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Diabetes Mellitus Effects On The Cardiovascular System

Your Cardiovascular System And Diabetes

Your Cardiovascular System And Diabetes

Cardiovascular system is one of the most important systems in the human body. It is comprised of the heart, blood and blood vessels. Blood is being pumped out from the heart and is the one responsible in delivering oxygen and other nutrients to all the parts of the body. It also cleans up our body by picking up the waste products on its way back to the heart so our body can get rid of them. So what has diabetes got to do with the cardiovascular system? Since blood is part of the cardiovascular system, and diabetes is a condition in which the level of glucose in the blood is higher than normal, then there must be some relationship between the two. Diabetes and cardiovascular system diseases has been recognized to be closely related to each other for some time now due to the so-called insulin resistance syndrome or metabolic syndrome. Among the 20 million people in the United States who has diabetes, around 5 to 6 million of this population who are aged 35 years and above were diagnosed to have a certain cardiovascular disease according to the National Diabetes Surveillance System. Some examples of the commonly diagnosed cardiovascular disease are coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure and other heart conditions. Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause now of deaths related to diabetes. In a study published few years back in the Journal of the American Medical Association, deaths due to some heart conditions went up by 23% in diabetic women despite the 27% drop of the same in non-diabetic women. As for diabetic men, there is only about 13% decrease in heart disease related deaths as compared to the 36% drop in non-diabetics. Thus, the two indeed go together. Risk Factors Diabetes is now considered by the American Heart Association a major risk factor in c Continue reading >>

Heart Disease: The Diabetes Connection

Heart Disease: The Diabetes Connection

Most people living with diabetes are aware that they have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. But the statistics can be truly staggering: Nearly two-thirds of people with diabetes have high blood pressure, and, according to the American Diabetes Association, people with diabetes are two to four times more likely to die of heart disease or have a stroke than people who don't have the condition. The good news: Learning more about the link between heart disease and diabetes can help you take steps to help protect your heart and manage your diabetes. How Diabetes and Heart Disease Are Related The connection between diabetes and heart disease starts with high blood sugar levels. Over time, the high glucose in the bloodstream can damage the arteries, causing them to become stiff and hard. Fatty material that builds up on the inside of these blood vessels, a condition known as atherosclerosis. This can eventually block blood flow to the heart or brain, leading to heart attack or stroke. Your risk of heart disease with diabetes is further elevated if you also have a family history of cardiovascular disease or stroke. Other heart facts to consider: People with diabetes develop cardiovascular disease at a much earlier age than others. Heart disease that leads to heart attack or stroke is the leading cause of death among people with diabetes. A person who has diabetes has the same risk of heart attack as someone who is not diabetic, but already had a heart attack. Protecting Your Heart When You Have Diabetes If you believe you are at a higher risk for heart disease, don’t despair. There are several small lifestyle changes you can make to not only help prevent heart disease, but also manage your diabetes more effectively. Be active. The American Heart Association recomme Continue reading >>

Diabetes And The Vascular System

Diabetes And The Vascular System

The vascular system carries oxygenated blood around the body The vascular system is made up of arteries and veins that carry oxygenated blood around the body and oxygen depleted blood to the lungs to remove carbon dioxide from the blood and replenish the oxygen. People with diabetes commonly experience problems with their vascular system and charity Diabetes UK notes that diabetes is associated with a 5 times higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. What are the problems that can arise with the vascular system? Arteriosclerosis is the thickening and stiffening of the arteries this means that they become less flexible and create resistance for the blood that is moving inside them. Arteriosclerosis is thought to be caused by excess fat in the diet and high cholesterol. There are some schools of thought that have hypothesised that it is refined food and food rich in omega-6 fatty acids that leads to an inflammation of the endothelial cells that line the veins and arteries in the entire circulatory system. It is thought that this inflammation means that excess fat and cholesterol consumed binds easier to the artery walls forming hard plaque structures which result in the stiffening and in some severe cases blockages of veins and arteries. Coronary heart disease results if the build up of plaque on the inside of the arteries and veins that supply oxygen to and take away carbon dioxide from the heart . This causes the narrowing of the arteries and veins which means the heart isn't receiving enough oxygen as it is needed and it is being poisoned by excess carbon dioxide. High blood pressure can result from the heart trying to pump blood through narrowed arteries, although is has also been attributed to a diet high in salt, obesity, alcoholism and high stress levels. Continue reading >>

