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Diabetes Mellitus Chinese Medicine

Retrospective Study Of Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Sciencedirect

Retrospective Study Of Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Sciencedirect

Volume 36, Issue 3 , June 2016, Pages 307-313 Open Access funded by Traditional Chinese Medicine Periodical Press To provide clinical evidence in support of Dahuang Huanglian Xiexin decoction (DHXD) to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to introduce a new treatment option for clinicians. Retrospective analysis was used to evaluate DHXD for the treatment of T2DM by analyzing clinical records of 183 cases. Patients with T2DM who met the inclusion criteria between January 1, 2013 and January 1, 2014 were enrolled. The effects of the treatment were evaluated by the changes in fasting blood-glucose (FBG), postprandial blood sugar (PBG), hemoglobin A1c (HbAlc), blood lipid profiles and body mass index (BMI) at 1, 2, 3 and 6 months. The changes in main symptoms were also evaluated. The dosage of Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis) and related factors were analyzed. There was a significant improvement in mean HbA1C at 3 and 6 months after DHXD treatment compared with the baseline level (P < 0.01). There were also significant improvements in FBG, PBG, blood lipid series and BMI. DHXD also improved the main symptoms of stomach and intestine excessive heat syndrome in patients with obese T2DM. Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis) was the most frequently used in 678 clinical visits, the dosage of Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis) was related to age, BMI, DM duration, the level of blood glucose, and use of Western hypoglycemic drugs. This study suggests that DHXD could decrease blood glucose and improve T2DM symptoms and reduce body weight. The use of DHXD may indicate a new optional treatment for T2DM. Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Diabetes With Chinese Herbs

Treatment Of Diabetes With Chinese Herbs

by Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon Diabetes has been described repeatedly in the ancient Chinese medical literature, and the disease has been treated with Chinese herbs for at least 2,000 years. In the Huang Di Nei Jing (1), the condition known as xiao ke is mentioned, and this is translated today as diabetes or diabetic exhaustion (the literal translation is emaciation-thirst). According to this ancient text, the syndrome arises from consuming too much fatty, sweet, or rich foods; it is said that it typically occurs among wealthy people: "you ask them to refrain from a rich diet, which they may resist." The description fits that of type 2, or insulin-independent diabetes mellitus, the most common form of diabetes that exists today. Two of the traditional formulas most frequently used in modern China and Japan for the treatment of diabetes were described in the Jin Gui Yao Lue (2), about 200 A.D. One is Rehmannia Eight Formula (Ba Wei Di Huang Tang), originally indicated for persons who showed weakness, fatigue, and copious urine excreted soon after drinking water; in some cases, this may have been diabetes as we know it today. The other is Ginseng and Gypsum Combination (Bai Hu Jia Ren Shen Tang), used more in modern Japan than China; it was indicated originally for severe thirst and fatigue and is considered ideal for diabetes of recent onset. In 752 A.D., the distinguished physician Wang Tao published the famous book Wai Tai Mi Yao, which was a comprehensive guide to medicine (3). In it, he mentioned that diabetes was indicated by sweet urine and he recommended the consumption of pork pancreas as a treatment, implying a conclusion that the pancreas was the organ involved in the disease (he also recommended an Continue reading >>

Syndrome Differentiation Of Diabetes By The Traditional Chinese Medicine According To Evidence-based Medicine And Expert Consensus Opinion

Syndrome Differentiation Of Diabetes By The Traditional Chinese Medicine According To Evidence-based Medicine And Expert Consensus Opinion

