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Diabetes Leading Cause Of Death

Mortality And Causes Of Death In Type 2 Diabetic Patients. A Long-term Follow-up Study In Osaka District, Japan.

Mortality And Causes Of Death In Type 2 Diabetic Patients. A Long-term Follow-up Study In Osaka District, Japan.

Mortality and causes of death in type 2 diabetic patients. A long-term follow-up study in Osaka District, Japan. Osaka Medical Center for Adult Diseases, Japan. A follow-up study of 1939 diabetic patients with a mean observation period of 9.4 years was carried out in Osaka, Japan. The mortality rates per 1000 person-years were 31.35 for males and 21.99 for females, and the ratios of observed to expected number of deaths were 1.69 for males and 1.74 for females, indicating an excess mortality for diabetic patients of both sexes and higher mortality in males than in females in Japan. Factors related to the prognosis of the patients were age, elevated fasting glucose level, lower obesity index, hypertension, diabetic retinopathy, and albuminuria at entry to the study. Insulin treatment was also associated with poor prognosis. Cerebro-cardiovascular and renal disease were the major causes of death in diabetic patients; heart disease killed 19.5%, cerebrovascular disease 16.7% and renal disease 13.1%. The relatively high frequency of renal disease as a cause of death in type 2 diabetes, especially in patients with a lower age of onset, was noteworthy, suggesting some difference in the clinical manifestations of diabetes between Japan and Western countries. Malignant neoplasms accounted for 25% of deaths, and cirrhosis of the liver for 6.4%. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Reporting As A Cause Of Death

Diabetes Reporting As A Cause Of Death

Results from the Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) study Abstract OBJECTIVE—To determine the frequency of reporting of diabetes on death certificates of decedents with known diabetes, define factors associated with reporting of diabetes, and describe trends in reporting over time. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data were obtained from 11,927 participants with diabetes who were enrolled in the Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes study, a multicenter prospective observational study of diabetes care in managed care. Data on decedents (n = 540) were obtained from the National Death Index. The primary dependent variable was the presence of ICD-10 codes for diabetes on the death certificate. Covariates included age at death, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, duration of diabetes, type of diabetes, diabetes treatment, smoking status, and number of comorbidities. RESULTS—Diabetes was recorded on 39% of death certificates and as the underlying cause of death for 10% of decedents with diabetes. Diabetes was significantly less likely to be reported on the death certificates of decedents with diabetes dying of cancer. Predictors of recording diabetes anywhere on the death certificate included longer duration of diabetes and insulin treatment. Longer duration of diabetes, insulin treatment, and fewer comorbidities were associated with recording of diabetes as the underlying cause of death. CONCLUSIONS—Diabetes is much more likely to be reported on the death certificates of diabetic individuals who die of cardiovascular causes. Reporting of diabetes on death certificates has been stable over time. Death certificates underestimate the prevalence of diabetes among decedents and present a biased picture of the causes of death among people with di Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes

What Is Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas is no longer able to make insulin, or when the body cannot make good use of the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas, that acts like a key to let glucose from the food we eat pass from the blood stream into the cells in the body to produce energy. All carbohydrate foods are broken down into glucose in the blood. Insulin helps glucose get into the cells. Not being able to produce insulin or use it effectively leads to raised glucose levels in the blood (known as hyperglycaemia). Over the long-term high glucose levels are associated with damage to the body and failure of various organs and tissues. Continue reading >>

The Top 10 Causes Of Death

The Top 10 Causes Of Death

Top 10 causes of death worldwide Of the 56.4 million deaths worldwide in 2015, more than half (54%) were due to the top 10 causes. Ischaemic heart disease and stroke are the world’s biggest killers, accounting for a combined 15 million deaths in 2015. These diseases have remained the leading causes of death globally in the last 15 years. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease claimed 3.2 million lives in 2015, while lung cancer (along with trachea and bronchus cancers) caused 1.7 million deaths. Diabetes killed 1.6 million people in 2015, up from less than 1 million in 2000. Deaths due to dementias more than doubled between 2000 and 2015, making it the 7th leading cause of global deaths in 2015. Lower respiratory infections remained the most deadly communicable disease, causing 3.2 million deaths worldwide in 2015. The death rate from diarrhoeal diseases almost halved between 2000 and 2015, but still caused 1.4 million deaths in 2015. Similarly, tuberculosis killed fewer people during the same period, but is still among the top 10 causes with a death toll of 1.4 million. HIV/AIDS is no longer among the world’s top 10 causes of death, having killed 1.1 million people in 2015 compared with 1.5 million in 2000. Road injuries killed 1.3 million people in 2015, about three-quarters (76%) of whom were men and boys. Leading causes of death by economy income group More than half (52%) of all deaths in low-income countries in 2015 were caused by the so-called “Group I” conditions, which include communicable diseases, maternal causes, conditions arising during pregnancy and childbirth, and nutritional deficiencies. By contrast, less than 7% of deaths in high-income countries were due to such causes. Lower respiratory infections were among the leading causes of death across Continue reading >>

