diabetestalk.net

Diabetes Mellitus Chart

Oral Diabetes Medications Summary Chart

Oral Diabetes Medications Summary Chart

Check with your provider; usually taken once a day. Combines the actions of each pill used in the combination. Side effects are the same as those of each pill used in the combination. Some combinationpills may lead to low blood glucose levels if one of the medications contained in the combination has this effect. May decrease the number of pills you need to take. Other drugs are on the horizon as well, as scientists work to improve the variety of medications to treat type 2 diabetes. Frequently physicians will prescribe one type of oral medication and discover it isn't really helping to control blood glucose that much. In the past, this would have meant that the patient would likely be put on insulin. Now, physicians can try another type of medication to see if it helps correct problems. Physicians often notice that a particular medication works well for a period of time and then begins to work less well for a patient. Now they can mix and match medications that work on different aspects of the diabetes problem to see if that will improve blood glucose control. Continue reading >>

2010 Aaha Diabetes Management Guidelines For Dogs And Cats

2010 Aaha Diabetes Management Guidelines For Dogs And Cats

Renee Rucinsky, DVM, ABVP (Feline) (Chair) | Audrey Cook, BVM&:S, MRCVS, Diplomate ACVIM-SAIM, Diplomate ECVIM-CA | Steve Haley, DVM | Richard Nelson, DVM, Diplomate ACVIM | Debra L. Zoran, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM | Melanie Poundstone, DVM, ABVP - Download PDF - Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a treatable condition that requires a committed effort by veterinarian and client. This document provides current recommendations for the treatment of diabetes in dogs and cats. Treatment of DM is a combination of art and science, due in part to the many factors that affect the diabetic state and the animal's response. Each animal needs individualized, frequent reassessment, and treatment may be modified based on response. In both dogs and cats, DM is caused by loss or dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells. In the dog, beta cell loss tends to be rapid and progressive, and it is usually due to immune-mediated destruction, vacuolar degeneration, or pancreatitis.1 Intact females may be transiently diabetic due to the insulin-resistant effects of the diestrus phase. In the cat, loss or dysfunction of beta cells is the result of insulin resistance, islet amyloidosis, or chronic lymphoplasmacytic pancreatitis.2 Risk factors for both dogs and cats include insulin resistance caused by obesity, other diseases (e.g., acromegaly in cats, hyperadrenocorticism in dogs), or medications (e.g., steroids, progestins). Genetics is a suspected risk factor, and certain breeds of dogs (Australian terriers, beagles, Samoyeds, keeshonden3) and cats (Burmese4) are more susceptible. Regardless of the underlying etiology, diabetic dogs and cats are hyperglycemic and glycosuric, which leads to the classic clinical signs of polyuria, polydipsia (PU/PD), polyphagia, and weight loss. Increased fat mobi Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Diet

Type 1 Diabetes Diet

Type 1 diabetes diet definition and facts In Type 1 diabetes the pancreas can do longer release insulin. The high blood sugar that results can lead to complications such as kidney, nerve, and eye damage, and cardiovascular disease. Glycemic index and glycemic load are scientific terms used to measure he impact of a food on blood sugar. Foods with low glycemic load (index) raise blood sugar modestly, and thus are better choices for people with diabetes. Meal timing is very important for people with type 1 diabetes. Meals must match insulin doses. Eating meals with a low glycemic load (index) makes meal timing easier. Low glycemic load meals raise blood sugar slowly and steadily, leaving plenty of time for the body (or the injected insulin dose) to respond. Skipping a meal or eating late puts a person at risk for low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Foods to eat for a type 1 diabetic diet include complex carbohydrates such as brown rice, whole wheat, quinoa, oatmeal, fruits, vegetables, beans, and lentils. Foods to avoid for a type 1 diabetes diet include sodas (both diet and regular), simple carbohydrates - processed/refined sugars (white bread, pastries, chips, cookies, pastas), trans fats (anything with the word hydrogenated on the label), and high-fat animal products. Fats don't have much of a direct effect on blood sugar but they can be useful in slowing the absorption of carbohydrates. Protein provides steady energy with little effect on blood sugar. It keeps blood sugar stable, and can help with sugar cravings and feeling full after eating. Protein-packed foods to include on your menu are beans, legumes, eggs, seafood, dairy, peas, tofu, and lean meats and poultry. The Mediterranean diet plan is often recommended for people with type 1 diabetes because it is full of nut Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Level Ranges

