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Diabetes Mellitus And Atrial Fibrillation

Atrial Fibrillation And Type I Diabetes: What's The Link?

Atrial Fibrillation And Type I Diabetes: What's The Link?

Atrial Fibrillation and Type I Diabetes: What's the Link? The relationship between atrial fibrillation (AF) and diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complicated one and the jury is still out on whether the link between the two diseases is cause or correlation.1 Multiple epidemiologic studies have shown an association between DM and AF. Theories suggest that this relationship may be causal (ie, DM leads to increased risk of AF), possibly as a result of aberrations in autonomic nervous tone or of pathologic changes in atrial tissue from hyperglycemia. Alternatively, DM and AF share multiple risk factors, including obesity, hypertension, and sleep apnea and so the relationship may instead be associative. DM certainly increases thromboembolic risk and is therefore included in the CHA2DS2-Vasc risk score. In a recent study published in Lancet Diabetes Endocrinology,2a Swedish cohort study investigated the relationship between type 1 DM (T1DM) and AF (which has not apparently been previously studied). Using national population registries, 36,258 patients with T1DM were matched with 179,980 propensity matched controls and followed for ~10 years. The incidence of AF was higher in participants with T1DM than it was in the general population. The study reported a statistically significant p-value for interaction (p=0.019) with a HR for incident AF of 1.13 (1.01-1.25) in men and 1.50 (1.30-1.72) in women with risk of AF increasing along with parameters that reflected worse glycemic control (glucose control, renal complications). Interestingly, in individuals who had no clear evidence of end-organ damage (ie, did not meet threshold for microalbuminuria), there was no increase in AF risk with relatively liberal A1c thresholds (men with A1c <9.7% or women with A1c <8.8%). Above these thresho Continue reading >>

Association Of Metformin With Lower Atrial Fibrillation Risk Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-based Dynamic Cohort And In Vitro Studies

Association Of Metformin With Lower Atrial Fibrillation Risk Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-based Dynamic Cohort And In Vitro Studies

Association of metformin with lower atrial fibrillation risk among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based dynamic cohort and in vitro studies Chang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.2014 Atrial fibrillation (AF), an inflammatory process involving arrhythmia, is associated with severe morbidity and mortality and commonly seen in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The effect of metformin, the most commonly used medication for patients with DM, on AF has not been investigated. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether metformin prevented the occurrence of AF in type 2 DM patients by analyzing a nationwide, population-based dynamic cohort. Additionally, we investigated the effect of metformin on tachycardia-induced myolysis and oxidative stress in atrial cells. The study population included 645,710 patients with type 2 diabetes and not using other anti-diabetic medication from a subset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Of these patients, those who used metformin were categorized as the user group, and the remaining were classified as the non-user group. The time-dependent Coxs proportional hazard model was used to examine the effect of metformin on AF and the status of metformin use was treated as a time-dependent covariate. HL-1 atrial cells were paced with or without metformin, and then troponin and heavy-chain-myosin were measured as markers of myolysis. After 13years of follow-up, 9,983 patients developed AF with an incidence rate of 1.5% (287 per 100,000 person-years). After adjusting for co-morbidities and medications, metformin independently protected the diabetic patients from new-onset AF with a hazard ratio of .81 (95% confidence interval 0.76-0.86, p < 0.0001). Metformin significantly decreased the ext Continue reading >>

Mechanism Of And Therapeutic Strategy For Atrial Fibrillation Associated With Diabetes Mellitus

Mechanism Of And Therapeutic Strategy For Atrial Fibrillation Associated With Diabetes Mellitus

Mechanism of and Therapeutic Strategy for Atrial Fibrillation Associated with Diabetes Mellitus Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 0086-510630, China Received 11 January 2013; Accepted 19 February 2013 Copyright 2013 Yubi Lin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most important risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) and is a predictor of stroke and thromboembolism. DM may increase the incidence of AF, and when it is combined with other risk factors, the incidence of stroke and thromboembolism may also be higher; furthermore, hospitalization due to heart failure appears to increase. Maintenance of well-controlled blood glucose and low levels of HbA1c in accordance with guidelines may decrease the incidence of AF. The mechanisms of AF associated with DM are autonomic remodeling, electrical remodeling, structural remodeling, and insulin resistance. Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system is suggested to be an upstream therapy for this type of AF. Studies have indicated that catheter ablation may be effective for AF associated with DM, restoring sinus rhythm and improving prognosis. Catheter ablation combined with hypoglycemic agents may further increase the rate of maintenance of sinus rhythm and reduce the need for reablation. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disorder and contributes to thromboembolism. The presence of AF is an independent risk factor for thromboembolism; especially stroke in association with AF increases mortality and morbidity, leading to gre Continue reading >>

The Link Between Diabetes And Atrial Fibrillation: Cause Or Correlation?