Leading Causes Of Death In Indonesia

Leading Causes Of Death In Indonesia

Stroke, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes are the top killers in Indonesia, as per a report released by the World Health Organization, Healthcare facilities in Indonesia needs to undergo major improvements to save more lives. Indonesia is a Southeast Asian island nation made up of more than 13,000 islands. It is considered a developing economy and has a population size of approximately 257.5 million. As of 2013, 29% of the population is younger than 15 years, and only 8% is over 60. Just over half of the inhabitants reside in urban areas, and only 67% of births are registered. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the life expectancy at birth is approximately 71 years. Epidemiological conditions develop within one of four categories: Pestilence and Famine, Receding Pandemics, Degenerative and Man-Made Diseases, and Delayed Degenerative Diseases. These categories, in turn, follow the stages of economic development which range from agrarian to industrial to postindustrial. As industry changes within a nation, lifestyles also change and contribute to health problems. Indonesia is currently experiencing the Degenerative and Man-Made Diseases stage of epidemiological change which is identified by its leading causes of death. Responsible for 21.2% of all deaths, stroke is the number one killer in Indonesia. It is responsible for 328,500 deaths per year. The government has invested in public education initiatives and increased stroke units in an attempt to prevent stroke-related deaths in response. The frequency of these deaths could be related to a prevalence of high blood pressure (hypertension) as well as tobacco smoking habits. Ischemic heart disease, also known as coronary artery disease, is the second leading cause of deaths, taking 138,400 lives every ye Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Leading Cause Of Death In Mexico

Diabetes: Leading Cause Of Death In Mexico

Diabetes: Leading Cause of Death in Mexico The World Health Organization released that as of 2016, diabetes was the leading cause of death in Mexico, being responsible for with 14.7% of Mexicos deaths and thus seizing over 76,000 lives that year. The percent of the population that died to diabetes has tripled since 1990, and by 2050, scientists predict that half of Mexicos population will suffer from diabetes. The rise of the epidemic started in the 1970s-1980s, when more efficient methods of producing many crops was introduced. Due to these advancements in agriculture, while much more food was being produced, there was a smaller variety of crops. Farmers tended to produce crops that were cheaper and easier to grow, are staples of the Mexican diet (such as corn), thus resulting in a diet thats high in carbs and fat, and low in protein. Also, the introduction and widespread accessibility of fast food has added to this problem. Mexico is the worlds largest consumer of soda- with each person consuming an average of 500 cans annually. Also, selling at just one pesos per bottle, carbonated beverages tend to be significantly cheaper than healthier alternatives. For many, soda is a part of their everyday routine. Also, as for many of the people in Mexico who work long hours every day and need a meal that they can eat on the go, fast food and street vendors are a regular and cheap source of meals. The pollution in Mexicos cities also contribute to these rising epidemic. Cities are overpopulated and are lacking space, thus providing citizens no place to run and do exercise to begin with. Even then, the air and noise pollution discourage more citizens from living active lifestyles. Diabetes has had a heavy toll on the people who are affected by it. Its has been demonstrated to l Continue reading >>