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 492193, 7 pages Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, China Academic Editor: Zhao-Xiang Bian Copyright © 2014 Jing Guo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract In Chinese medicine, diabetes belongs to the category of “Xiaoke disease (disease with symptoms of frequent drinking and urination)”; in the traditional sense, its pathogenesis is “Yin deficiency and dryness-heat.” However, over time, changes in the social environment and lifestyle have also changed the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in diabetes. In this study, we performed diabetes syndrome differentiation using TCM according to evidence-based medicine and expert consensus opinion. 1. Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is often caused by the consumption of a high fat and calorie diet. It has a high prevalence and can often lead to complications that seriously affect the quality of life of sufferers. In 2013, according to the latest statistics of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the global prevalence of diabetes among adults aged 20–79 was 8.3%. The total number of patients with diabetes worldwide was estimated to be 382 million, which was predicted to rise to nearly 592 million by 2035. Therefore, research on the prevention and treatment of diabetes is critical and represents a great challenge for the medical profession. In recent years, Chinese medicine has made great progress toward the prevention and the treatment of diabetes, and its curative effects have b Continue reading >>

Traditional Chinese Medicine In The Treatment Of Diabetes

Traditional Chinese Medicine In The Treatment Of Diabetes

Abstract This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. Included were 84 controlled clinical studies of type-2 diabetes treated with Chinese medicine for at least 1 month. Reported outcomes were: symptom relief; improvement in glycemia, insulin resistance and secondary failure, and adverse events. Symptom relief was achieved in most (>80%) of the patients receiving Chinese medicine. Compared with orthodox drugs, Chinese medicine had a 1.2-fold (95% CI 1.2-1.3) increase in symptom relief. The relative risk of achieving a fasting blood glucose of <7.3 mmol/l or a postprandial blood glucose of <8.2 mmol/l was: 3.0 (95% CI 1.4-6.5) for Chinese medicine plus diet versus diet; 2.0 (95% CI 1.4-3.0) for Chinese medicine versus placebo; 1.8 (95% CI 1.4-2.3) for combined Chinese medicine and orthodox drugs versus Yuquan Wan (a classic Chinese herbal formula for diabetes), 1.5 (95% CI 1.4-1.7) for combined Chinese medicine and orthodox drugs vs. orthodox drugs, and 1.3 (95% CI 1.2-1.5) for Chinese medicine versus orthodox drugs. A fasting blood glucose of <8.2 mmol/l plus symptom relief was observed in 71-100% of the patients with secondary failure to oral anti-diabetic drugs. Serious adverse events including hypoglycemic coma and death were caused by adulteration with orthodox drugs, erroneous substitution, self-meditation, overdoses, and improper preparation. Chinese herbal medicine should be used cautiously with doctors’ prescription and follow-up. Long-term clinical studies may disclose the effectiveness of Chinese medicine in reducing the mortality and morbidity of diabetic complications. Article / Publication Details Continue reading >>

Chinese Medicine For Diabetes Sufferers

Chinese Medicine For Diabetes Sufferers

The invention of insulin has had a profound and destiny-changing impact on people with IDDM (Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, also known as Type 1 diabetes). Proper use of insulin can significantly prolong life expectancy for patients with IDDM. However, insulin use does not guarantee that the patient will avoid diabetes complications. Today, even with modern developments in science that have improved the administration and absorption of insulin, as well as management of the disease, living with IDDM is very difficult for patients and their families. To date, Western Medicine does not fully understand IDDM, because its causes are multi-faceted and extremely complex. Modern medicine believes that diabetes can’t be cured, because it does not fully understand its causes. Aside from administering insulin injections for life, the world has no cure for Type 1 diabetes. Modern medicine thinks that Type 1 diabetes develops in stages, beginning with a genetic predisposition, causing an autoimmune stage, followed by a breakdown of the immune system, then a progressive deterioration of insulin cell function, and finally, the diabetes stage. In fact, no matter the type of diabetes, it is caused by an imbalanced metabolism and the loss or partial loss of function in various organs. It is a disease that has many causes and involves many organs and systems. EASTERN MEDICINE APPROACH Traditional Chinese Medicine offers an alternative explanation and treatment for most diabetic patients. Traditional Chinese remedies can be used, in tandem with insulin, to treat the pancreas and other damaged internal organ functions gradually, control blood sugar, and reduce insulin dosage over time. This treatment aims to slowly reduce insulin intake while recovering the pancreatic functions unti Continue reading >>

