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Diabetes Mellitus Australia

Diabetes Diagnosis

Diabetes Diagnosis

It is important for diabetes to be diagnosed early so treatment can be started as soon as possible. Diabetes is diagnosed by a blood test. Most people with type 1 diabetes and many with type 2 diabetes will present with symptoms of diabetes such as increased thirst, urination and tiredness. Some people will also have signs of slow healing of wounds or persistent infections. However, many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at all. A blood test is taken from a vein and sent to a pathology lab. The test may be either: a fasting sugar (glucose) test - fasting is required for at least eight hours, such as eating or drinking overnight a random glucose test taken anytime during the day an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) - where a patient who has fasted drinks a sugary drink and then has a blood test done 1 and then 2 hours later. The patient needs to eat and drink adequate (150 grams a day) of carbohydrates (starchy foods) for 3 days before the glucose tolerance test. Another blood test that can diagnose diabetes is the HbA1c test, which measures the percentage of haemoglobin molecules (the molecules that makes red blood cells red) in the blood that have a sugar molecule attached to them. Diabetes is diagnosed when: The fasting sugar level is >7mmol/L (on 2 separate occasions) The glucose tolerance test is >11mmol/L 2 hours after the sugary drink (on 2 separate occasions) The HbA1c level is >6.5% (on 2 separate occasions) Can diabetes be diagnosed with a blood glucose meter or urine test? A diagnosis of diabetes should not be made only by using a blood glucose meter and finger prick, or by urine glucose test. Although your doctor may take a blood test with a finger prick in the consulting room, you will still need a further blood test sent to pathology to confirm Continue reading >>

Prevelence Of Diabetes In Australia

Prevelence Of Diabetes In Australia

National Diabetes Week is a whole week dedicated to increasing public awareness of the seriousness of type 2 diabetes and to draw attention to the increasing number of Australia’s developing the condition. Diabetes Australia has developed a quirky campaign, using strong images illustrating the irrational fears that many people have, versus the real and hidden threats of diabetes – Did you know: 2 million Australians are at a HIGH risk of type 2 diabetes 58% of type 2 diabetes cases can be prevented or delayed though lifestyle modification Losing weight, eating a healthy diet and moving more can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes Research shows around 80% of Australians don’t think type two diabetes is something they need to worry about 280 Australian’s develop diabetes every day. Over 100,000 Australia have developed diabetes in the past year. Why do we focus on Diabetes? Diabetes is predicted to becoming the number one burden of disease in Australia by 2017 (in just 3 years time). It is the epidemic of the 21st century with all types of diabetes – type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes showing scary increases in prevalence. How many people are currently living with diabetes? The best current estimate is that at least 1.7 million Australians have diabetes and this estimate includes all types of diabetes diagnosed as well as silent, undiagnosed type 2 diabetes. Almost 1.1 million Australians currently have diagnosed and are registered with the National Diabetes Services Scheme More about Diabetes: There are three kinds of diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes Gestational Diabetes (GDM) Type 1 Diabetes: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system is activated to destroy the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin. It is not yet kno Continue reading >>