Impact Of Diabetes On Cardiovascular Disease: An Update

Impact Of Diabetes On Cardiovascular Disease: An Update

Copyright © 2013 Alessandra Saldanha de Mattos Matheus et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The proposed mechanisms that can link accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk in this population are poorly understood. It has been suggested that an association between hyperglycemia and intracellular metabolic changes can result in oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Recently, epigenetic factors by different types of reactions are known to be responsible for the interaction between genes and environment and for this reason can also account for the association between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The impact of clinical factors that may coexist with diabetes such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence that justify screening for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients is controversial and is also matter of this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the association between poor glycemic control, oxidative stress, markers of insulin resistance, and of low-grade inflammation that have been suggested as putative factors linking diabetes and cardiovascular disease. 1. Introduction Diabetes is an important chronic disease which incidence is globally increasing and though considered as an epidemic [1]. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated there were 30 million people who had diabetes worldwide in 1985. This number increased to 135 Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus: A Major Risk Factor For Cardiovascular Disease

Diabetes Mellitus: A Major Risk Factor For Cardiovascular Disease

Abundant evidence shows that patients with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes are at high risk for several cardiovascular disorders: coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, cardiomyopathy, and congestive heart failure. Cardiovascular complications are now the leading causes of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. The public health impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with diabetes is already enormous and is increasing. Several explanations are behind this increase. First, the incidence of diabetes rises with advancing age, and the number of older people in the United States is growing rapidly. Second, insulin treatment for persons with type 1 diabetes has prolonged their lives significantly, and with each year of additional life comes an increased risk for CVD complications. Third, type 2 diabetes occurs at an earlier age in obese and overweight persons, and the prevalence of obesity is rising in the United States. The risk for diabetes in overweight persons is heightened by physical inactivity; unfortunately, the majority of Americans engage in little regular or sustained physical activity. Fourth, the populations that are particularly susceptible to diabetes—African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Asians—are growing in this country. Fifth, improved medical care, particularly when extended to susceptible populations, will bring an increasing number of patients with type 2 diabetes into the medical care system. All of these factors will lead to an absolute increase in the number of patients who will require medical intervention to prevent the complications of diabetes. Diabetes has long been recognized to be an independent risk factor for CVD. Prospective studies, such as the Framingham, Honolulu Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia: A Bad Signature On The Vascular System

Hyperglycemia: A Bad Signature On The Vascular System

Hyperglycemia: a bad signature on the vascular system Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Correspondence to: Francesco Cosentino, MD, PhD, FESC. Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden. Email: [email protected] . Received 2015 Apr 23; Accepted 2015 Apr 27. Copyright 2015 Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy. All rights reserved. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Experimental work has clearly demonstrated that hyperglycemia is able to derail molecular pathways favouring oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Consistently, pooled analyses from prospective studies provide strong evidence that glycemic markers, namely glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), predict cardiovascular risk, with an increase of about 18% in risk for each 1% absolute increase in HbA1c concentration, regardless of classical risk factors. Although the importance of hyperglycemic burden on cardiovascular phenotype, normalization of blood glucose levels in patients with long-standing hyperglycemia does not seem to reduce macrovascular complications. These data suggest that hyperglycemia may exert long-lasting detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. This emerging phenomenon is defined metabolic or hyperglycemic memory to indicate a long-term persistence of hyperglycemic stress, even after blood glucose normalization. Here, we discuss clinical evidence and potential molecular mechanisms implicated in metabolic memory and, hence, diabetes-related cardiovascular complications. Keywords: Diabetes, glycemic control, metabolic memory, epigenetics, cardiovascular disease Hyperglycemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) Type 2 diabetes (T2 Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Heart Disease, And Stroke