Tcm For Diabetes Mellitus

Tcm For Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder of the endocrine system (Merck Manual [MM], 2016). Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease in which insulin production is absent, only occurs in 5% of those with diabetes. In Type 2 diabetes, the most common form, normal insulin secretion is inadequate due to insulin resistance (American Diabetes Association [ADA], 2016; MM, 2016). The complications of diabetes can be serious, and the CDC reported that in 2006, age-adjusted rates of death from all causes were about 1.5 times higher among U.S. adults diagnosed with diabetes. In 2010, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death (CDC 2014). The economic burden of this disease is high, and growing: in the U.S., the estimated total cost of diabetes is $245 billion, and age- and gender-adjusted average medical costs are 2.3 times higher among people diagnosed with diabetes (CDC, 2014). This disease is a global problem. The International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) reports that 1 in 11 adults (415 million) have diabetes, with an estimated rise to 1 in 10 by 2040 (642 million). Worldwide, a person dies from diabetes every 6 seconds, and diabetes accounts for 12% ($673 billion) of global health expenditure (IDF, 2016). Conventional and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments of diabetes are similar in most respects. Both would educate their patient about their condition and the possible complications and co-morbidities associated with it. Both would emphasize diet and exercise as primary means to control the condition, and would advise lifestyle changes to prevent serious complications and empower their patient. (MM, 2016) While conventional treatment of diabetes would include various pharmacological therapies to relieve symptoms and control blood glucose, these synthetic ch Continue reading >>

Modern Medicine And Traditional Chinese Medicine: Diabetes Mellitus (part 3)

Modern Medicine And Traditional Chinese Medicine: Diabetes Mellitus (part 3)

Home The Journal JCM Article Archive Modern Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine: Diabetes Mellitus (part 3) According to TCM, diabetes mellitus is classified as upper, middle or lower xiao-ke (wasting and thirsting syndrome) and is generally characterised by thirst, hunger, frequent urination and wasting (see footnote). Cloudy urine and sugar in the urine may also accompany these symptoms, each of which is said to have a predominant symptom: excessive thirst in the upper jiao (Lung), excessive appetite in the middle jiao (Stomach) and excessive urination in the lower jiao (Kidney). In reality there is usually a mixture of all the symptoms, although one often predominates slightly. By analysis of the symptoms, one should be able to determine which organ, whether the Lung, Stomach or Kidney is most yin deficient and therefore have a focus for treatment. Upper xiao-ke syndrome is characterised by Lung heat drying up body fluids leading to great thirst, restlessness, dry cough, dry skin, hoarseness, dry red tongue with or without cracks, a thin yellow tongue coating, and a forceful rapid pulse especially at the cun (distal) position. Middle xiao-ke syndrome is characterised by Stomach fire leading to excessive appetite and constant hunger, desire to drink cold liquids, burning sensation in the epigastrium, constipation, a red tongue with a thick yellow coating, and a slippery-forceful-rapid pulse. Lower xiao-ke syndrome is characterised by Kidney yin deficiency where there is excessive urination (clear or turbid), dry mouth at night, night sweating, sore back and aching bones, red-peeled tongue, and a deep-thready-rapid pulse. Lower xiao-ke syndrome with deficiency of both Kidney yin and yang (with the latter more pronounced) is charac-Footnote Xiao-ke syndrome corre Continue reading >>

Treating Metabolic Syndrome (type Ii Diabetes)

Treating Metabolic Syndrome (type Ii Diabetes)