The Disease That May Be A Leading Cause Of Death

The Disease That May Be A Leading Cause Of Death

Survey estimates that diabetes accounts for many more deaths in the United States than are being reported on death certificates — and that diabetes is actually the third leading cause of death. So when a patient dies from a heart attack, stroke or heart disease that is caused by diabetes or when a patient dies from kidney failure, or if a patient dies 6 months after an amputation, the death certificate does not say that the death was caused by diabetes. About 12% of deaths in 30- to 84-year-olds from 1997 to 2011 could be attributed to diabetes, the latest data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate. But during that time, only 3.3% of death certificates listed diabetes as the underlying cause of death. The prevalence of diabetes has been rising rapidly throughout the world. Global age-standardized diabetes prevalence increased from an estimated 4.3% in 1980 to 9.0% in 2014 in men, and from 5.0% to 7.9% in women. The United States is no exception to this trend. Using combined criteria of self-reported diagnosis, fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c, the prevalence of diabetes among adults aged 20+ rose from 8.4% in 1988–94 to 12.1% in 2005–10. Trends are similar when HbA1c is the sole criterion. Diabetes is associated with many diseases and disabilities, including ischemic heart disease, renal disease, visual impairment, peripheral arterial disease, peripheral neuropathy, and cognitive impairment. And it can increase the risk for many other diseases, even cancer. It is also associated with mortality. In 2010, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. It was listed as the underlying cause of death on 69,091 death certificates (2.8% of total deaths) a Continue reading >>

Why Is Diabetes So Low On The List Of Leading Causes Of Death?

Why Is Diabetes So Low On The List Of Leading Causes Of Death?

Diabetes — one of America’s most common ailments — is listed seventh among the leading causes of death behind heart disease, cancer, lower chronic respiratory disease, accidents, strokes and Alzheimer’s disease. The longstanding question has been, why so low on the list? More than 29 million people, or nearly 1 in every 10 Americans, have diabetes with numbers not only climbing but soaring. More than a quarter of people 65 and older already have diabetes with 86 million Americans 20 and older having pre-diabetes, a precursor to the full-fledged condition, the American Diabetes Association reports. And if this trend continues, 1 of every 3 Americans could have diabetes by 2050, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says. But a study published Jan. 25, in PLOS One stands to characterize diabetes’ impact on death statistics more accurately and the news isn’t encouraging: it’s actually the third leading cause of death in the United States. Completed by the Boston University School of Public Health and the University of Pennsylvania, the study used two large health databases to show that diabetes has been hiding in the statistical weeds when it comes to its impact on mortality. The condition characterized by high blood sugar levels often isn’t the immediate cause of death but clearly is a contributing factor in many more deaths than previously thought — in fact, up to three times as many deaths. Directly listed as a cause of death in fewer than 4 percent of deaths, diabetes actually was an attributable cause of death for 11.5 percent of Americans, the study says. That would make it the third leading cause of death, behind heart disease and cancer, based on 2010 mortality data used in the study. The same would hold for 2014. The problem is, dia Continue reading >>

Diabetes 9th Leading Cause Of Death In Women

Diabetes 9th Leading Cause Of Death In Women

Diabetes 9th leading cause of death in women Healthy lifestyle vital to prevent diabetes, says speakers KARACHI - The Diabetic Association of Pakistan and WHO Collaborating Centre Karachi observed World Diabetes Day at a local hotel on Sunday. World Diabetes Day is celebrated every year on November 14, at global level. The scientific session in the morning was meant for the doctors. The session started with the welcome address by Professor A Samad Shera, Secretary General Diabetic Association of Pakistan, Honorary President International Diabetes Federation, Founder President Diabetes in Asia Study Group and Director WHO Collaborating Centre for Diabetes. He introduced the theme of the World Diabetes Day Women and Diabetes. He said diabetes is a chronic, debilitating and costly disease. World Diabetes Day provides the opportunity to improve care for the many millions living with diabetes and to encourage governments to do more to prevent diabetes in the many more at risk. He further said currently there are 415 million people living with diabetes worldwide. By 2040, the number will rise to 642 million. There are currently over 199 million women living with diabetes. This total is projected to increase 313 million by 2040. Diabetes is the 9th leading cause of death in women globally, causing 2.1 million deaths per year. Pakistan has also seen a sharp rise in the diabetes prevalence. These facts and figures reiterate the importance of urgent action. He further said Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented; a healthy lifestyle is an important part of effective management of the disease. 70 per cent of Type 2 diabetes can be prevented by healthy eating and regular physical activity (30 minutes brisk walk daily before meal). Discussing Insulin Therapy he said Type 1 diabetes is Continue reading >>