Blood Sugar Level Ranges

Tweet Understanding blood glucose level ranges can be a key part of diabetes self-management. This page states 'normal' blood sugar ranges and blood sugar ranges for adults and children with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and blood sugar ranges to determine people with diabetes. If a person with diabetes has a meter, test strips and is testing, it's important to know what the blood glucose level means. Recommended blood glucose levels have a degree of interpretation for every individual and you should discuss this with your healthcare team. In addition, women may be set target blood sugar levels during pregnancy. The following ranges are guidelines provided by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) but each individual’s target range should be agreed by their doctor or diabetic consultant. Recommended target blood glucose level ranges The NICE recommended target blood glucose levels are stated below for adults with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and children with type 1 diabetes. In addition, the International Diabetes Federation's target ranges for people without diabetes is stated. [19] [89] [90] The table provides general guidance. An individual target set by your healthcare team is the one you should aim for. NICE recommended target blood glucose level ranges Target Levels by Type Upon waking Before meals (pre prandial) At least 90 minutes after meals (post prandial) Non-diabetic* 4.0 to 5.9 mmol/L under 7.8 mmol/L Type 2 diabetes 4 to 7 mmol/L under 8.5 mmol/L Type 1 diabetes 5 to 7 mmol/L 4 to 7 mmol/L 5 to 9 mmol/L Children w/ type 1 diabetes 4 to 7 mmol/L 4 to 7 mmol/L 5 to 9 mmol/L *The non-diabetic figures are provided for information but are not part of NICE guidelines. Normal and diabetic blood sugar ranges For the majority of healthy ind Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Patients Chart Successes, Reveal Concerns

Type 2 Diabetes Patients Chart Successes, Reveal Concerns

Type 2 Diabetes Patients Chart Successes, Reveal Concerns Over 90% of respondents to a new survey about quality of life and healthcare received by patients with type 2 diabetes are concerned about disease-related complications, and indeed, most of them already have such complications, including cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, and retinopathy. Over one-quarter of those surveyed indicated they were "moderately" concerned about long-term complications and a similar percentage indicated they were "extremely" concerned. But on the plus side, 88% of respondents indicated they took their medication as prescribed and similar numbers regularly saw a healthcare professional, with over half saying they were satisfied with their current treatment plan. The national T2D Lifestyle Survey was funded and conducted by Health Union, an online platform that aims to help people to live better with specific health conditions, and involved responses from 406 people with type 2 diabetes, almost all of them living in the United States. Only 38% of Those with T2D Have Seen an Endocrinologist Less than half of respondents indicated they had group insurance coverage and more than half did not have supplemental coverage. Nevertheless, the majority of survey participants (86%) had seen their primary-care physician, family doctor, or internal-medicine physician for their type 2 diabetes. Fewer, at 57%, had consulted with a diabetes educator and only 38% had been seen by an endocrinologist. Of the survey respondents, 44% had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes before turning 50 years of age, and over two-thirds said they started treatment within a month of being diagnosed, with over half satisfied with their current medical regimen for diabetes control. Most, at 80%, monitored blood glucose leve Continue reading >>

What Are The Ideal Levels Of Blood Sugar?

What Are The Ideal Levels Of Blood Sugar?