The Link Between Diabetes And Atrial Fibrillation: Cause Or Correlation?

The link between diabetes and atrial fibrillation: cause or correlation? Heart Centre, Peking University Peoples Hospital, China [email protected] Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer Copyright Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of arrhythmia in the world. As the population ages, it is estimated that the prevalence of AF will increase by 2.5 fold in the next 50 years. 1 At the same time, diabetes has become a pandemic disease in the western world as well as in developing countries. Independent risk factors for chronic AF include hypertension, heart failure, valvular heart disease and cardiomyopathy. The development of AF is likely to be multifactorial and the mechanism is elusive, while there is emerging evidence on the correlation between AF and diabetes mellitus (DM). DM and AF share common antecedents such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and obesity. Population-based studies suggested that DM is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation. 2 Both DM and AF are marked predictor for stroke and mortality. The causal relation between DM and AF is still debatable and will be discussed. DM is one of the most common concomitant diseases in patients with AF. 3 In a survey of hospitalized patient, AF occurred in 14.9% of DM patients vs 10.3% in control group with hypertension but no DM. 4 DM has been cited as the risk factor for AF for decades. In the early 1990s, the Framingham study indicated DM to be an Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Is Important As A Risk Factor Of Atrial Fibrillation

Diabetes Mellitus Is Important As A Risk Factor Of Atrial Fibrillation

Diabetes mellitus is important as a risk factor of atrial fibrillation Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Institute for Adult Disease, Asahi Life Foundation, Japan Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Institute for Adult Disease, Asahi Life Foundation, Japan Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most important risk factors for stroke, heart failure, and other cardiac disturbances, but little is known about the association with metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Although several reports have studied their association, the results have been controversial and no large scale study has been reported in the real world clinical practice. We investigated the frequency of AF in 13,868 patients (DM: 6,202, AF: 309) who consulted our hospital in the last two years. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control study and examined the association between AF and metabolic diseases (DM, dyslipidemia) and cardiovascular and renal diseases (hypertension, heart failure, chronic renal failure). AF was observed in 3.26% of the DM group and 1.37% in the control group. The occurrence frequency between AF and DM was 2.40 as shown by the odds ratio of the risk of DM for AF (95% confidence interval; 1.89-3.06, p< 0.01%). We demonstrated for the first time in a large scale investigation in the real world clinical practice that DM would significantly increase the risk of the onset of AF. It is recommended that patients with DM should take electrocardiography regularly and be intervened at an early stage. atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, risk factor, large scale, association Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice, and is associated with an increased risk of cerebral infarction, heart failure, and overall mortality. Recently, AF Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus, Glycemic Control, And Risk Of Atrial Fibrillation

Diabetes Mellitus, Glycemic Control, And Risk Of Atrial Fibrillation

N2 - Background: Diabetes may be an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation. However, results from prior studies are in conflict, and no study has examined diabetes duration or glycemic control. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of diabetes with risk of atrial fibrillation and to describe risk according to diabetes duration and glycemic control. DESIGN: A population-based case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: Within a large, integrated healthcare delivery system, we identified 1,410 people with newly-recognized atrial fibrillation from ICD-9 codes and validated cases by review of medical records. 2,203 controls without atrial fibrillation were selected from enrollment lists, stratified on age, sex, hypertension, and calendar year. Main Measures: Information on atrial fibrillation, diabetes and other characteristics came from medical records. Diabetes was defined based on physician diagnoses recorded in the medical record, and pharmacologically treated diabetes was defined as receiving antihyperglycemic medications. Information about hemoglobin A1c levels came from computerized laboratory data. Key Results: Among people with atrial fibrillation, 252/1410 (17.9%) had pharmacologically treated diabetes compared to 311/2203 (14.1%) of controls. The adjusted OR for atrial fibrillation was 1.40 (95% CI 1.15-1.71) for people with treated diabetes compared to those without diabetes. Among those with treated diabetes, the risk of developing atrial fibrillation was 3% higher for each additional year of diabetes duration (95% CI 1-6%). Compared to people without diabetes, the adjusted OR for people with treated diabetes with average hemoglobin A1c 7 was 1.06 (95% CI 0.74-1.51); for A1c >7 but 8, 1.48 (1.09-2.01); for A1c >8 but 9, 1.46 (1.02-2.08); and for A1c >9, 1.96 (1 Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Atrial Fibrillation: From Mechanisms To Clinical Practice - Sciencedirect