Diabetes, Heart Disease, And Stroke

Having diabetes means that you are more likely to develop heart disease and have a greater chance of a heart attack or a stroke. People with diabetes are also more likely to have certain conditions, or risk factors, that increase the chances of having heart disease or stroke, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol. If you have diabetes, you can protect your heart and health by managing your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, as well as your blood pressure and cholesterol. If you smoke, get help to stop. What is the link between diabetes, heart disease, and stroke? Over time, high blood glucose from diabetes can damage your blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart and blood vessels. The longer you have diabetes, the higher the chances that you will develop heart disease.1 People with diabetes tend to develop heart disease at a younger age than people without diabetes. In adults with diabetes, the most common causes of death are heart disease and stroke. Adults with diabetes are nearly twice as likely to die from heart disease or stroke as people without diabetes.2 The good news is that the steps you take to manage your diabetes also help to lower your chances of having heart disease or stroke. What else increases my chances of heart disease or stroke if I have diabetes? If you have diabetes, other factors add to your chances of developing heart disease or having a stroke. Smoking Smoking raises your risk of developing heart disease. If you have diabetes, it is important to stop smoking because both smoking and diabetes narrow blood vessels. Smoking also increases your chances of developing other long-term problems such as lung disease. Smoking also can damage the blood vessels in your legs and increase the risk of lower leg infections, ulcers, a Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Your Heart

Diabetes And Your Heart

If you have diabetes, you are more likely to develop coronary heart disease than someone without diabetes. Diabetes causes high levels of glucose in your blood. This is because of a problem with a hormone your pancreas produces called insulin. Insulin is responsible for moving glucose (a type of sugar) from your bloodstream and into the cells of your body for energy. If there little or no insulin being produced, or your body has become resistant to insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream and can’t move across to your cells to give them energy to work properly. High levels of glucose in your blood can damage the walls of your arteries, and make them more likely to develop fatty deposits (atheroma). If atheroma builds up in your coronary arteries (the arteries that supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart) you will develop coronary heart disease, which can cause angina and heart attack. Types of diabetes Type one diabetes happens when your body cannot make insulin. This type most commonly affects children and young adults, and is a result of your body’s immune system attacking the cells that produce insulin in the pancreas. Type two diabetes occurs when your pancreas isn’t producing enough insulin or your body has become resistant to the insulin it’s producing. Type two diabetes is much more common than type 1 and tends to develop gradually as people get older – usually after the age of 40, but more and more people every year are being diagnosed at a much younger age. It's closely linked with: being overweight, especially if you carry weight around your middle being physically inactive a family history of type 2 diabetes. Some ethnic groups have a much higher rate of diabetes - particularly people of South Asian and African Caribbean origin. Diabetes and your he Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Its Effects On The Cardiovascular System

Diabetes And Its Effects On The Cardiovascular System

Many people with diabetes are unaware of the complications that develop when diabetes is not well controlled. These include retinopathy, or damage to the retinas of the eyes, that can lead to blindness; neuropathy, or nerve damage; kidney failure, which can lead to dialysis; and cardiovascular disease. The term cardiovascular disease generally refers to diseases that include the heart and blood vessels. The latest statistics from the Texas Department of Health Services places diabetes as the sixth leading cause of death in Texas. The first and third leading causes of death in Texas are from heart attacks and strokes (cardiovascular diseases). In the Rio Grande Valley the death rate from diabetes is higher than in many other parts of Texas. It is also estimated that death from diabetes is underreported. Diabetes and its effects on the cardiovascular system is a slow and progressive process. If a diabetic person also has high blood pressure and abnormal lipids (high total cholesterol, high triglycerides, high LDL, and low HDL), which is a common finding in poorly controlled diabetics, the disease process is much more accelerated. The vessels that supply blood to the heart and the brain begin to stiffen, plaque develops inside them, and the blood supply to the heart and brain is greatly diminished. Decreased blood supply to the heart leads to symptoms of ischemia. A person may experience shortness of breath with activities, pressure–like chest pain, or feelings of fatigue. This can also lead to a heart attack and possible death. Sometimes signs of ischemia can be found on an–electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) when the symptoms are more pronounced. A stress test almost always helps to determine if a patient has ischemia from narrowing heart vessels (coronaries). Adding smok Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Cardiovascular Disease