Diabetes Treatment

Diabetes Treatment

Type 1 diabetes is managed with insulin replacement through lifelong insulin injections (up to 6 every day) or delivery of insulin through a pump, by following a healthy diet and eating plan, taking regular exercise and monitoring of blood glucose levels regularly (up to 6 times every day or as directed by a doctor or diabetes educator). The aim of treating your diabetes is to keep blood glucose levels as close to ‘normal’ as possible, that is between 4 to 6 mmol/L (fasting). Keeping blood glucose levels in a healthy range will help prevent both short-term and long-term complications. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners recommends that if you have type 2 diabetes and take oral medication only, you should talk to your doctor or specialist about the need to test your blood sugar levels at home. For further information, visit the Choosing Wisely Australia website. Type 2 diabetes can sometimes initially be managed through lifestyle modification including a healthy diet and regular exercise. However, as the disease progresses, people with type 2 diabetes are often prescribed tablets to control their blood glucose levels. These tablets are intended to be used in conjunction with healthy eating and regular physical activity, not as a substitute. Diabetes tablets are not an oral form of insulin and they require insulin to be present in the body to be effective. Eventually it may be necessary to start taking insulin to control blood glucose levels, when your body is no longer producing enough insulin of its own. Sometimes tablets may be continued in addition to insulin. In type 2 diabetes, as in type 1, the aim of management is to keep blood glucose levels as close to ‘normal’ as possible, that is between 4 to 6 mmol/L (fasting), as this will help prev Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic condition marked by high levels of glucose in the blood. The main types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes has been escalating over the last 3 decades, with rates tripling over this period—diabetes affected around 1.2 million people in 2014–15. Rates of diabetes are generally higher among males, the elderly, Indigenous Australians and people living in remote and socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form, and is largely preventable by maintaining a healthy lifestyle. 63% of people diagnosed with type 1 diabetes were under the age of 25 See all reports Australian adults (6%)—about 1.2 million people—had diabetes in 2014–15, based on self-reported data Australian deaths in 2014 had diabetes as an underlying and/or associated cause of death—15,740 deaths group has diabetes hospitalisation and death rates that are 2 times as high as the highest socioeconomic group hospitalisations were associated with diabetes (principal and/or additional diagnosis) in 2014–15—10% of all hospitalisations in Australia areas have diabetes hospitalisation and death rates that are 2 times as high as Major cities Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

What is Diabetes Mellitus Type 2? Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a condition in which the body fails to metabolise glucose (sugar) correctly. This causes levels of sugar in the blood to increase, a state known as hyperglycaemia. When a person does not have diabetes, a gland called the pancreas produces and secretes a hormone called insulin. The hormone is used by the body’s tissues to metabolise glucose. Usually the amount of insulin secreted increases in relation to the amount of carbohydrate (sugar) a person consumes. In people with type 2 diabetes, insulin secretion from the pancreas often decreases. This is referred to as reduced insulin secretion. In addition the body tissues do not respond adequately to the insulin which is produced. Normally the insulin would be used by the body to draw glucose into the cells, where it could be stored as energy which could be used by the body later (e.g. when exercising or any of the other activities which involve energy expenditure). In type 2 diabetes, the glucose is not taken into the cells. This is referred to as insulin resistance. It causes glucose to stay in the blood stream and hyperglycaemia is the result. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was previously called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and late onset diabetes mellitus. These names are no longer used because they are inaccurate. Insulin is often used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The condition is increasingly diagnosed in young people. Statistics Almost one in 20 Australians, or one million people, were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in 2008. The actual proportion of Australians with the condition may be higher as many people are not diagnosed until they develop complications, for example diabetic retinopathy. Of those who have been diagnosed Continue reading >>

Diagnosis Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (gdm) In Australia

Diagnosis Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (gdm) In Australia

For over 20 years, the diagnosis of GDM in Australia has been derived from an ad hoc consensus, based on very limited data available at that time.1 The landmark observation trial HAPO, 20082 and other important randomised trials (Crowther et al. 20053; Langdon et al. 20094) have led to recommendations for new criteria for the diagnosis of GDM5, which have been endorsed by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Locally, these criteria have been endorsed by the Australasian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society (ADIPS) and the Australian Diabetes Society (ADS) but not by the Endocrine Society of Australia (ESA) or the Society of Obstetric Medicine of Australia and New Zealand (SOMANZ). The result is that there are currently two sets of GDM diagnostic criteria in use – causing significant confusion amongst obstetricians, midwives, pathologists and patients. On 1 November 2013, RANZCOG convened a multidisciplinary working party to progress the issue of variation in diagnosis of GDM (the Australian Multidisciplinary Gestational Diabetes Working Party). This working party included representation from: The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG), The Australasian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society (ADIPS), The International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG), The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA), The Australian College of Midwives (ACM), The Australian Diabetes Educators Association (ADEA), The Australian Diabetes Society (ADS), The Society of Obstetric Medicine of Australia and New Zealand (SOMANZ), and Consumer representation. Representatives from the Endocrine Society of Australia (ESA), The Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine (ACRRM) and the Royal Australian College of General Pra Continue reading >>