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Atrial Fibrillation: From Mechanisms To Clinical Practice - Sciencedirect

Volume 108, Issue 4 , April 2015, Pages 269-276 Type 2 diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation: From mechanisms to clinical practiceDiabte de type II et fibrillation atriale: des mcanismes la pratique clinique Author links open overlay panel MarijanaTadicab Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic conditions and its prevalence has increased continuously over the past decades, primarily due to the obesity epidemic. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent sustained cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice and is associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have shown that patients with diabetes have an increased risk of AF. However, the results about the relationship between diabetes and AF are still conflicting. Mechanisms that are responsible for an association between diabetes and AF, as well as the adequate treatment of AF in patients with diabetes, are still insufficiently studied. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of mechanisms that connect AF and diabetes, the clinical studies that include patients with both conditions, and the treatment options in modern pharmacology. Le diabte de type II est une des affections chroniques les plus frquentes et sa prvalence a augment de faon rgulire au cours des dernires dcennies, essentiellement du fait de lpidmie dobsit. La fibrillation atriale est larythmie cardiaque la plus frquente en pratique clinique et est associe avec une augmentation de la morbi-mortalit cardiovasculaire et crbrovasculaire. Des tudes rcentes ont montr que les patients diabtiques avaient un risque accru de fibrillation atriale. Cependant, ces rsultats tablissant la relation entre diabte et fibrillation atriale sont controverss. Les mcanismes respons Continue reading >>

Atrial Fibrillation In Diabetes: A Cause For Concern?

Atrial Fibrillation In Diabetes: A Cause For Concern?

Atrial fibrillation in diabetes: A cause for concern? Download as PDF (Size:534KB) PP. 378-385 DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2012.24059 3,795 Downloads 6,057 Views Citations Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most common cardiac arrhythmias and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is becoming increasingly evident diabetes is a significant risk factor for the development of AF. The reason for this link is not clearly understood, however it is clear that other co-morbid diseases associated with diabetes such as hypertension and obesity may be implicated or there may be direct arrthymogenic affects of glucose dysregulation on the myocardium. The development of AF in patients with diabetes may be an ominous sign given the increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease and we propose this is an under researched area where treatments may bring benefits over and above those patients without diabetes in terms of morbidity or death from cardiovascular disease. Diabetes; Atrial Fibrillation; Mechanisms; Treatment R. Szwejkowski, B. , Rekhraj, S. , D. Morris, A. and D. Struthers, A. (2012) Atrial fibrillation in diabetes: A cause for concern?. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 2, 378-385. doi: 10.4236/jdm.2012.24059 . Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Atrial Fibrillation Risks

Diabetes And Atrial Fibrillation Risks

April 27, 2010 (Seattle, Washington) Results from a new analysis suggest that individuals with diabetes are at an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation [1]. The study also showed that this risk was higher among patients with a longer duration of treated diabetes and poorer glycemic control. "People with diabetes--specifically, those who are taking medications for diabetes--are at a substantially higher risk of developing atrial fibrillation than people that don't have diabetes at all," said lead investigator Dr Sascha Dublin (Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA). "They are 40% more likely to get it than the people who don't have diabetes. One of the hopes is to get doctors to think about the possibility of the arrhythmia in these patients." Speaking with heartwire , Dublin said the study, which was published online April 20, 2010 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, emerged from her group's earlier research examining the association between obesity and atrial fibrillation. In that prior study, obesity was shown to be a risk factor for developing the arrhythmia, and this led the researchers to search for the possible mechanism underlying the link between body-mass index and atrial fibrillation. Along the way, said Dublin, she and others accumulated evidence that suggested diabetes mellitus wasn't the cause of atrial fibrillation in obese patients but might be an independent risk factor. In this study, the researchers used data from Group Health, a large, integrated healthcare system in the US. Included in this population-based case-control analysis were 1410 people with newly recognized atrial fibrillation and 2203 controls without atrial fibrillation. Of those with atrial fibrillation, 39% had transitory atrial fibrillation, defined as a sin Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Atrial Fibrillation: Pathophysiological Mechanisms And Potential Upstream Therapies

Diabetes Mellitus And Atrial Fibrillation: Pathophysiological Mechanisms And Potential Upstream Therapies

Diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation: Pathophysiological mechanisms and potential upstream therapies Christos A. Goudis - Department of Cardiology, General Hospital of Grevena, Greece Panagiotis Korantzopoulos - University of Ioannina Ioannis V. Ntalas - University of Ioannina Eleftherios M. Kallergis - University Hospital of Heraklion Tong Liu - Tianjin Institute of Cardiology, Second Hospital of Tanjin Medical University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China Dimitrios G. Ketikoglou - Interbalkan Medical Center Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents one of the most important risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) while AF is a strong and independent marker of overall mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in diabetic patients. Autonomic, electrical, electromechanical, and structural remodeling, including oxidative stress, connexin remodeling and glycemic fluctuations seem to be implicated in AF pathophysiology in the setting of DM. The present review highlights the association between DM and AF, provides a comprehensive overview of the responsible pathophysiological mechanisms and briefly discusses potential upstream therapies for DM-related atrial remodeling. 2018 Digital Science & Research Solutions, Inc. All Rights Reserved | About us Privacy policy Legal terms VPAT Citation Count is the number of times that this paper has been cited by other published papers in the database. The Altmetric Attention Score is a weighted count of all of the online attention Altmetric have found for an individual research output. This includes mentions in public policy documents and references in Wikipedia, the mainstream news, social networks, blogs and more. More detail on the weightings of each source and how they contribute to the attention score is available here . The Relative Continue reading >>

Atrial Fibrillation (irregular Heartbeat) Risk And Diabetes Mellitus Linked In New Study

Atrial Fibrillation (irregular Heartbeat) Risk And Diabetes Mellitus Linked In New Study

Special Report: Secret of Healthy Digestion and Regularity Get this report FREE when you opt in for our FREE Health eTalk daily newsletter along with exclusive offers from Bel Marra Health and third party partners You may opt-out at any time. Privacy Policy Home Diabetes Atrial fibrillation (irregular heartbeat) risk and diabetes mellitus linked in new study Atrial fibrillation (irregular heartbeat) risk and diabetes mellitus linked in new study By: Devon Andre | Diabetes | Tuesday, March 22, 2016 - 11:30 AM Atrial fibrillation (irregular heartbeat) risk and diabetes mellitus have been found to be linked in a new study. The study was conducted on the general population in China where researchers found that diabetes mellitus is a stand-alone risk factor for atrial fibrillation even after adjusting for other cardiovascular factors. The researchers examined the correlation between atrial fibrillation (AF) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in a cross-sectional study that involved 11,956 residents over the age of 35 from the general population in China. The participants filled out a questionnaire, underwent a physical exam, and completed an echocardiogram and electrocardiogram. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation was higher in those with diabetes mellitus, compared to those without the condition. Atrial fibrillation was also higher in diabetes mellitus patients than in patients without diabetes mellitus but in a hypertensive subgroup. Even after adjustments for other cardiovascular risk factors, the association between atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus still remained. The authors wrote, DM is an independent risk factor for AF in a general population from China, this association is present in total and hypertensive subjects, but not in normotensive [with normal blood pres Continue reading >>

The Diabetes-atrial Fibrillation Link: Are You At Risk?

The Diabetes-atrial Fibrillation Link: Are You At Risk?

Afib, or atrial fibrillation as it's formally known, and diabetes are linked by common risk factors and are common diseases, so it's not surprising that many people have both conditions. What is surprising is that diabetes is an independent risk factor for this heart disease. That means just having diabetes alone can be a cause of afib. “Even in the world of cardiologists, it is not as well-known as it should be that diabetes is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation,” said Donna Denier, MD, councilor of the American College of Cardiology and a board certified cardiologist and internist at the South Nassau Communities Hospital Center for Cardiovascular Health in Baldwin, N.Y. Afib is the most common cause of irregular heart rhythm in the world. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes and affects millions of Americans. Both diseases can shorten your life and increase your risk for a deadly stroke. High blood pressure, coronary heart disease, and obesity increase your risk for both diseases. A 2012 study published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology reviewed the medical records of 34,720 female health professionals who took part in the Women’s Health Study. At the beginning of the study, 937 of the women had type 2 diabetes. Over a period of about 16 years, these women had almost double the risk of developing afib than other women in the study. “We know that age, obesity, high blood pressure, and sleep apnea are all risk factors for both diseases. But recent studies say the link goes deeper than that. Having diabetes increases your risk of afib by about 40 percent, and the incidence of afib goes up by about 3 percent for every year you have diabetes,” said Tu K. Le, MD, a board certified cardiologist at the Texas Health P Continue reading >>