Diabetes By The Numbers: Facts, Statistics, And You

Diabetes By The Numbers: Facts, Statistics, And You

Insulin acts as a “key.” It allows the glucose to go from the blood into the cells. It also helps you store energy. Insulin is a vital part of metabolism. Without it, your body isn’t able to function or perform properly. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to serious complications. It can cause damage to small and large blood vessels and organs. This can often lead to heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, nerve damage, and eye disease. Managing diabetes requires keeping track of blood glucose levels. Treatment may include taking insulin or other medications. Healthy eating habits and regular exercise can also help manage diabetes. Types of Diabetes There are different types of diabetes. Each has something to do with insulin and blood glucose. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is a disorder in which the pancreas cannot longer produce insulin. It used to be called juvenile diabetes. It’s also sometimes called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. There is no cure. If you have it, you must take insulin to survive. Type 2 diabetes In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas can produce insulin, at least initially. But the body doesn’t respond to it or use it effectively. This is called insulin resistance. Over time, the ability of the pancreas to make insulin decreases. Then blood sugars go up. Some, but not all people with type 2 diabetes need to take insulin. Most of the time a proper diet, exercise, and medications can manage the disease. Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), women with gestational diabetes have a 35 to 60 percent chance of developing type 2 diabetes within 20 years. Prediabetes When blood glucose levels are higher than they should be, but no Continue reading >>

Diabetes Contribution To Deaths Underestimated; Third Leading Cause

Diabetes Contribution To Deaths Underestimated; Third Leading Cause

Diabetes Contribution to Deaths Underestimated; Third Leading Cause A new study based on recent national surveys estimates that diabetes accounts for many more deaths in the United States than are being reported on death certificates and that diabetes is actually the third leading cause of death. Specifically, about 12% of deaths in 30- to 84-year-olds from 1997 to 2011 could be attributed to diabetes, the latest data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate. But during that time, only 3.3% of death certificates listed diabetes as the underlying cause of death. The findings, by Andrew Stokes, PhD, a demographer at the Center for Global Health and Development, Boston University School of Public Health, in Massachusetts, and Samuel H Preston, PhD, of the department of sociology and Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia, were published online January 25 in PLOS ONE. "Responsibility for approximately 12% of deaths would make diabetes the third leading cause of death in the United States in 2010, after diseases of the heart and malignant neoplasms and ahead of chronic lower respiratory diseases and cerebrovascular diseases," Drs Stokes and Preston write. "When we monitor trends in the health of populations and we look at the mortality statistics," Dr Stokes noted in a statement, "some major threats to US mortality and life expectancy stand out, like drug and alcohol poisonings and suicide. Diabetes didn't." However, these findings show that diabetes is a major contributor to a shorter lifespan and "reinforce the need for robust population-level interventions aimed at diabetes prevention and care," the researchers conclude. Obesity and Diabetes Slow Down Increa Continue reading >>

Overview

Overview

The importance of both diabetes and these comorbidities will continue to increase as the population ages. Therapies that have proven to reduce microvascular and macrovascular complications will need to be assessed in light of the newly identified comorbidities. Lifestyle change has been proven effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals. Based on this, new public health approaches are emerging that may deserve monitoring at the national level. For example, the Diabetes Prevention Program research trial demonstrated that lifestyle intervention had its greatest impact in older adults and was effective in all racial and ethnic groups. Translational studies of this work have also shown that delivery of the lifestyle intervention in group settings at the community level are also effective at reducing type 2 diabetes risk. The National Diabetes Prevention Program has now been established to implement the lifestyle intervention nationwide. Another emerging issue is the effect on public health of new laboratory based criteria, such as introducing the use of A1c for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or for recognizing high risk for type 2 diabetes. These changes may impact the number of individuals with undiagnosed diabetes and facilitate the introduction of type 2 diabetes prevention at a public health level. Several studies have suggested that process indicators such as foot exams, eye exams, and measurement of A1c may not be sensitive enough to capture all aspects of quality of care that ultimately result in reduced morbidity. New diabetes quality-of-care indicators are currently under development and may help determine whether appropriate, timely, evidence-based care is linked to risk factor reduction. In addition, the scientific evid Continue reading >>