Ads Position Statement On The Prevention And Management Of Type 2 Diabetes In The Context Of Serious Mental Illness

Ads Position Statement On The Prevention And Management Of Type 2 Diabetes In The Context Of Serious Mental Illness

Authors: Roger Chen, Timothy Lambert, Jen Kinsella, Leon Chapman, Maarten Kamp, Jennifer Conn The Australian Diabetes Society (ADS) has released a new position statement aimed at improving the management and health outcomes of people living with serious mental illness and type 2 diabetes. A working party, supported by funding from the National Diabetes Services Scheme, was established to provide recommendations for the improvement and to better monitoring of the overall cardiometabolic health, particularly diabetes and diabetes risk, of individuals with serious mental illness. Download the full version of 'The prevention and management of type 2 diabetes in the context of psychotic disorders ADS Position Statement' - PDF (Posted: October, 2017) ADS Position Statement on Insulin-requiring Diabetes and Recreational Diving Authors: Mervyn Kyi, Barbora Paldus, Natalie Nanayakkara, Michael Bennett, Rebecca Johnson, Catherine Meehan, Peter Colman In 2015 the Australian Diabetes Society commissioned a working group to review and revise its position statement on scuba diving in persons with diabetes. The working group consisted of endocrinologists with an interest in type 1 diabetes, diving medical specialists, a recreational diver with diabetes and an advocate for people with type 1 diabetes. A thorough literature review was performed and all available evidence was summarised and a new position statement was drafted. The new position statement was submitted to the ADS Council for approval. The scope of this document is restricted to recreational (not professional) diving in line with the available evidence. It is also targeted at insulin-requiring (both type 1 and type 2) diabetes, as traditionally this group has been excluded from recreational diving. This document updates th Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition in which the body becomes resistant to the normal effects of insulin and/or gradually loses the capacity to produce enough insulin in the pancreas. We do not know what causes type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is associated with modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Type 2 diabetes also has strong genetic and family related risk factors. Type 2 diabetes: Is diagnosed when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (reduced insulin production) and/or the insulin does not work effectively and/or the cells of the body do not respond to insulin effectively (known as insulin resistance) Represents 85–90 per cent of all cases of diabetes Usually develops in adults over the age of 45 years but is increasingly occurring in younger age groups including children, adolescents and young adults Is more likely in people with a family history of type 2 diabetes or from particular ethnic backgrounds For some the first sign may be a complication of diabetes such as a heart attack, vision problems or a foot ulcer Is managed with a combination of regular physical activity, healthy eating and weight reduction. As type 2 diabetes is often progressive, most people will need oral medications and/or insulin injections in addition to lifestyle changes over time. Type 2 diabetes develops over a long period of time (years). During this period of time insulin resistance starts, this is where the insulin is increasingly ineffective at managing the blood glucose levels. As a result of this insulin resistance, the pancreas responds by producing greater and greater amounts of insulin, to try and achieve some degree of management of the blood glucose levels. As insulin overproduction occurs over a very long period of time, the insulin producing cells in the pan Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (insulin Dependent, Juvenile Onset)

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (insulin Dependent, Juvenile Onset)

What is Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (insulin dependent, juvenile onset)? Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic syndrome defined by an inability to produce insulin, a hormone which lowers blood sugar. This leads to inappropriate hyperglycaemia (increased blood sugar levels) and deranged metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Insulin is normally produced in the pancreas, a glandular organ involved in the production of digestive enzymes and hormones such as insulin and glucagon. These functions are carried out in the exocrine and endocrine (Islets of Langerhans) pancreas respectively. Statistics Type 1 diabetes mellitus is predominantly a disease of the young, usually developing before 20 years of age. Overall, type I DM makes up approximately 15% of all cases of diabetes. It develops in approximately 1 in 600 children and is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. The incidence is relatively low for children under the age of 5, increases between 5 and 15, and then tapers off. The incidence of diabetes (including type 1) appears to be rapidly rising in many parts of the world, including Australia. In addition, it may be occurring at an even younger age. Males and females tend to be equally affected. In Australia there is estimated to be approximately one million diabetic patients, of which approximately 150,000 fit into the type 1 category. Australia has a very high rate of type 1 diabetes compared to the rest of the world. The incidence of diabetes in Australian Aboriginal people is even higher. Risk Factors Type I diabetes mellitus is a disease of disordered immune function involving destruction of the cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin (beta cells). The exact cause of the disease is unknown. It has been proposed that it arises from a Continue reading >>