Innovative Solutions: Managing Atrial Fibrillation And Diabetes Mellitus

Innovative Solutions: Managing Atrial Fibrillation And Diabetes Mellitus

16.0017.10 Session: Collaboration Between a Cardiologist and a Family Doctor Seeking to Ensure the Optimal Treatment and Prophylaxis of Thrombosis 16.0016.10 The Main Aspects of NVAF Anticoagulation Therapy 16.1016.40 Work in Groups. Practical Lecture Are All NOACs Alike? Analysis of Clinical Cases. 16.4017.10 Work in Groups. Practical Lecture Collaboration Between a Cardiologist and a Family Doctor Seeking to Ensure the Optimal Treatment and Prophylaxis of Thrombosis. Innovative Solutions. Analysis of Clinical Situations. 17.2518.35 Session: We Do Not Treat the Disease, but the Patient; and We Do Not Reduce the Amount of Glycemia, but Improve the Outcome 17.2517.45 Work in Groups. Diabetes Treatment Algorithm. News Related to Everyday Practice. 17.4518.00 Work in Groups. Are Kidney Protection and Diabetes Compatible? 18.0018.15 Work in Groups. Scales, Body Weight, Kilograms: Interpretation of the Numbers in the Treatment of Diabetes 18.1518.35 Work in Groups. Glycaemic Reduction and Cardiovascular Protection. A New Turn in Diabetes Treatment. 18.35 Issuance of Certificates and Dinner Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Afib Increases Symptoms, Mortality And Hospitalizations

Diabetes In Afib Increases Symptoms, Mortality And Hospitalizations

Patients with atrial fibrillation (AFib) and diabetes have worse AFib symptoms, lower quality of life, higher mortality and higher hospitalization rates than AFib patients without diabetes, according to a study recently published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Justin B. Echouffo-Tcheugui, MD, PhD, et al., enrolled 9,479 adults with AFib from the ORBIT-AF registry for this prospective, observational cohort study with a mean follow-up of 2.4 years. Diabetes was diagnosed in 2,874 of the AFib patients (29.5 percent). Patients with diabetes versus those without had a higher risk of stroke (p < 0.001) and bleeding (p < 0.001). Patients with diabetes had greater functional impairment, more dyspnea, more fatigue and lower overall median Atrial Fibrillation Effect on Quality of Life scores. Patients with diabetes used more anticoagulants than those without diabetes. Patients with diabetes had higher rates of cardiovascular death, non-cardiovascular death and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Multivariate analysis showed that diabetes was associated with a higher risk of all-cause death, both among patients <70 years (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.63; p = 0.033) and those ≥70 years of age (adjusted HR, 1.25; p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, diabetes was also associated with a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular death, non-cardiovascular death, SCD, all-cause and cardiovascular hospitalization, and non-cardiovascular, non-bleeding hospitalization. Patients with diabetes did not have an increased risk of thromboembolic events, AFib progression or incident heart failure. “Among patients with AFib in this nationwide cohort, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 30 percent, emphasizing the importance of diabetes screening in patients diagnosed w Continue reading >>

Atrial Fibrillation In Patients With Diabetes: Molecular Mechanisms And Therapeutic Perspectives

Atrial Fibrillation In Patients With Diabetes: Molecular Mechanisms And Therapeutic Perspectives

Atrial fibrillation in patients with diabetes: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives 1Arrhythmia Unit, Department of Cardiology, Misericordia Hospital, Grosseto, Italy; 2Arrhythmia Unit, Department of Cardiology, OLV Hospital, Aalst, Belgium; 3Department of Cardiology, Misericordia Hospital, Grosseto, Italy; 4Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University Hospital, Mnster, Germany Correspondence to: Francesco De Sensi, MD. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology Unit, Department of Cardiology, Misericordia Hospital, Via Senese 161, 58100, Grosseto, Italy. Email: [email protected]_isnesed . Received 2015 Apr 30; Accepted 2015 Jun 5. Copyright 2015 Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy. All rights reserved. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains the most frequent sustained cardiac arrhythmia worldwide and its incidence increases with ageing, cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is growing fast and is assuming pandemic proportions mostly due to overnutrition and sedentary habits. Experimental and clinical evidences suggest that DM and AF are strongly interconnected. The present review addresses in detail new molecular pathways implicated in the etiology of AF and their relevance for mechanism-based therapeutic strategies in this setting. Advances in risk stratification, drug therapy (i.e., novel anticoagulants) and catheter ablation are also described. Keywords: Atrial fibrillation (AF), diabetes mellitus (DM), anticoagulants, catheter ablation The mutual relationship between atrial fibrillation (AF) and diabetes mellitus (DM) AF management represents a daily challenge for physicians in terms of controlling disabling symptoms and protecting from thromboembolism. AF is a Continue reading >>

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