypoglycemic. Play Video Play Loaded: 0% Progress: 0% Remaining Time -0:00 This is a modal window. Foreground --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Opaque Background --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Transparent Transparent Window --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Transparent Transparent Font Size 50% 75% 100% 125% 150% 175% 200% 300% 400% Text Edge Style None Raised Depressed Uniform Dropshadow Font Family Default Monospace Serif Proportional Serif Monospace Sans-Serif Proportional Sans-Serif Casual Script Small Caps Defaults Done The most advanced version of this device uses a coin-sized hydrogel capsule, implanted under a mouse’s skin. Inside the capsule are LED lights and cells that are engineered to release insulin in response to far infrared light. When the mouse’s blood sugar gets too high, buttons on a custom-made Android app switch on the LEDs, triggering the cells to release insulin. The app allows the user to determine how bright the LEDs should shine, and for how l Continue reading >>

Type 1 Cured In Mice

Type 1 Cured In Mice

Ralph DeFronzo and his researchers at UT Health at San Antonio announced that they have cured type 1 diabetes. Researchers think they have found a way to trick the body into curing type 1 diabetes that may also have a great impact possibly for type 2 diabetes. Even though it was only in mice, this could be very positive, even with years of testing still remaining. Doctor Ralph DeFronzo, chief of the diabetes research at the UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, says that this way of doing a gene transfer can wake up cells in the pancreas to produce insulin. The immune system of a person with diabetes kills off useful “beta” cells, but the researchers say they have found a way to make other cells in the pancreas perform the necessary work. Their approach, announced earlier this month in the academic journal Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, not only would have implications for type 1, but also could help treat the far more common type 2 diabetes. The researchers have cured mice, which are genetically similar to people but different enough that new rounds of animal testing are needed before human trials can begin. This approach is sure to attract skeptics, in part because it is a significant departure from the many other attempts at curing diabetes, which typically involve transplanting new cells and/or suppressing the immune system’s attempts to kill off useful ones. By contrast, “we’re taking a cell that is already present in the body and programming it to secrete insulin, without changing it otherwise,” said DeFronzo. Diabetes is a disease characterized by a person’s inability to process carbohydrates, a condition that if untreated can lead to often-catastrophic health consequences. The core problem is insulin. Most people naturally secrete that su Continue reading >>

Mice Cured Of Diabetes By Cells Grown Inside Rats — Are Humans Next?

Mice Cured Of Diabetes By Cells Grown Inside Rats — Are Humans Next?

Tomoyuki Yamaguchi It’s possible to grow organs of one species inside an animal of another species and then transplant that organ to cure disease, according to a study published today in Nature. In this case, mouse pancreas cells were grown in rats, then transplanted into mice to reverse diabetes. The new research opens the possibility of one day creating human organs inside animals like pigs or sheep that could then be transplanted back into needy patients. To create the mouse pancreases, scientists first genetically engineered rats to lack a gene that’s key to developing the organ. These engineered rat embryos were then injected with mouse stem cells that can develop into any tissue or organ in the body. When the embryos grew into rats, the animals had a pancreas made up almost entirely of mouse cells. The scientists then removed the pancreas, isolated clusters of insulin-producing cells, and transplanted them into diabetic mice. The results were surprising, lead author Hiromitsu Nakauchi of Stanford University School of Medicine wrote in an email to The Verge. The transplanted cells reversed the mice’s diabetes and kept sugar levels down for one year. The mice didn’t reject the cells, even if they were given anti-rejection medication for only five days after the transplant. Much more research needs to be done to make these functional interspecies organs a reality for people, including research into the ethics of this idea. But today’s study is “a remarkable scientific achievement,” Timothy Kieffer, a professor of cellular and physiological sciences and surgery at the University of British Columbia, who didn’t work on the study, wrote in an email to The Verge. And its implications for the future are enormous. There are about 120,000 Americans who are c Continue reading >>

The Use Of Animal Models In Diabetes Research

The Use Of Animal Models In Diabetes Research

The use of animal models in diabetes research Diabetes Research Group, King's College London, London, UK Aileen King, Diabetes Research Group, Guy's Campus, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, UK. E-mail: [email protected] Received 2011 Aug 19; Revised 2012 Feb 10; Accepted 2012 Feb 13. Copyright 2012 The Author. British Journal of Pharmacology 2012 The British Pharmacological Society This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Diabetes is a disease characterized by a relative or absolute lack of insulin, leading to hyperglycaemia. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is due to an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, and type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance coupled by a failure of the beta cell to compensate. Animal models for type 1 diabetes range from animals with spontaneously developing autoimmune diabetes to chemical ablation of the pancreatic beta cells. Type 2 diabetes is modelled in both obese and non-obese animal models with varying degrees of insulin resistance and beta cell failure. This review outlines some of the models currently used in diabetes research. In addition, the use of transgenic and knock-out mouse models is discussed. Ideally, more than one animal model should be used to represent the diversity seen in human diabetic patients. This paper is the latest in a series of publications on the use of animal models in pharmacology research. Readers might be interested in the previous papers. Robinson V (2009). Less is more: reducing the reliance on animal models for nausea and vomiting research. Holmes AM, Rudd JA, Tattersall FD, Aziz Q, Andrews PLR (2009). Opportunities for the replacement of animals in the study of nausea and vomiting. Continue reading >>