A blood sugar or blood glucose chart identifies ideal blood sugar levels throughout the day, including before and after meals. Doctors use blood sugar charts to set target goals and monitor diabetes treatment plans. Blood sugar charts also help those with diabetes assess and self-monitor blood sugar test results. What is a blood sugar chart? Blood sugar charts act as a reference guide for blood sugar test results. As such, blood sugar charts are important tools for diabetes management. Most diabetes treatment plans involve keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal or target goals as possible. This requires frequent at-home and doctor-ordered testing, along with an understanding of how results compare to target levels. To help interpret and assess blood sugar results, the charts outline normal and abnormal blood sugar levels for those with and without diabetes. In the United States, blood sugar charts typically report sugar levels in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). In the United Kingdom and many other countries, blood sugar is reported in millimoles per liter (mmol/L). A1C blood sugar recommendations are frequently included in blood sugar charts. A1C results are often described as both a percentage and an average blood sugar level in mg/dL. An A1C test measures the average sugar levels over a 3-month period, which gives a wider insight into a person's overall management of their blood sugar levels. Blood sugar chart guidelines Appropriate blood sugar levels vary throughout the day and from person to person. Blood sugars are often lowest before breakfast and in the lead up to meals. Blood sugars are often highest in the hours following meals. People with diabetes will often have higher blood sugar targets or acceptable ranges than those without the condition. These Continue reading >>

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body's ability to use the energy found in food. There are three major types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. All types of diabetes mellitus have something in common. Normally, your body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose fuels the cells in your body. But the cells need insulin, a hormone, in your bloodstream in order to take in the glucose and use it for energy. With diabetes mellitus, either your body doesn't make enough insulin, it can't use the insulin it does produce, or a combination of both. Since the cells can't take in the glucose, it builds up in your blood. High levels of blood glucose can damage the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, heart, eyes, or nervous system. That's why diabetes -- especially if left untreated -- can eventually cause heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage to nerves in the feet. Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It's caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. In people with type 1 diabetes, the damaged pancreas doesn't make insulin. This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition. It could also be the result of faulty beta cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin. A number of medical risks are associated with type 1 diabetes. Many of them stem from damage to the tiny blood vessels in your eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys (diabetic nephropathy). Even more serious is the increased risk of hea Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Chart

Blood Sugar Chart

This blood sugar chart shows normal blood glucose levels before and after meals and recommended HbA1c levels for people with and without diabetes. BLOOD SUGAR CHART Fasting Normal for person without diabetes 70–99 mg/dl (3.9–5.5 mmol/L) Official ADA recommendation for someone with diabetes 80–130 mg/dl (4.4–7.2 mmol/L) 2 hours after meals Normal for person without diabetes Less than 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L) Official ADA recommendation for someone with diabetes Less than 180 mg/dl (10.0 mmol/L) HbA1c Normal for person without diabetes Less than 5.7% Official ADA recommendation for someone with diabetes 7.0% or less Interested in learning more? Read about normal blood glucose numbers, getting tested for Type 2 diabetes and using blood sugar monitoring to manage diabetes. Disclaimer Statements: Statements and opinions expressed on this Web site are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the publishers or advertisers. The information provided on this Web site should not be construed as medical instruction. Consult appropriate health-care professionals before taking action based on this information. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Blood Sugar Levels Chart [printable]

Diabetes Blood Sugar Levels Chart [printable]

JUMP TO: Intro | Blood sugar vs blood glucose | Diagnostic levels | Blood sugar goals for people with type 2 diabetes | Visual chart | Commonly asked questions about blood sugar Before Getting Started I was talking to one of my clients recently about the importance of getting blood sugar levels under control. So before sharing the diabetes blood sugar levels chart, I want to OVER EMPHASIZE the importance of you gaining the best control of your blood sugar levels as you possibly can. Just taking medication and doing nothing else is really not enough. You see, I just don’t think many people are fully informed about why it is so crucial to do, because if you already have a diabetes diagnosis then you are already at high risk for heart disease and other vascular problems. Maybe you've been better informed by your doctor but many people I come across haven't. So if that's you, it's important to know that during your pre-diabetic period, there is a lot of damage that is already done to the vascular system. This occurs due to the higher-than-normal blood sugar, that's what causes the damage. So now that you have type 2 diabetes, you want to prevent any of the nasty complications by gaining good control over your levels. Truly, ask anyone having to live with diabetes complications and they’ll tell you it’s the pits! You DO NOT want it to happen to you if you can avoid it. While medications may be needed, just taking medication alone and doing nothing is really not enough! Why is it not enough even if your blood sugars seem reasonably under control? Well, one common research observation in people with diabetes, is there is a slow and declining progression of blood sugar control and symptoms. Meaning, over time your ability to regulate sugars and keep healthy gets harder. I Continue reading >>