The Herbalist’s Corner Jake Paul Fratkin, OMD, L.Ac. Metabolic Syndrome describes a cascade of symptoms and physiological presentations due to elevated insulin and glucose in the blood. It is synonymous, or at least directly leads to, Diabetes Type II.[i] It’s important to know the difference between Type I and Type II diabetes. Both show increased blood glucose, but for different reasons. Type I diabetes is due to a genetic or autoimmune process that destroys the pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin, and therefore the elevated blood glucose levels are due to an absence of insulin, the chemical that transports glucose into cells. In diabetes Type II, blood sugar is elevated because of the inability of cells to recognize insulin, with consequential accumulations of sugar and insulin in the blood. It corresponds directly with weight gain and obesity. Metabolic Syndrome is a direct consequence of diet, specifically intake of large amounts of refined carbohydrates and sugars. The American diet has been rich in sugar and breads since 1945, but the blame of the increase in obesity and Metabolic Syndrome lies our heavy consumption of sugars and corn syrup. In 1999, per capita intake of sugars was 158 pounds per person, 30 percent higher than in 1983.[ii] Since introducing high fructose corn syrup in 1980, obesity rates have doubled.[iii] Corn syrup sugars more readily turns to fats in the liver, raising triglyceride and LDL levels, and it can affect the hormone leptin, which regulates appetite and body weight.[iv] It is now estimated that 24% of America’s population is at risk for Metabolic Syndrome and Type II diabetes.[v] Physiologically, Metabolic Syndrome occurs because of excessive amounts of carbohydrates (including sugar) in the diet. The pancreas secretes i Continue reading >>

To Discover The Traditional Chinese Medicine Techniques Applied In Diabetes Mellitus Through Data Mining

To Discover The Traditional Chinese Medicine Techniques Applied In Diabetes Mellitus Through Data Mining

To discover the Traditional Chinese Medicine techniques applied in Diabetes mellitus through data mining Abstract: The morbidity of Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing at a speed of 3.2% per year globally, and involving people of all ages, especially the ones who are more than fifties. Most of the patients suffer from the Non-insulin-dependent type which is also called type 2 diabetes mellitus. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has accumulated rich experience in curing DM which is considered as Xiaoke in TCM theory. Both food therapy and TCM appropriate techniques such as acupuncture and Tuina can work well in symptom improvement and blood sugar control. Data mining is a novel technology; it can not only collect as many relative literatures as possible but filter and refine the information so as to obtain valuable findings for clinical physicians. The results of data mining include two parts. Part I are the lists of most frequently used food and herbs, part II are the networks of diet therapy, treatment principle and acupoints. The conclusion is data mining should be thought as a useful technology which can be applied in TCM research to explore the treatment rules, furthermore, the relevance among treatment principle, herbs and TCM appropriate techniques could be detected through network establishment. Continue reading >>

The Treatment Of Diabetes Mellitus With Chinese Medicine: A Textbook & Clinical Manual

The Treatment Of Diabetes Mellitus With Chinese Medicine: A Textbook & Clinical Manual

The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus with Chinese Medicine: A Textbook ... ACUPUNCTURE ACUPUNCTURE & MOXIBUSTION add draining add nine grams ADDITIONS & SUBTRACTIONS Anemarrhenae Angelicae Sinensis Angelicae Sinensis Dang Astragali Membranacei Huang blood glucose blood stasis boost the qi Chinese Medicine clear heat Cocos Fu Ling dampness Dang Gui Decoction Diabetic Nephropathy Dioscoreae Oppositae Dioscoreae Oppositae Shan disease Dong enrich yin FORMULA ANALYSIS free the flow Glycyrrhizae Gan Cao grams of Radix Herba Huang Lian Huang Qi insulin Jiang kidneys Membranacei Huang Qi Miltiorrhizae Dan Shen MOXIBUSTION Oppositae Shan Yao Paeoniae Lactiflorae patients PATTERN MAIN SYMPTOMS phlegm Poriae Cocos Poriae Cocos Fu quicken the blood Radix Angelicae Sinensis Radix Astragali Membranacei Radix Dioscoreae Oppositae Radix Rehmanniae Sheng Salviae Miltiorrhizae San Yin Jiao Schisandrae Chinensis Sclerotium Sclerotium Poriae Cocos Semen Shu Bl Sinensis Dang Gui spleen supplement Tang Tian Hua Fen Tuber Ophiopogonis Japonici uncooked Radix Rehmanniae urine Wei Zi Yi Za Zhi yin vacuity Zhong Yi Zhu Yu Flawsis an internationally known practitioner and teacher of traditional Chinese medicine. He studied acupuncture, Tuina massage, and Chinese herbal medicine at the Shanghai College of Medicine, and is also a graduate of the Boulder School of Massage.