Choosing Among Type Ii Diabetes Mouse Models

Choosing Among Type Ii Diabetes Mouse Models

JAX has been distributing mouse models for type II diabetes (Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes; NIDD; T2D) since the 1960s, and today there are several models to choose from. Unfortunately, no single diabetic mouse model recapitulates all of the features or complications of human diabetes. How, then, do you choose which model (or models) to use in your research? Indeed, one of the most common diabetes-related questions we receive in Technical Information is “Which diabetes model is ‘The Best’?” Below is a broad overview of diabetes models that are available from JAX and some considerations to help you to make your decision. Diabetes Phase I, II or III? First some orientation: Diabetes in humans typically develops through a progressive series of increasingly severe stages (or phases): • Pre-diabetes: Characterized by impaired glucose tolerance – difficulty clearing glucose following a meal – postprandial hyperglycemia, and (or) decreased sensitivity to insulin. • Phase I: Postprandial as well as basal hyperglycemia; insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas are increasingly dysfunctional. • Phase II: Fasting hyperglycemia and significant beta cell atrophy. • Phase III (end stage): Beta cells can no longer release insulin; insulin replacement therapy is required. Choosing an appropriate diabetes model depends on the severity of diabetes you wish to study. As in humans, mouse models of T2D are obese, but vary in severity – some models are morbidly obese, whereas others manifest more moderate obesity. Diet-induced Obesity (DIO) Mice: Modeling Pre-Diabetes Obesity is one of the greatest risk factors linked to diabetes in humans, and similar to humans, some mouse strains become obese when fed high-fat or so-called “Western” diets. Among mouse strains Continue reading >>

Researchers Use Nanoparticle

Researchers Use Nanoparticle "vaccine" To Cure Type 1 Diabetes In Mice

Researchers Use Nanoparticle "Vaccine" to Cure Type 1 Diabetes in Mice Researchers Use Nanoparticle "Vaccine" to Cure Type 1 Diabetes in Mice Researchers Use Nanoparticle "Vaccine" to Cure Type 1 Diabetes in Mice Using an innovative nanotechnology-based "vaccine," researchers were able to successfully restore normal blood sugar in mice with type 1 diabetes, and also slow the onset of diabetes in mice at risk for the disease. The study, co-funded by JDRF and published today in the online edition of the journal Immunity, has several key implications: First, it provides important new insights into how to stop the immune attack that causes type 1 diabetes. Second, it underscores the potential of "antigen-specific" therapies. Because the nanoparticle vaccine was designed with specific immune system proteins, it effectively blunted the targeted autoimmune response that causes diabetes without compromising the overall immune system - an issue that continues to be a challenge in developing treatments for diabetes. And third, it suggests that antigen-specific nanovaccines, because of the effectiveness shown here, might also be developed to treat other autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. That could make the science more attractive to drug development companies. Researchers from the University of Calgary in Alberta, led by Dr. Pere Santamaria, were looking to halt the autoimmune response that causes type 1 diabetes, but do so without damaging the immune cells that control and regulate the immune system or that protect against infections. So the team focused on developing a highly targeted antigen-specific immunotherapy - one, they explained, that could address the "internal tug-of-war between aggressive T cells that want to cause the disease Continue reading >>

Scientists Have Cured Diabetes In Mice, Marking A Major Breakthrough In Tackling The Disease

Scientists Have Cured Diabetes In Mice, Marking A Major Breakthrough In Tackling The Disease

Unable to playback video Scientists in the United States announced the breakthrough, which uses a novel approach that may eliminate Type 1 diabetes and see painful insulin injections become a thing of the past. University of Texas Health Science Centre doctors used a virus as a carrier to introduce insulin-producing genes into the pancreas of rodent subjects. Professor Ralph DeFronzo said researchers altered cells so they secreted insulin, but only in response to glucose — mimicking the behaviour of the body’s beta cells. Source:Supplied This study bypasses the autoimmune system by altering other pancreatic cells so they can coexist with immune defences — unlike beta cells, which are rejected in Type 1 patients. At the moment, Type 1 diabetes is treated by monitoring glucose levels and injecting artificial insulin up to four times a day. While technology has made management of the condition easier, a cure has been elusive — until now. The patent’s co-inventor Professor Bruno Doiron said the results had never been seen before. “It worked perfectly,” Dr Doiron said. “We cured mice for one year without any side effects.” Dr Doiron predicted the same low-risk response in humans. “If a Type 1 diabetic has been living with these cells for 30, 40 or 50 years, and all we’re getting them to do is secrete insulin, we expect there to be no adverse immune response.” Dr DeFronzo said the same method of treatment has been approved almost 50 times by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat various conditions, including rare childhood diseases. While it’s early days, the potential applications are promising and the researchers will now conduct a study on larger animals before any move to human trials. Source:News Limited Type 2 diabetes is the fastest-gro Continue reading >>