Diabetes Mellitus And Cardiovascular Disease

Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is rising at an alarming rate. In the United States, 23.6 million people, or 7.8% of the population, have diabetes mellitus, with 1.6 million new cases diagnosed annually [ 1 ]. Over 200 million people are affected worldwide with diabetes mellitus [ 2 ]. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Despite a marked decline in cardiovascular disease related deaths over the past several decades, a smaller reduction has occurred in diabetics compared to non diabetics [ 3 ]. Diabetes mellitus remains a key risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is widely recognized as a coronary artery disease risk equivalent [ 4 ]. It is associated with a 2 to 4 times higher risk of cardiovascular disease, as well as an increased risk of mortality by up to 3 times [ 5 , 6 ]. Epidemiological studies of diabetes mellitus have shown that gender, age, and ethnic background are important factors when considering the development of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Given similar levels of fasting glucose and proteinuria, women with diabetes mellitus at diagnosis tend to be older and more likely hypertensive. Among those diagnosed at younger ages, women are more likely than men to be obese [ 7 ]. Compared to the non-diabetic population, the overall mortality from acute myocardial infarction in the diabetic population was 4 times higher among men and 7 times higher among women [ 8 ]. Despite a similar rate of myocardial infarction and chronic heart disease, the rate of transluminal coronary angioplasty and coronary bypass grafting was doubled in diabetic male patients [ 9 ]. According to the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC), af Continue reading >>

The Effects Of Diabetes On Your Body

The Effects Of Diabetes On Your Body

When you hear the word “diabetes,” your first thought is likely about high blood sugar. Blood sugar is an often-underestimated component of your health. When it’s out of whack over a long period of time, it could develop into diabetes. Diabetes affects your body’s ability to produce or use insulin, a hormone that allows your body to turn glucose (sugar) into energy. Here’s what symptoms may occur to your body when diabetes takes effect. Diabetes can be effectively managed when caught early. However, when left untreated, it can lead to potential complications that include heart disease, stroke, kidney damage, and nerve damage. Normally after you eat or drink, your body will break down sugars from your food and use them for energy in your cells. To accomplish this, your pancreas needs to produce a hormone called insulin. Insulin is what facilitates the process of pulling sugar from the blood and putting it in the cells for use, or energy. If you have diabetes, your pancreas either produces too little insulin or none at all. The insulin can’t be used effectively. This allows blood glucose levels to rise while the rest of your cells are deprived of much-needed energy. This can lead to a wide variety of problems affecting nearly every major body system. The effects of diabetes on your body also depends on the type you have. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1, also called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is an immune system disorder. Your own immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, destroying your body’s ability to make insulin. With type 1 diabetes, you must take insulin to live. Most people are diagnosed as a child or young adult. Type 2 is related to insulin resistance. It used to occur i Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And The Cardiovascular System

Diabetes Mellitus And The Cardiovascular System

aDivision of Cardiology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36617, USA bCorresponding Author: Bassam Omar, Division of Cardiology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36617, USA Short title: DM and Cardiovascular System doi: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an epidemic which affects close to 100 million patients worldwide; the majority being type 2 diabetes mellitus. The rising incidence has resulted in a proportional increase in the frequency of cardiovascular disease attributable to DM, as revealed by various population-based studies. Over the past 50 years, DM has been shown to be an important and independent risk factor in the development of a variety of cardiac conditions, especially vascular disease, primarily through accelerated atherosclerosis. Diabetic neuropathy is a serious complication of DM, which leads to the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control. Diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy results in heart rate abnormalities, exercise intolerance, orthostatic blood pressure abnormalities, QT interval prolongation, silent ischemia and diabetic cardiomyopathy, all of which lead to increased morbidity and mortality related to diabetes. This conditions remains difficult to diagnose and treat, requiring a multifaceted approach. Inflammation appears to play a central role in accelerating many of the injurious effects of DM on the cardiovascular system. Expression of specific inflammatory markers has been directly linked to some of the known harmful effects of DM on the cardiovascular system, in addition to indirectly potentiating the deleterious effects of other major cardiovascular disease risk factors. Hyperglycemia results in increased intracellular glucose which triggers several pro-inflammatory reactions leading to the production of harmful free radic Continue reading >>

The Pathophysiology Of Cardiovascular Disease And Diabetes: Beyond Blood Pressure And Lipids

The Pathophysiology Of Cardiovascular Disease And Diabetes: Beyond Blood Pressure And Lipids