Risk Of Cardiovascular And All-cause Mortality In Individuals With Diabetes Mellitus, Impaired Fasting Glucose, And Impaired Glucose Tolerance: The Australian Diabetes, Obesity, And Lifestyle Study (ausdiab).

Risk Of Cardiovascular And All-cause Mortality In Individuals With Diabetes Mellitus, Impaired Fasting Glucose, And Impaired Glucose Tolerance: The Australian Diabetes, Obesity, And Lifestyle Study (ausdiab).

International Diabetes Institute, 250 Kooyong Rd, Caulfield, Victoria, 3162, Australia. [email protected] Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. The relationship between milder elevations of blood glucose and mortality is less clear. This study investigated whether impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, as well as diabetes mellitus, increase the risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. In 1999 to 2000, glucose tolerance status was determined in 10,428 participants of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). After a median follow-up of 5.2 years, 298 deaths occurred (88 CVD deaths). Compared with those with normal glucose tolerance, the adjusted all-cause mortality hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for known diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were 2.3 (1.6 to 3.2) and 1.3 (0.9 to 2.0), respectively. The risk of death was also increased in those with impaired fasting glucose (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.4) and impaired glucose tolerance (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0). Sixty-five percent of all those who died of CVD had known diabetes mellitus, newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, or impaired glucose tolerance at baseline. Known diabetes mellitus (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.7) and impaired fasting glucose (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.1) were independent predictors for CVD mortality after adjustment for age, sex, and other traditional CVD risk factors, but impaired glucose tolerance was not (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.2). This study emphasizes the strong association between abnormal glucose metabolism and mortality, and it suggests that this condition contributes to a large number of CVD deaths in the general population. CVD preventio Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

This answer is brought to you by many of the Australian nutrition professionals who regularly contribute to the Nutritionists Network ('Nut-Net'), a nutrition email discussion group. What is diabetes? 'Diabetes' is the abbreviated term for a condition known as 'diabetes mellitus'. There are two main forms of diabetes in the general population, type 1 and type 2. A third type, known as 'gestational diabetes' is associated with pregnancy. All forms of diabetes involve a reduced ability of the body to handle blood glucose (the type of sugar transported in the blood). In normal health, blood glucose is maintained at a fairly constant level by the action of insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas. Insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose, amino acids and fat (in the form of triglycerides) from the blood into the tissues for use. Insulin also promotes the storage of blood glucose in the liver and muscles. Thus insulin prevents the glucose level becoming too high in the blood. If insulin production is too low, or the insulin does not have its usual effect, blood glucose can climb to dangerous levels (a condition known as 'hyperglycaemia'). When blood glucose levels are high over long periods of time, damage to cells within the body can result. What is the difference between type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes? Type 1 diabetes, previously known as 'juvenile-onset' or 'insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus' (IDDM), involves destruction of the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin, so people with type 1 diabetes have a deficiency of insulin. As a result, injections of insulin are required. Type 2 diabetes, previously known as 'adult-onset' or 'non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus' (NIDDM), does not usually involve a deficiency of insulin production (at least not in Continue reading >>