Gene Therapy Temporarily Reverses Diabetes In Mice

Gene Therapy Temporarily Reverses Diabetes In Mice

Gene therapy temporarily reverses diabetes in mice University of Pittsburgh scientists are developing a gene therapy technique that they hope will make these tools for managing blood glucose obsolete. The Dec. 19 FDA approval of Spark Therapeutics gene therapy to treat a rare form of inherited blindness has energized ongoing efforts to find new ways of repairing faulty genes or cells in multiple diseasesincluding diabetes. Today scientists at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine announced significant progress in their efforts to use gene therapy to reverse diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune system mistakenly destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. In mouse models of Type 1 diabetes, the researchers demonstrated a gene therapy approach that transforms alpha cells in the pancreas into fully functioning beta cells. They described the technique in the journal Cell Stem Cell. The team used an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectorthe same technology thats at the heart of Sparks gene therapyto deliver two proteins, Pdx1 and MafA, into the pancreas. These proteins reprogrammed alpha cells into insulin-producing cells, according to a press release from the university. The mice maintained normal blood glucose levels for about four months. Like this story? Subscribe to FierceBiotech! Biopharma is a fast-growing world where big ideas come along daily. Our subscribers rely on FierceBiotech as their must-read source for the latest news, analysis and data in the world of biotech and pharma R&D. Sign up today to get biotech news and updates delivered to your inbox and read on the go. Continue reading >>

'clear Promise': Diabetes Drug Reversed Memory Loss In Mice With Alzheimer's, Researchers Find

'clear Promise': Diabetes Drug Reversed Memory Loss In Mice With Alzheimer's, Researchers Find

A team of Chinese and British researchers has discovered that a drug originally created to treat diabetes shows “clear promise” as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease, since it significantly reversed memory loss in mice. News of the potential breakthrough was published this week in Brain Research. “[The drug shows a] clear promise of being developed into a new treatment for chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease," the scientists’ report reads. “The drug improved memory formation in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease,” they said, adding that amyloid plaque load, inflammation and oxidative stress were all visibly reduced. The new diabetes drug is a triple receptor that combines GLP-1, GIP and Glucagon, three biological molecules known as “growth factors.” According to Newsweek, researchers tested the receptor in mice specifically created to express certain genes associated with Alzheimer's disease in humans and waited for them to age for a couple of months and sustain some brain damage. Once given the drug, the mice were put through a maze test and results showed a clear improvement in their learning and memory formation. "These very promising outcomes demonstrate the efficacy of these novel multiple receptor drugs that originally were developed to treat type 2 diabetes but have shown consistent neuro-protective effects in several studies," said lead researcher Christian Holscher said, in a press release from Lancaster University. The drug improved memory formation in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease - Chinese and British research team "Clinical studies with an older version of this drug type already showed very promising results in people with Alzheimer's disease or with mood disorders," Holscher added. "Further dose-r Continue reading >>

Gene Therapy Temporarily Reverses Type 1 Diabetes In Mice

Gene Therapy Temporarily Reverses Type 1 Diabetes In Mice

Gene Therapy Temporarily Reverses Type 1 Diabetes in Mice Pancreatic cells engineered to produce insulin did not immediately provoke an immune response. Human islets were treated with a drug to kill the insulin-making cells, then treated with either an empty virus (left) or a therapeutic virus (right) and grown in a diabetic mouse. The green staining shows insulin-making cells.GEORGE GITTES AND XIANGWEI XIAOResearchers have successfully treated animals with a mouse version of type 1 diabetes by inducing pancreatic cells that dont normally produce insulin to manufacture the protein, according to a study published today (January 4) in Cell Stem Cell . The research team, based at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, didnt expect the experiment to worksince type 1 diabetes arises when the immune system turns on cells that naturally produce insulin, they expected that inflammation would quickly wipe out the engineered cells as well. But instead, the mice thrived for four months before an immune reaction destroyed the cells. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease where the body is reacting to the insulin-producing cells and killing them off and we dont really know why, study coauthor George Gittes, a physician scientist at the Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh, tells Gizmodo . If you gave patients new insulin cells with a transplant, it will kill them off. If we use gene therapy to get the body to make new insulin-producing cells in the body, logically it should attack those cells too. Gittes and his colleagues constructed an adeno-associated virus to carry genetic material that would direct so-called alpha cells in the pancreas to produce insulinnormally the job of beta cells. They then delivered the virus directly to the pancreas of mouse models of type 1 diab Continue reading >>