In Brief The pathophysiology of the link between diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is complex and multifactorial. Understanding these profound mechanisms of disease can help clinicians identify and treat CVD in patients with diabetes, as well as help patients prevent these potentially devastating complications. This article reviews the biological basis of the link between diabetes and CVD, from defects in the vasculature to the cellular and molecular mechanisms specific to insulin-resistant states and hyperglycemia. It concludes with a discussion of heart failure in diabetes, a clinical entity that demonstrates many of the mechanisms discussed. Diabetes is a prime risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Vascular disorders include retinopathy and nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), stroke, and coronary artery disease (CAD). Diabetes also affects the heart muscle, causing both systolic and diastolic heart failure. The etiology of this excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is not completely clear. Evidence suggests that although hyperglycemia, the hallmark of diabetes, contributes to myocardial damage after ischemic events, it is clearly not the only factor, because both pre-diabetes and the presence of the metabolic syndrome, even in normoglycemic patients, increase the risk of most types of CVD.1–4 In 2002, a survey of people in the United States with diagnosed diabetes found that, surprisingly, 68% of patients did not consider themselves at risk for heart attack or stroke.5 In addition, only about half of patients surveyed reported that their health care providers discussed the high risk of CVD in diabetes and what steps they could take to reduce that risk.5 Fortunately, we are now making the link. Health care providers are now focuse Continue reading >>

Are There Any Harmful Effects Of Insulin Therapy On Cardiovascular Outcomes In Diabetic Patients?

Are There Any Harmful Effects Of Insulin Therapy On Cardiovascular Outcomes In Diabetic Patients?

It is an apparently simple question, and one that clinicians face daily. Like many important clinical issues, this one is easy to ask but hard to answer. Even including the recently released U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), no large randomized controlled clinical trial has been designed specifically to test the effect of insulin treatment on cardiovascular events. Such a study would be costly and would have to take into account many hard-to-control variables associated with type 2 diabetes. Also, the known adverse effects of poor diabetic control—from symptoms of hyperglycemia to worsening microvascular disease—weigh against initiating a study that intentionally withholds insulin therapy from those who need it to control glycemia. Without definitive proof of how insulin therapy affects cardiovascular disease (CVD), as many as 30–40% of people with type 2 diabetes now receive insulin . Based on average glycemic control , it could well be that even more people would benefit from its use. The persistent reluctance among many practitioners to start insulin can be attributed in part to the increased risk of hypoglycemia and insulin's unpopularity with patients. But the rationale often given is that insulin is atherogenic. Insulin, used therapeutically, is alleged to cause, rather than prevent, macrovascular disease. The reason for this concern is clear and is reviewed in this article. Some in vitro evidence suggests that insulin can promote lipid entry into atheromatous plaques and cause intimal hyperplasia. More impressively, a large body of evidence, though not entirely consistent, suggests that in the nondiabetic or prediabetic state, increased serum insulin (hyperinsulinism, or insulin resistance) is associated with increased incidence of CVD. There is also Continue reading >>

Circulatory System And Diabetes

Circulatory System And Diabetes

The circulatory system is responsible for transporting blood around the body The circulatory system is responsible for the delivery of blood, and therefore glucose in the blood, round the body. The different complications of diabetes are a consequence of damage to blood vessels in different parts of the circulatory system. The circulatory system is essentially the body infrastructure, providing the route ways for the blood to transport oxygen, nutrients and hormones to and from the cells and organs. The heart plays a key role in the circulatory system, helping to pump blood around all the body. Blood vessels range in size, from larger arteries into very small blood vessels called capillaries. Capillaries feed into the veins which carry blood back to the heart. The circulatory system performs a number of roles, including: Delivering oxygen and nutrients, including glucose, to the bodys cells Carrying carbon dioxide and waste products away from the cells Transporting hormones and therefore helping the body communicate with its organs Transport white blood cells to fight off infection The circulatory system allows blood glucose levels to be regulated. The hormone glucagon, carried in the blood, signals the liver to release glucose into the blood and the presence of insulin in the blood instructs the cells to take in glucose from the blood. If blood glucose levels become too high for extended periods of time, damage can be sustained by the blood vessels. If significant numbers of blood vessels are damaged, this can have a negative effect on the functioning of the body. Where damage is sustained to a significant number of blood vessels in a certain area of the body, diabetic complications will develop. Neuropathy (nerve damage) results from damage to the blood vessels that Continue reading >>

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