4364.0.55.001 - National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15

4364.0.55.001 - National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15

DIABETES MELLITUS Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition where insulin, a hormone that controls blood glucose levels, is no longer produced or not produced in sufficient amounts by the body. It significantly affects the health of many Australians and can result in a range of complications, including serious damage to the nerves and blood vessels. If left undiagnosed or poorly managed, diabetes can lead to coronary heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, limb amputations or blindness. Definitions In this publication, data on diabetes refers to persons who reported having been told by a doctor or nurse that they had diabetes, irrespective of whether the person considered their diabetes to be current or long-term. This definition was first used for estimates of diabetes in Australian Health Survey: Updated Results, 2011-12 (cat. no. 4364.0.55.003). Estimates of diabetes for all years in this publication are presented using this definition. In earlier publications, persons who had reported having diabetes but that it was not current were not included. Data excludes gestational diabetes. In 2014-15, 5.1% of the Australian population (1.2 million people) had some type of diabetes, an increase from 4.5% in 2011-12. One million people (4.4%) had Type 2 diabetes in 2014-15, up from 840,000 people (3.8%) in 2011-12. A further 158,900 people (0.7%) had Type 1 diabetes in 2014-15, up from 113,400 people in 2011-12 (0.5%). More males (5.7%) had diabetes than females (4.6%) in 2014-15, and, as with many health conditions, the rate of diabetes increased with age. Of people aged 75 years and over, almost one in five (18.4%) had diabetes in 2014-15. One of the main risk factors for developing Type 2 diabetes is being overweight or obese[1], as excess body weight can interfere with the Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

For our bodies to work properly we need to convert glucose (sugar) from food into energy. A hormone called insulin is essential for the conversion of glucose into energy. In people with diabetes, insulin is no longer produced or not produced in sufficient amounts by the body. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a chronic disease characterised by high levels of glucose in the blood. Blood sugar levels are controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Diabetes occurs when the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin, or the body becomes resistant to insulin, or both. There are three main forms of the disease: Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease where the body's immune system attacks the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. People with type 1 diabetes cannot produce insulin and require lifelong insulin injections for survival. The disease can occur at any age, although it mostly occurs in children and young adults. Type 1 diabetes is sometimes referred to as juvenile onset diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is associated with hereditary factors and lifestyle risk factors including poor diet, insufficient physical activity and overweight or obesity. People with type 2 diabetes may be able to manage their condition through lifestyle changes; however, diabetes medications or insulin injections may also be required to control blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in people aged over 40 years old, however, the disease is also becoming increasingly prevalent in younger age groups. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy. The condition usually disappears once the baby is born, however, a history of gestational diabetes increases a woman's risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. The condition may be managed throu Continue reading >>

The Role Of Hba1c In The Diagnosis Of Diabetes Mellitus In Australia

The Role Of Hba1c In The Diagnosis Of Diabetes Mellitus In Australia

Summary For many years, the diagnosis of diabetes has been made through the laboratory-based measurement of fasting or random blood glucose levels, or using the oral glucose tolerance test. A glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) is now also acceptable for diagnosing diabetes. Caution is needed in interpreting HbA1c test results in the presence of conditions affecting red blood cells or their survival time, such as haemoglobinopathies or anaemia. Continue reading >>

General Practice Management Of Type 2 Diabetes

General Practice Management Of Type 2 Diabetes

2016–18 Diabetes is a national health priority. The Australian National Diabetes Strategy 2016– 2020 was released by the Australian Government in November 2013. The number of people with type 2 diabetes is growing, most likely the result of rising overweight and obesity rates, lifestyle and dietary changes, and an ageing population. Within 20 years, the number of people in Australia with type 2 diabetes may increase from an estimated 870,000 in 2014, to more than 2.5 million.1 The most socially disadvantaged Australians are twice as likely to develop diabetes. If left undiagnosed or poorly managed, type 2 diabetes can lead to coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, kidney failure, limb amputations and blindness. The early identification and optimal management of people with type 2 diabetes is therefore critical. General practice has the central role in type 2 diabetes management across the spectrum, from identifying those at risk right through to caring for patients at the end of life. These guidelines give up-to-date, evidence-based information tailored for general practice to support general practitioners (GPs) and their teams in providing high-quality management.1 In the development of the 2016–18 edition of General practice management of type 2 diabetes, The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP) has focused on factors relevant to current Australian clinical practice. The RACGP has used the skills and knowledge of your general practice peers who have an interest in diabetes management and are members of the RACGP Specific Interests Diabetes Network. This publication has been produced in accordance with the rules and processes outlined in the RACGP’s conflict of interest (COI) policy. The RACGP’s COI policy is available at www.racgp.org.au Continue reading >>

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