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Print Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often appear suddenly and are often the reason for checking blood sugar levels. Because symptoms of other types of diabetes and prediabetes come on more gradually or may not be evident, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recommended screening guidelines. The ADA recommends that the following people be screened for diabetes: Anyone with a body mass index higher than 25, regardless of age, who has additional risk factors, such as high blood pressure, a sedentary lifestyle, a history of polycystic ovary syndrome, having delivered a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds, a history of diabetes in pregnancy, high cholesterol levels, a history of heart disease, and having a close relative with diabetes. Anyone older than age 45 is advised to receive an initial blood sugar screening, and then, if the results are normal, to be screened every three years thereafter. Tests for type 1 and type 2 diabetes and prediabetes Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates that you have diabetes. An A1C between 5.7 and 6.4 percent indicates prediabetes. Below 5.7 is considered normal. If the A1C test results aren't consistent, the test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions that can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar Continue reading >>

Diabetes Food Chart 3

Diabetes Food Chart 3

What is the key to successfully managing diabetes? The foods we consume are THE most important factor. A truly diabetes friendly, Diabetes Food Chart designed to help diabetics obtain and maintain truly normal blood sugars is crucial to your success. a truly diabetes friendly food chart foods you can eat daily foods to avoid The diabetes food chart below is unlike most, it has been tested and it has been proven to help diabetics. If you will follow this diabetes food chart it will help you reduce blood sugars. Most other diabetes food charts are high carb, grain based charts that promote elevated blood sugars and ever-increasing drug requirements. They were designed and promoted by the Medical Industry, Big Food and Big Pharma. These are the same groups and companies that profit from diabetes. Truly Diabetes Friendly In 2009 I was an obese, chronically sick, newly diagnosed diabetic. Using the diabetes food chart on this page, I successfully manage my blood sugars. This food chart can help you too. How do I know? It helps everyone who tries it. Every one. This food chart is truly diabetes friendly, not Big Food, Big Pharma and Medical Industry friendly. Diabetes Friendly Food Chart Let’s look at the diabetes food chart above, level by level. Note: The base of the chart or pyramid is wider, these are the foods you need to eat the most. As you move up the chart, those are foods you can eat less. The Base – MEATS! All meats are ok to eat including fish, beef, pork and poultry. Fatty meats are even better. Fatty meats are the cornerstone of my personal diabetes meal plan and are the base of this diabetes food chart. If I do eat lean cuts, I usually add butter to increase the fat content.Limit processed deli meats. Always check ingredient lists to avoid eating fillers th Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs - Overview

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs - Overview

This handout provides general information about diabetes mellitus in dogs. For information about its treatment, see the fact sheets "Diabetes Mellitus - Principles of Treatment" and "Diabetes Mellitus - Insulin Treatment". What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the pancreas, a small but vital organ located near the stomach. The pancreas has two significant types of cells. One group of cells produces the enzymes necessary for proper digestion. The other group, called beta cells, produces the hormone insulin. Insulin regulates the level of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream and controls the delivery of glucose to the tissues of the body. In simple terms, diabetes mellitus is caused by the failure of the pancreas to regulate blood sugar. The clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are related to elevated concentrations of blood glucose and the inability of the body to use glucose as an energy source. What are the clinical signs of diabetes and why do they occur? The four main symptoms of uncomplicated diabetes mellitus are increased thirst, increased urination, weight loss, and increased appetite. Glucose is a vital substance that provides much of the energy needed by cells, but it must first be absorbed by the cells. Insulin attaches to receptors on the surface of cells and opens "pores" in the cell wall that allow glucose molecules to leave the bloodstream and enter the cell's interior. Without an adequate amount of insulin to "open the door," glucose is unable to get into the cells, so it accumulates in the blood, setting in motion a series of events that result in diabetes mellitus. "When there isn't enough insulin, the cells of the body become starved for their promary source of energy - glucose." When there isn't enough insulin, the cells of the bod Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