The Top 10 Leading Causes Of Death In The United States

The Top 10 Leading Causes Of Death In The United States

Nearly 75 percent of all deaths in the United States are attributed to just 10 causes, with the top three of these accounting for over 50 percent of all deaths. Over the last 5 years, the main causes of death in the U.S. have remained fairly consistent. The most recent data (2014) (resource no longer available at www.cdc.gov) reveals that annually there were 2,626,418 deaths registered in the U.S., which equates to: An age-adjusted death rate, which accounts for the aging population, of 823.7 deaths per 100,000 U.S. standard population A life expectancy at birth of around 78.8 years Heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the U.S., accounting for almost 1 in every 4 deaths, and affecting significantly more men than women. The top 10 leading causes of death in the U.S.: Death rates below are calculated on an annual basis per 100,000 of estimated population. Age-adjusted rates are used to compare relative mortality risks among groups and over time. Below, we expand on each of the causes of death and ask whether they can be prevented. 1: Heart disease Deaths: 614,348 Rate: 192.7 Age-adjusted rate: 167.0 Percentage of total deaths: 23.4 percent Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the U.S. and also the leading cause of death worldwide. More than half of the deaths that occur as a result of heart disease are in men. Heart disease is a term used to describe several conditions, many of which are related to plaque buildup in the walls of the arteries. As the plaque builds up, the arteries narrow, this makes it more difficult for blood to flow and creates a risk for heart attack or stroke. Other types of heart problems include angina, arrhythmias, and heart failure. The key to preventing death from heart disease is to protect the hear Continue reading >>

Top Ten Leading Causes Of Death In The World

Top Ten Leading Causes Of Death In The World

As humans, at some point each and every one of us will pass away. Nonetheless, we can do much to extend our lives by practicing healthy lifestyles, making good decisions regarding activities that may result in bodily harm, and making regular appointments to receive medical check-ups for conditions we may be predisposed to. That said, lack of education, medical access, and financial resources alike leave many people in the developing world more prone to certain causes of death, while an obesity epidemic and increasingly sedentary lifestyles prematurely takes more and more lives in the developed world. That said, below we look at the ten leading causes of death worldwide. 10. Hypertensive Heart Disease (1.1 million deaths; 2% of all deaths) Hypertensive heart disease is a series of heart problems caused by high blood pressure. Coronary heart disease is one such problem that causes the small blood vessels supplying blood and oxygen to the heart to narrow. The other is heart failure, wherein the heart loses the ability to pump oxygen rich blood around the body. The last is the enlarging and weakening of heart muscles, thereby inhibiting the heart from pumping the blood to the rest of the body, according to the US National Library of Medicine. In America, 1 in 3 adults has hypertensive heart disease, according to the Center for Disease and Control and Prevention (CDC). Globally, according to the World Heart Federation (WHF), one billion people have high blood pressure (hypertension), and two thirds of these are found in developing countries where medical access is harder to come by. In America alone, in 2013 there were 360,000 deaths linked to hypertensive heart disease, according to the CDC. Globally, hypertension causes half of all deaths from stroke and heart disease, acc Continue reading >>

Deaths Attributable To Diabetes In The United States: Comparison Of Data Sources And Estimation Approaches

Deaths Attributable To Diabetes In The United States: Comparison Of Data Sources And Estimation Approaches

Abstract The goal of this research was to identify the fraction of deaths attributable to diabetes in the United States. We estimated population attributable fractions (PAF) for cohorts aged 30–84 who were surveyed in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) between 1997 and 2009 (N = 282,322) and in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 1999 and 2010 (N = 21,814). Cohort members were followed prospectively for mortality through 2011. We identified diabetes status using self-reported diagnoses in both NHIS and NHANES and using HbA1c in NHANES. Hazard ratios associated with diabetes were estimated using Cox model adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and smoking status. We found a high degree of consistency between data sets and definitions of diabetes in the hazard ratios, estimates of diabetes prevalence, and estimates of the proportion of deaths attributable to diabetes. The proportion of deaths attributable to diabetes was estimated to be 11.5% using self-reports in NHIS, 11.7% using self-reports in NHANES, and 11.8% using HbA1c in NHANES. Among the sub-groups that we examined, the PAF was highest among obese persons at 19.4%. The proportion of deaths in which diabetes was assigned as the underlying cause of death (3.3–3.7%) severely understated the contribution of diabetes to mortality in the United States. Diabetes may represent a more prominent factor in American mortality than is commonly appreciated, reinforcing the need for robust population-level interventions aimed at diabetes prevention and care. Figures Citation: Stokes A, Preston SH (2017) Deaths Attributable to Diabetes in the United States: Comparison of Data Sources and Estimation Approaches. PLoS ONE 12(1): e0170219. Editor: C. Mary School Continue reading >>

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