Team Cures Diabetes In Mice Without Side Effects

Team Cures Diabetes In Mice Without Side Effects

A potential cure for Type 1 diabetes looms on the horizon in San Antonio, and the novel approach would also allow Type 2 diabetics to stop insulin shots. The discovery, made at The University of Texas Health Science Center, now called UT Health San Antonio, increases the types of pancreatic cells that secrete insulin. UT Health San Antonio researchers have a goal to reach human clinical trials in three years, but to do so they must first test the strategy in large-animal studies, which will cost an estimated $5 million. Those studies will precede application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for Investigational New Drug (IND) approval, Bruno Doiron, Ph.D., a co-inventor, said. The scientists received a U.S. patent in January, and UT Health San Antonio is spinning out a company to begin commercialization. The strategy has cured diabetes in mice. "It worked perfectly," Dr. Doiron, assistant professor of medicine at UT Health, said. "We cured mice for one year without any side effects. That's never been seen. But it's a mouse model, so caution is needed. We want to bring this to large animals that are closer to humans in physiology of the endocrine system." Ralph DeFronzo, M.D., professor of medicine and chief of the Division of Diabetes at UT Health, is co-inventor on the patent. He described the therapy: "The pancreas has many other cell types besides beta cells, and our approach is to alter these cells so that they start to secrete insulin, but only in response to glucose [sugar]," he said. "This is basically just like beta cells." Insulin, which lowers blood sugar, is only made by beta cells. In Type 1 diabetes, beta cells are destroyed by the immune system and the person has no insulin. In Type 2 diabetes, beta cells fail and insulin decreases. At the same time Continue reading >>

Effects Of Parabiosis Of Obese With Diabetes And Normal Mice

Effects Of Parabiosis Of Obese With Diabetes And Normal Mice

, Volume 9, Issue4 , pp 294298 | Cite as Effects of parabiosis of obese with diabetes and normal mice Parabiosis of obese (ob/ob) with diabetes (db2J/db2J) mice caused the obese partner to become hypoglycemic, to lose weight and to die of starvation, while no abnormal changes were observed in the diabetes partner. The striking similarity of this response to that observed in normal mice in parabiosis with diabetes mice suggests that obese mice are like normal mice in having normal satiety centers sensitive to the satiety factor produced by the diabetes partner. In contrast, parabiosis of obese with normal mice is a fully viable combination suggesting that the obese partner does not produce sufficient satiety factor to turn off the normal partner's eating drive. However, obese mice in parabiosis with normal mice gain weight less rapidly and eat less than obese mice in parabiosis with obese mice. These observations suggest that some humoral factor is provided by the normal partner that regulates food consumption in the obese partner. To explain the identical obese-hyperglycemic syndromes produced by these two unrelated and separate genes when on identical genetic backgrounds, it is postulated that the obese mouse is unable to produce sufficient satiety factor to regulate its food consumption, whereas the diabetes mouse produces satiety factor, but cannot respond to it because of a defective satiety center. Parabiosisobese micediabetes micesatiety factorsatiety center Supported in part by NIH Research Grant AM 14461 from the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases and by an allocation from the South Waite Foundation. The Jackson Laboratory is fully accredited by the American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Cured In Mice Using Gene Therapy

Type 1 Diabetes Cured In Mice Using Gene Therapy

Researchers from the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio have found a way to cure type 1 diabetes in mice. It is hoped that the novel technique - which boosts insulin secretion in the pancreas - will reach human clinical trials in the next 3 years. Study co-author Dr. Bruno Doiron, Ph.D., of the Division of Diabetes, and colleagues recently reported their findings in the journal Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. Type 1 diabetes is estimated to affect around 1.25 million children and adults in the United States. Onset of the condition is most common in childhood, but it can arise at any age. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin is the hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. As a result, blood glucose levels become too high. There is currently no cure for type 1 diabetes; the condition is managed through diet and insulin therapy. However, in recent years, researchers have investigated replacing beta cells as a means of eradicating type 1 diabetes once and for all. Dr. Doiron and colleagues have taken a different approach with their new study. The team reveals how they used a method called gene transfer to coax other pancreatic cells into producing insulin. Using this technique, the researchers have managed to cure type 1 diabetes in mice, bringing us one step closer to curing the condition in humans. Gene transfer method led to long-term insulin secretion in mice The gene transfer technique - called Cellular Networking, Integration and Processing - involves introducing specific genes into the pancreas using a virus as a vector. The team notes that beta cells are rejected in patients with type 1 diabetes. With the gene transfer method, the newly introduced genes encourage non- Continue reading >>

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