Acupuncture.com - Diabetes Mellitus From Western And Tcm Perspectives - Part 2

Acupuncture.com - Diabetes Mellitus From Western And Tcm Perspectives - Part 2

Diabetes Mellitus From Western and TCM Perspectives - Part 2 There are two words in the Chinese language for diabetes: the traditional medical name 'xiao-ke' which means "wasting and thirsting", and the modern term 'tang-niao-bing' which means "sugar urine illness". Discussion of diabetes by its traditional name appears in all the earliest texts, including the Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic (Neijing). Traditionally, it is divided into three types: upper, middle and lower. Each type reflects the predominance of one of the three main symptoms (thirst, hunger, and excessive urination) and is intimately related to the Lung, Spleen and Kidneys respectively. Yin deficiency is usually associated with all three types. A traditional diagnosis of wasting and thirsting may include illnesses besides the modern entity of diabetes and vice-versa i.e. someone with tang-niao-bing would not necessarily have xiao-ke. For the purposes of this discussion, diabetes mellitus will be analyzed according to the traditional category of xiao-ke or wasting and thirsting disease. It is believed to be related to eating fatty or sweet foods in excess, to emotional disturbances and to a constitution that is yin deficient. According to TCM, irregular food intake in the form of over-consumption of fatty, greasy, pungent and sweet food, hot drinks and alcohol impairs the transportive and transformative functions of the Spleen and Stomach, which in turn generates internal heat. The accumulated food turns into heat that consumes fluids thereby creating thirst and hunger. In the Simple Questions (Su Wen) it is explained that " ... fat causes interior heat while sweetness causes fullness in the middle burner. The qi therefore rises and overflows and the condition changes into that of thirsting and wasting"1 Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus : Diagnosis

Diabetes Mellitus : Diagnosis

There are various methods to evaluate and diagnose diabetes: detection of typical symptoms such as random glucose level, fasting glucose, two-hour post-load glucose level, and HbA1c (an indicator of glycemic (glucose) control over a 3-4 month period). According to the 1985 World Health Organization (WHO) report, diabetes is defined by: However, the latest American Diabetes Association (ADA) expert committee finds that there is a greater degree of hyperglycemia amongst patients who have FPG of 140 mg/dl or higher than those who have 2-h PG of 200 mg/dl or higher. Almost all patients with FPG 140 mg/dl or higher have 2-h PG levels of 200 mg/dl or higher. However, not all patients with 2-h PG of 200 mg/dl or higher have FPG of 140 mg/dl or higher. Therefore, the ADA currently recommends the diagnosis of diabetes be based on a lower level of FPG. A patient is diagnosed with diabetes if he has typical hyperglycemic symptoms with a random plasma glucose of 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) or greater, confirmed on a subsequent day by one of the following criteria: TCM practitioners will diagnosis diabetes according to its clinical symptoms and further characterize it by the disharmony pattern an individual displays. Diabetes, as is commonly understood from a western medicine perspective, is largely dependent on western methodologies for diagnosis. (See western medicine diagnosis section.) TCM Examination Techniques: Diagnosis in TCM is based on four examination techniques. The first is "questioning." The TCM practitioner will want to know what the individual's current complaints are, and their family's medical history. The second technique is "observation." Physical features of the body such as the face, tongue, hair, nails, sputum (mucus that is coughed up) and examining the area of p Continue reading >>

Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With Traditional Chinese And Indian Medicinal Herbs

Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With Traditional Chinese And Indian Medicinal Herbs

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 343594, 17 pages 1Center for Advancement of Drug Research and Evaluation, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, 309 E. Second Street, Pomona, CA 91766, USA 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, 309 E. Second Street, Pomona, CA 91766, USA 3Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, 309 E. Second Street, Pomona, CA 91766, USA Academic Editor: Weena Jiratchariyakul Copyright © 2013 Zhijun Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed. 1. Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic illness due to endocrin Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Diabetes With

Treatment Of Diabetes With

INTERNET JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE FOR TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND PREVENTIVE HEALTH CARE TREATMENT OF DIABETES WITH CHINESE HERBS AND ACUPUNCTURE by Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon Web Posting Date: January 2003 Key medical terms: diabetes mellitus, NIDDM (type 2 diabetes, non-insulin dependent) Key Chinese medical references: deficiency and impairment of qi, yin, and yang Chinese herbs: alisma, anemarrhena, astragalus, atractylodes, dioscorea, ginseng, ho-shou-wu, hoelen, lycium, platycodon, polygonatum, pueraria, rehmannia, salvia, scrophularia, trichosanthes Chinese formulas: Baihu Jia Renshen Tang, Liuwei Dihuang Wan, Bawei Dihuang Wan, Maimendong Yinzi, Fangfeng Tongsheng San, Yu Quan Wan, Xiao Ke Wan SUMMARY: Diabetes is out of control in the U.S., with incidence rates as high as 15-20% in some population groups (e.g., the elderly, blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans), and with substantial increases in all age and racial groups in the past few years. Chinese medicine, relying mainly on herb formulas, but also on acupuncture, has been utilized extensively in East Asia to reduce blood sugar in persons with diabetes, especially those with the most common type (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM). Based on extensive laboratory and clinical evaluations, about 20 herbs have emerged as primary candidates for treatment. These herbs have been utilized in a small number of traditional formulations for centuries, both for treating obvious diabetes and for other disorders that produce similar symptoms. Acupuncturists have identified about 20 points on the body that appear to be effective in lowering blood sugar; typically, a dozen of these points are selected for treatment at one time. Although more clini Continue reading >>

Traditional Chinese Medicine In The Treatment Of Diabetes

Traditional Chinese Medicine In The Treatment Of Diabetes

In Brief Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a system of healing that is thousands of years old. It has long been utilized in the Chinese culture to treat the complex of symptoms that Western medicine terms diabetes mellitus. This article will outline the key concepts and therapies of TCM that play a role in the evaluation and treatment of diabetic patients. Traditional Chinese Medicine TCM is a system of healing that originated thousands of years ago. It has evolved into a well-developed, coherent system of medicine that uses several modalities to treat and prevent illness. The most commonly employed therapeutic methods in TCM include acupuncture/moxibustion, Chinese herbal medicine, diet therapy, mind/body exercises (Qigong and Tai Chi), and Tui Na (Chinese massage).3 TCM views the human body and its functioning in a holistic way. From this perspective, no single body part or symptom can be understood apart from its relation to the whole. Unlike Western medicine, which seeks to uncover a distinct entity or causative factor for a particular illness, TCM looks at patterns of disharmony, which include all presenting signs and symptoms as well as patients’ emotional and psychological responses. Humans are viewed both as a reflection of and as an integral part of nature, and health results from maintaining harmony and balance within the body and between the body and nature.3 Two basic TCM theories explain and describe phenomena in nature, including human beings: Yin-Yang Theory and the Five Phases Theory or Five Element Theory. Yin and Yang are complementary opposites used to describe how things function in relation to each other and to the universe. They are interdependent—one cannot exist without the other, and they have the ability to transform into each other.3 T Continue reading >>

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