"Diabetes" redirects here. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2] Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[8] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:[2] Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin.[2] This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes".[2] The cause is unknown.[2] Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.[9] This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes".[2] The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.[2] Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.[2] Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.[2] Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with t Continue reading >>

Understanding How Food Affects Your Blood Sugar

Understanding How Food Affects Your Blood Sugar

Carbohydrates Blood glucose is affected most by carbohydrates. And insulin dosing is typically based on food intake, especially carbohydrates. Knowing what foods contain carbohydrates and the amount of carbohydrates in a meal is helpful for blood glucose control. You should aim to include carbohydrates in each meal. Carbohydrate sources like vegetables, fruits and whole grains (high fiber) are preferred over carbohydrate sources with added fats, sugars and salt. Proteins are a necessary part of a balanced diet and can keep you from feeling hungry. They also do not raise your blood glucose like carbohydrates. However, to prevent weight gain, use portion control with proteins. In people with Type 2 diabetes, protein makes insulin work faster, so it may not be a good idea to treat low blood sugar with protein shakes or mixes. Fats Fats are a necessary part of a balanced diet, especially healthy fats like olive oil and fatty fish. The five food groups Some people believe that a diabetes diagnosis means “goodbye” to good food. Not so. Having diabetes does not mean that you can no longer enjoy good food, or that you have to give up your favorite foods. Living with diabetes means eating regular, healthy meals from the following five food groups: Grains and starches Vegetables Fruits Milk & alternatives Meat & alternatives Making healthy food choices Your dietitian or diabetes educator can help you to develop an eating plan that is right for you and fits into your lifestyle. Here are some guidelines for healthy eating: Healthy eating for diabetes is healthy eating for the whole family. Enjoy having regular meals, starting with breakfast first, then lunch and dinner. Space meals no more than 6 hours apart. Eat a variety of foods in each meal, including healthy fats, lean mea Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Vs. Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes Vs. Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes affects over 29 million people in the United States, and 1 in 4 of those affected are unaware that they have diabetes.[1] Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in younger people and occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the body cannot use the insulin it produces. This disease, frequently related to obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and genetics, is most often diagnosed in adults, but incidence rates are increasing among teens in America.[2][3] Comparison chart Type 1 Diabetes versus Type 2 Diabetes comparison chart Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes Definition Beta cells in pancreas are being attacked by body's own cells and therefore can't produce insulin to take sugar out of the blood stream. Insulin is not produced. Diet related insulin release is so large and frequent that receptor cells have become less sensitive to the insulin. This insulin resistance results in less sugar being removed from the blood. Diagnosis Genetic, environmental and auto-immune factors, idiopathic Genetic, obesity (central adipose), physical inactivity, high/low birth weight, GDM, poor placental growth, metabolic syndrome Warning Signs Increased thirst & urination, constant hunger, weight loss, blurred vision and extreme tiredness, glycouria Feeling tired or ill, frequent urination (especially at night), unusual thirst, weight loss, blurred vision, frequent infections and slow wound healing, asymptomatic Commonly Afflicted Groups Children/teens Adults, elderly, certain ethnic groups Prone ethnic groups All more common in African American, Latino/Hispanic, Native American, Asian or Pacific Islander Bodily Effects Beleived to be triggered autoimmune destruction of the beta cells; autoimmune attack may occur following a viral infection such as mumps, rubell Continue reading >>

More in diabetes